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Motion  Picture 



Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 

in  2007  with  funding  from 

IVIicrosoft  Corporation 








Formerly   Cinematographer    for   Thanhouser,    Edison,    Pathe, 
World   Film   Companies  and  the  United  States   Government 



of  the  Research  Laboratories  of 
the    Eastman    Kodak    Company 



Formerly  Chief  Instructor  in  Cinematography 

Signal  Corps  School  of  Photography 

Columbia  University 

New  York 

Published    by   New   York    Institute  of   Photography, 
141  West  36th  St.,  New  York  City 

Copyright  1920 




Copyright  registration  and  all  rights 
secured  by  House,  Grossman  &  Vorhaus. 
Attorneys,  1476  Broadway,  New  York  Uiy 


Introduction 5 

History  of  Cinematography 7 

Fascination  of   Cinematography 19 

The  Nature  of  Light 25 

The  Motion  Picture  Camera 53 

Cinematograph    Lenses 64 

Focusing  the  Camera 76 

Preparation  for  the  Day's  Work 92 

How  to  Prepare  Photographic  Solutions 100 

Development  of  the  Negative 133 

Making  Motion  Picture  Positives 165 

Tinting  and  Toning  Motion  Picture  Films 177 

Cutting  and  Editing 199 

Exterior  Lighting 206 

Interior   Lighting 220 

Educational  and  Industrial  Picture  Making 247 

Animated   Cartoons 257 

Trick- Work  and  Double  Exposure 267 

Composition  by  J.  C.  Warburg 288 

Airplane  Photography 304 

How  Submarine  Movies  Are  Taken 310 

Making  Up  for  Motion  Pictures 315 

Relationship  of  the  Cameraman  to  Other  Workers 320 

Applying  for  a  Position 328 

Bibliography    334 

Appendix   (Making  Direct   Positives) 347 

Index 370 


ACKNOWLEDGjMEXT  would  be  a  more  fitting  heading 
than  the  word  Introduction.  i\cknowledgment  is  due  to 
many  men  and  to  many  companies  for  material  and  illus- 
trations used  in  the  production  of  this  book.  So  many  sources 
have  been  consulted  for  information  that  it  is  probable  that  the 
editor,  whose  work  of  annotating  and  correlating  for  this  book 
has  extended  over  a  period  of  so  many  months  of  a  busy  life 
filled  with  writing,  directing,  taking  pictures,  teaching  and  many 
other  activities,  may  perhaps  have  missed  giving  credit  where 
credit  is  due. 

For  the  main  sources  of  information  in  the  historical  chapter, 
the  editor  is  indebted  to  Homer  Croy,  C.  Francis  Jenkins,  Henry 
V.  Hopwood  and,  in  a  lesser  degree,  to  many  others. 

Several  standard  text  books  on  physics  contributed  to  the 
chapter  on  Light. 

Preparation  for  the  Day's  Work,  Relationship  of  the  Camera- 
man to  Other  Studio  Workers,  Applying  for  a  Position,  Trick 
Work  and  Double  Exposure,  and  portions  of  other  chapters  are 
from  the  pen  of  Charles  W.  Hoflfman,  a  versatile  photographer 
and  a  deep  student  of  photographic  lore. 

Photographic  Solutions  and  The  Tinting  and  Toning  of  Motion 
Picture  Positives  are  contributed  in  their  entirety  by  J.  I. 
Crabtree,  of  the  Research  Laboratories  of  the  Eastman  Kodak 

For  the  chapter  on  Composition,  the  editor  is  indebted  to 
J.  C.  Warburg. 

Cutting  and  editing  were  taken  largely  from  articles  by  Edward 
Roskam,  R.  J.  Huntington  and  Alfred  Biggs. 

Publicity  departments  of  film  concerns  and  the  apparatus 
manufacturers  have  been  exceedingly  generous  in  supplying  cuts 
and  photographs,  credit  for  which  is  given  in  the  legend  under 
the  pictures  which  have  been  used. 

The  editor  has  written  many  chapters  but  since  so  many 
authorities  have  been  consulted  and  quoted  without  citing  the 
source,  he  should  be  considered  more  as  the  editor  and  compiler 
of  this  book  which  seems  to  be  needed  by  many  workers  and 
friends  of  the  motion  picture  industry.    Its  value  is  obvious  for 

those  who  have  not  the  time  or  the  opportunity  to  wade  through 
the  extensive  but  sketchy  literature  on  the  subject  to  reach  a 
practical  solution  of  the  problems  they  may  encounter  in  their 
everyday  work. 

While  a  work  of  this  size  can  be  in  no  way  exhaustive,  the 
editor  has  tried  to  retain  as  far  as  possible  those  details  which 
explain  the  fundamental  principles  of  motion  picture  photography 
to  the  average  worker  and  at  the  same  time  serve  as  a  guide  and 
reference  in  his  daily  routine. 

No  attemrpt  has  been  made  to  cover  the  details  of  special  sub- 
jects such  as  cinematography  in  natural  colors,  photomicrography 
with  the  motion  picture  camera,  ultra-speed  pictures,  motion 
study,  etc.,  as  any  one  of  these  subjects  would  easily  require  a 
volume  the  size  of  this  and  still  not  do  justice  to  the  subject. 

In  a  work  of  this  kind  mistakes  are  liable  to  occur  and  while 
the  manuscript  has  been  carefully  read  and  reread  and  the  proof 
sheets  carefully  corrected  by  different  persons,  errors  both  of 
omission  and  commission  may  occur. 

Should  this  Condensed  Course  meet  with  the  success  indicated 
by  the  interest  of  our  students  it  will  undoubtedly  pass  into  a 
second  edition  in  a  short  time.  For  this  reason  the  editor  will 
be  glad  to  receive  suggestions  and  criticisms  for  the  improvement 
of  the  second  edition. 

Last,  but  most  important  of  all,  the  officials  and  other  in- 
structors of  the  New  York  Institute  of  Photography  have  con- 
tributed to  the  success  of  this  work  through  hearty  co-operation 
and  helpful  suggestions  from  their  actual  experience  of  years 
in  teaching  students  the  interesting  subject  of  Photography. 

To  all  those  who  have  thus  assisted  in  the  production  of  this 
Condensed  Course  in  Motion  Picture  Photography,  we  wish  to 
express  our  heartiest  appreciation. 

Sutton  Manor,  New  Rochelle, 
New  York,  April,  1920. 

Chapter  I 

IT  is  not  impossible  that  some  form  of  motion  pictures  was 
known  to  the  Ancients.  Titus  Lucretius  Carus  wrote  sev- 
eral volumes  entitled  "De  Rerum  Natura"  at  least  sixty-five 
years  before  the  Christian  Era,  wherein  book  four,  verse  seven 
hundred  sixty-six  appears  the  following,  freely  translated : 

"Do  not  think  thou  moreover  wonder  that  the  images  appear 
to  move  and  appear  in  one  order  and  time  their  legs  and  arms 
to  use  for  one  disappearance,  and  instead  of  it  appears  another 
arranged  in  another  way,  and  now  appears  each  gesture  to  alter, 
for  you  must  understand  that  this  takes  place  in  the  quickest 

In  the  year  A.  D.  130,  Ptolemy,  a  Greek  philosopher,  wrote 
a  series  of  books  on  Optics,  in  which  he  not  only  described  the 
phenomenon  of  persistence  of  vision,  but  also  described  a  piece 
of  apparatus  in  the  form  of  a  revolving  disk  with  spots  upon  it, 
which  demonstrated  this  phenomenon.  Persistence  of  vision  is  a 
scientific  term  for  the  fact  that  the  sensation  of  light  coming  from 
an  object  remains  in  the  brain  for  an  appreciable  fraction  of  a 
second  after  the  light  has  been  extinguished.  Whatever  knowledge 
the  Ancients  may  have  possessed  of  motion  pictures  is  too  remote 
and  too  far  buried  in  the  murky  depths  of  the  past  to  be  of 
more  than  momentary  interest  in  the  history  of  Cinematography. 

The  first  step  toward  modern  Cinematography  took  place  about 
the  year  1833,  when  W.  G.  Horner  patented  the  Zoetrope,  or 
Wheel  of  Life,  which  consists  of  a  hollow  cylinder  turning  on 
a  vertical  axis  and  having  its  surface  pierced  with  a  number  of 
slots  around  the  interior.  Between  the  slots  is  a  series  of  pictures 
representing  successive  stages  of  such  a  subject  as  a  galloping 
horse,  and  when  the  cylinder  is  rotated,  an  observer  looking 
through  the  slots  as  the  wheel  is  rotated  sees  the  horse  ap- 
parently in  motion.  The  pictures  were  drawn  by  hand,  but 
photography  many  years  afterwards  was  applied  for  their  pro- 
duction.    This  did  not  occur  until  about  the  year  1877. 


About  the  year  1872,  Edward  Muybridge,  an  Englishman  em- 
ployed in  the  United  States  Geodetic  Survey,  made  photographs 
of  a  race-horse  in  motion.  Muybridge  made  these  at  the  in- 
stance of  several  race-horse  owners,  who  had  come  to  a  hot  dis- 
cussion regarding  the  gait  and  mode  of  locomotion  of  their 
favorite  steeds.  Muybridge  set  up  his  camera  with  wet  collodion 
plates  (dry  plates  did  not  come  into  general  use  until  sometime 
later)  and  made  snapshots  of  race-horses  at  the  Sacramento 
race-track.  A  few  trials  demonstrated  that  unless  he  could  show 
rapid  successive  pictures  of  the  horses  in  motion  he  could  not 
settle  the  dispute.  The  contestants  made  up  a  fund  with  which 
he  purchased  twenty-four  cameras  and  placed  them  at  the  edge 
of  the  race  course,  close  together  in  a  row  with  a  fine  thread 
attached  to  the  shutter  of  each  camera  and  stretched  across  the 
race-track,  so  that  the  horse  in  passing  would  break  the  thread 
and  release  the  shutter  of  the  camera,  and  thus  make  an  exposure 
upon  the  sensitized  plate.  Each  successive  camera  passed  would 
then  show  a  slight  advance  in  action,  with  the  result  that  by  the 
time  the  animal  had  passed  in  front  of  the  twenty-four  cameras, 
he  would  leave  a  fairly  accurate  record  which  could  be  studied  at 
leisure.  The  first  results  were  not  very  satisfactory,  as  the 
sensitiveness  of  the  collodion  plates  was  not  sufficient  to  get 
pictures  in  the  small  fraction  of  a  second  required  to  stop  the 
motion.  To  overcome  this  obstacle,  a  fence  was  built  at  the 
side  of  the  track  in  front  of  the  cameras  and  painted  black.  If 
the  horse  being  studied  was  not  white,  lines  were  drawn  upon 
its  limbs  in  white  paint,  so  that  with  the  help  of  the  brilliant 
California  sun,  sharp  well-defined  silhouettes  could  be  made  at  a 
much  greater  speed  than  had  hitherto  been  possible. 

Leland  Stanford,  Governor  of  California  at  that  time,  and  an 
enthusiastic  horseman  himself,  became  very  much  interested  in 
Muybridge 's  experiments.  Governor  Stanford  was  a  wealthy 
man  and  furnished  him  with  funds,  to  continue  his  animal  study. 
A  studio  was  built  at  the  Governor's  private  race-track  in 
Palo  Alto,  where  Leland  Stanford  University  now  stands,  and 
in  this  studio  were  placed  the  twenty-four  cameras.  Here  it 
was  that  Muybridge  conducted  the  major  part  of  his  experiments. 
Having  succeeded  in  analyzing  animal  motion,  he  now  proceeded 
to  synthetize  his  results;  or,  in  other  words,  to  reproduce  the 
movements  of  the  animal  so  that  they  would  be  visible  to  the  eye. 


He  finally  produced  a  machine  which  would  project  the  images 
of  the  glass  plate  upon  a  screen.  He  called  this  machine  the 
Zoopraxoscope,  probably  with  the  intention  of  setting  a  record 
for  a  double-jointed  polysyllabic  word,  which  many  others  have 
tried  to  outdo.  C.  Francis  Jenkins,  in  one  of  the  first  volumes 
ever  published  about  motion  pictures,  gives  a  list  of  over  a 
hundred  coined  words,  which  have  been  applied  to  motion  pic- 
tures of  which  practically  the  only  surviving  one  is  Cinematog- 
raphy. Some  of  them  were:  Symographoscope,  Chronomatog- 
raph,  Chronophotographoscope,  Photokinematoscope,  Phantas- 
magoria and  Getthemoneygraph. 

The  Zoopraxoscope  consisted  of  a  large  glass  disk,  with  the 
reproductions  of  the  photographs  set  along  its  margin.  A  lime- 
light was  set  up  with  a  condensing  lens,  which  would  project  the 
picture  on  a  screen.  This  glass  disk  revolved  continuously  and 
the  images  on  the  screen  were  naturally  blurred  by  this  movement. 
However,  the  introduction  of  a  shutter  allowed  the  light  to  pass 
through  each  successive  picture  for  a  very  short  interval  as 
each  image  came  into  place.  These  rapidly  succeeding  pictures 
produced  the  first  moving  picture  on  a  screen. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  in  i860,  twelve  years  before 
Muybridge  commenced  his  brilliant  experiments  the  production 
of  motion  pictures  by  photographic  men  had  already  occupied  the 
attention  of  scientists. 

Sir  John  Herschel,  the  celebrated  astronomer,  who  was  also 
a  brilliant  chemist,  foretold  nearly  sixty  years  ago  the  method 
used  today  in  making  motion  pictures.  It  was  he,  who  in  18 19 
discovered  the  solvent  power  of  hyposulphite  of  soda  on  the 
haloid  salts  of  silver,  thus  introducing  it  as  a  fixing  agent  in 
photography.  His  prediction  of  motion  pictures  was  published 
in  i860  in  the  Photographic  News,  a  leading  journal  of  photog- 
raphy at  that  time.  He  says :  "What  I  have  to  propose  may  seem 
to  you  like  a  dream,  but  it  has,  at  least,  the  merit  of  being  pos- 
sible and  indeed  at  some  time  realizable.  Realizable — that  is  to 
say,  by  an  adequate  sacrifice  of  time,  trouble,  mechanism  and 
outlay.  It  is  the  representation  of  scenes  in  action  by  photog- 

"The  vivid  and  life-like  reproduction,  and  handing  down  to 
the  latest  posterity  of  any  transaction  in  real  life,  a  battle  scene, 
a  debate,  a  public  solemnity,  a  pugiHstic  conflict   (Heenan  and 


Sayers  prize  fight  took  place  i860),  a  harvest  home,  a  launch — 
indeed,  anything,  in  short,  where  any  matter  of  interest  is  enacted 
within  a  reasonably  brief  time,  which  may  be  seen  from  a  single 
point  of  view. 

"I  take  for  granted  nothing  more  than — first,  what  photog- 
raphy has  already  realized  or  what  we  may  be  sure  it  will  realize 
within  some  very  limited  lapse  of  time  from  the  present  date — 
viz.,  the  possibility  of  taking  a  photograph  instantaneously,  of 
securing  pictures  in  a  tenth  of  a  second ;  secondly,  that  a  mechan- 
ism is  possible,  no  matter  how  complex  or  costly — and  perhaps 
it  need  not  be  either  the  one  or  the  other — by  which  a  prepared 
plate  may  be  presented,  focused,  impressed,  displaced,  numbered, 
secured  in  the  dark  and  replaced  by  another  within  two  or  three- 
tenth  seconds. 

*'In  fact  the  dismounting  and  replacing  need  only  be  performed 
within  this  interval;  the  other  items  of  the  process,  however 
numerous,  following  these  up  in  succession,  and  collectively 
spreading  over  as  long  a  time  as  may  be  needful. 

"There  is  a  pretty  toy  called  the  phenakistoscope,  which  pre- 
sents a  succession  of  pictures  to  the  eye,  by  placing  them  on  a 
wheel  behind  a  screen,  and  bringing  each  in  succession  to  an 
opening  in  the  screen  of  the  size  of  the  picture  and  thus  allow- 
ing it  to  be  seen.  The  eye  is  in  like  manner  covered  by  a  dark  re- 
volving screen,  having  narrow  linear  openings  in  it  which  allow 
glimpses  through  them  precisely  at  and  only  at  the  instant  when 
the  pictures  are  in  the  act  of  transmitting  the  frame,  and  sensibly 
in  the  middle  of  the  area. 

"By  this  arrangement  it  has  been  found  possible  to  exhibit 
figures  in  action,  as  dancers  pirouetting,  wheels  revolving,  etc., 
by  having  prepared  a  set  of  figures  taken  from  one  model  pre- 
sented at  various  angles  to  the  visual  ray. 

"Coarse  as  the  representations  so  made  have  been,  the  ap- 
parent reality  of  movements  has  been  very  striking.  The  per- 
sistence of  the  impression  on  the  retina  and  its  gradual  fading 
obliterates,  or  glosses  over,  the  hiatus  in  a  way  which  would 
hardly  be  thought  possible.  Now  there  is  nothing  in  the  law  of 
periodicity  as  regards  the  movements  of  the  model,  to  influence 
the  results,  and  we  have  only  to  substitute  for  such  a  periodically 
recurrent  set  of  pictures  imperfectly  drawn  by  hand,  perfect 
stereoscopic  and  simultaneous  pairs  of  photographs  duly  pre- 



sented  to  both  eyes,  in  their  natural  order  of  succession  to  pro- 
duce a  stereoscopic  picture  in  action." 

In  1878,  Muybridge  pubhshed  the  results  of  his  experiments, 
which  excited  great  interest  both  in  this  country  and  in  Europe ; 
particularly  among  artists  who  had  always  been  puzzled  as  to 
the  correct  attitude  assumed  by  animals  in  locomotion.  As  soon 
as  the  results  of  Muybridge's  experiments  were  published,  de- 
mands came  for  him  to  appear  before  various  scientific  bodies  to 
demonstrate  his  discoveries.  His  first  appearance  in  Europe  was 
in  the  laboratory  of  Dr.  E.  J.  Marey  in  1881,  where  he  lectured 
to  some  of  the  foremost  savants  of  France.  Dr.  Marey,  himself, 
was  intensely  interested  and  established  a  studio  for  investigation 
of  the  motion  of  animals  by  similar  photographic  methods.  He 
had  already  invented  an  instrument  called  the  Marey  Photographic 
Gun,  which  was  shaped  somewhat  like  a  monster  revolver  and 
took  twelve  quickly  successive  images  of  a  moving  object,  re- 
cording them  upon  a  circular  sensitive  surface. 

When  Muybridge  returned  to  this  country,  the  University  of 
Pennsylvania  oflfered  to  equip  a  studio  for  him  and  furnish  funds 
for  carrying  on  his  investigations.  The  studio,  one-hundred-and- 
twenty  feet  long,  was  built  on  what  is  now  known  as  "The 
Hamilton  Walk"  on  the  University  campus.  To  carry  his  work 
much  farther,  he  had  to  find  a  method  of  getting  quicker  ex- 
posures. He  determined  to  solve  the  problem  and  achieved  mar- 
velous results,  making  many  advances  in  the  science  of  Photog- 
raphy. So  well  did  he  succeed  that  some  of  his  photographs  are 
unexcelled  at  the  present  day,  many  of  them  having  been  taken 
in  the  one-sixth  thousandth  part  of  a  second. 

In  1887,  Muybridge,  in  collaboration  with  Dr.  Edward  Reichert, 
professor  of  Physiology  at  the  University,  made  the  first  in- 
stantaneous pictures  in  medical  research.  A  dog  was  given  an 
anaesthetic,  its  chest  opened,  and  the  successive  phases  of  the 
dilation  and  contraction  of  the  heart  were  photographed.  Thus 
the  first  motion  picture  record  displaying  the  movements  of  any 
internal  organs — ^human  or  animal — was  made. 

In  February,  1888,  Muybridge  went  to  Thomas  A.  Edison,  the 
inventor  of  the  phonograph,  and  asked  if  his  zoopraxoscope  and 
the  phonograph  could  not  be  synchronized  so  as  to  give  the  simu- 
lation of  people  speaking.  Edison  had  not  yet  perfected  the 
phonograph  so  that  it  was  loud  enough  to  be  heard  by  a  large 



audience  and  therefore  could  not  consider  the  project  at  that  time. 

Muybridge  pubHshed  a  book,  "Animals  in  Motion,"  which  is 
now  used  by  artists  in  their  studios,  so  that  they  may  correctly 
delineate  their  subjects.  It  has  proven  a  mine  of  information 
to  those  who  produce  animated  cartoons  and  diagrams. 

In  1893,  at  the  Chicago  World's  Fair,  Muybridge  exhibited 
more  than  twenty  thousand  original  photographs  in  his  machine 
for  showing  them.  In  recognition  of  this  the  commission  of  the 
Exposition  awarded  him  a  certificate  of  honor.  This  marked  the 
practical  completion  of  Muybridge's  work,  as  he  was  then  an 
old  man.  He  devoted  more  than  twenty  years  of  his  riper 
maturity  to  the  advancement  of  pictured  motion.  It  is  true  that 
compared  with  the  motion  picture  of  today,  his  results  were  crude 
but  they  were  pictures  in  motion  nevertheless  and  he  iS  honored 
and  respected  as  the  father  of  Motion  Pictures. 

Inspired  by  the  work  of  Muybridge,  many  other  investigators 
sought  to  produce  the  simulation  of  life  upon  the  screen.  Dr. 
E.  J.  Marey  of  Paris,  was  the  most  prominent  of  these.  In 
1890,  he  first  used  the  celluloid  roll  film,  which  had  just  been 
given  to  the  world  through  the  efforts  of  the  Rev.  Hannibal 
Goodwin  and  George  Eastman.  Even  before  this,  others  had 
made  partially  successful  attempts  at  using  a  flexible  support  for 
producing  successive  pictures  from  a  single  view  point.  As 
presented  by  Muybridge  with  his  twenty-four  cameras,  the  re- 
sult achieved  was  the  same  as  the  modern  device  of  moving  a 
motion  camera  in  an  automobile  or  on  a  moving  truck,  traveling 
at  the  same  speed  as  the  object  photographed — in  other  words, 
the  object  on  the  screen  remained  stationary,  while  the  back- 
ground moved  past  like  a  panorama. 

Dr.  Marey  decided  that  the  pictures  must  be  taken  from  one 
point  of  view  and  applied  himself  to  perfecting  a  camera  which 
would  take  photographs  in  rapid  succession  from  the  same  view 
point.  In  this  he  was  successful,  but,  on  account  of  the  limita- 
tions imposed  by  the  weight  of  glass  plates,  was  unable  to  take 
more  than  a  relatively  small  number  of  pictures  at  one  time. 
Not  only  did  the  employment  of  glass  slides  require  very  elab- 
orate mechanism,  but  the  quantity  of  glass  necessary  prohibited 
the  showing  of  more  than  a  few  short  phases  of  action. 

In  1876,  Wordsworth  Donisthorpe  patented  a  mechanism  for 
making  photographs  on  a  deck  of  glass  plates,  like  a  deck  of 


{Courtesy    Unnersal  Fihn   Co.  • 

"DAREDEVIL*    LT.    O.    L.    LOCKLEAR    AND    MILTON    MOORE, 


cards,  pushed  to  the  focus  of  the  lens  and  exposed,  one  at  a  time, 
then  dropped  down  and  out  of  the  way  of  the  next  plate,  at  the 
rate  of  eight  exposures  per  second.  In  his  patent  he  makes  this 
claim,  "If  the  apparatus  be  arranged  to  take  successive  pictures 
at  sufficiently  short  intervals  of  time,  they  may  be  printed  at  equal 
distances  upon  a  continuous  strip  of  paper.  This  paper,  with 
the  series  of  pictures  upon  it,  may  be  used  in  the  instrument 
known  as  the  Zoopraxoscope,  or  Wheel  of  Life.  To  allow  of 
this,  the  strip  of  paper  may  be  wound  on  a  cylinder  to  be  un- 
wound from  it,  at  a  uniform  speed,  unto  another  cylinder,  and 
so  carried  past  the  eye  of  the  observer,  any  ordinary  means  being 
used  for  any  showing  that  each  picture  shall  be  exposed  momen- 
tarily to  the  observer.  By  this  means,  the  movement  made  by  a 
person  or  group  of  persons,  or  of  any  other  objects  during  the 
time  they  were  being  photographed,  may  be  reproduced  to  the 
eye  of  the  observer."  With  this  apparatus  he  photographed  and 
re;>roduced  growing  grass,  buds  developing  into  flowers,  and 
the  metamorphosis  of  frogs.  Thus  he  was  the  first  to  take  "stop 
motion"  pictures. 

The  period  from  1889  to  1893  might  be  termed  the  gestation 
period  of  what  we  still  love  to  term  our  infant  industry. 

The  invention  of  the  motion  picture  is  ascribed  by  many  to 
Thomas  A.  Edison,  but  so  many  other  scientific  men  were  busily 
engaged  in  trying  to  solve  the  problem  of  producing  motion 
pictures  in  a  commercial  way  at  this  time,  that  it  is  difficult  and 
probably  unjust  to  give  the  credit  entirely  to  any  one  man. 

Dr.  Marey,  so  far  as  is  known,  was  the  first  to  use  the  flexible 
sheet  celluloid,  but  it  is  probable  that  the  same  instant  that  Dr. 
IMarey  was  carrying  on  his  experiments  in  Paris,  W.  Friese 
Greene  and  M.  Evans  were  using  paper  film  for  the  very  same 
purpose  in  England.  In  1899,  they  filed  application  for  patent 
on  a  machine  for  taking  and  projecting  moving  photography  by 
means  of  a  ribbon  of  successive  photographs.  On  the  other 
hand,  a  brochure  published  in  1895,  and  bearing  Edison's  entire 
endorsement,  lays  claim  to  his  being  the  prior  inventor  as  follows : 

"In  the  year  1887,  Mr.  Edison  found  himself  in  possession  of 
one  of  those  breathing  spells,  which  relieved  the  tension  of  in- 
ventive thought.  It  was  then  that  he  was  struck  with  the  idea 
of  producing  on  the  eye  the  effect  of  motion  by  means  of  a  swift 
and  graded   succession  of  photographs.     The   initial   principles 



of  moving  images  was  suggested  to  him  by  a  toy,  the  Zoopraxo- 
scope,  or  Wheel  of  Life.  It  was  determined  to  revolutionize  the 
whole  nature  of  the  proceedings,  by  instituting  a  series  of  im- 
pressions fixed  to  the  outer  edges  of  a  swiftly  rotating  disk 
supplied  with  a  number  of  pegs,  so  as  to  project  from  under  each 
picture  on  the  rim.  A  Geissler  tube  was  placed,  connected  with 
an  induction  coil,  which,  operated  by  the  pegs,  lighted  up  the  tube 
at  the  precise  moment  when  the  picture  crossed  its  range  of 

Curiously  enough,  during  all  of  this  period,  when  men  like 
Marey,  Edison,  Evans,  Demeny,  Donisthorpe,  Jenkins,  Anchuetz, 
and  many  others  were  working  upon  the  problem  of  photograph- 
ing pictures  in  rapid  succession,  very  little  attention  was  paid  to 
the  problem  of  projection,  because  their  ideas  were  centered  upon 
the  use  of  the  pictures  for  individual  observers  in  coin  operated 
slot  machines.  Although  a  number  of  the  patent  specifications 
include  the  use  of  the  camera  mechanism,  or  a  similar  mechanism 
for  purposes  of  projection,  very  little  actual  work  seems  to  have 
been  done  toward  solving  the  problem  of  presenting  motion  pic- 
tures to  a  rtlultiple  audience.  Numerous  authentic  examples  of 
motion  pictures  taken  by  various  inventors  at  this  period  are  in 
existence  today,  but  it  is  probable  that  the  first  public  exhibition 
to  an  assembly  of  people  was  given  by  C.  Francis  Jenkins  on  June 
6th,  1894,  in  his  father's  shop  at  Richmond,  Indiana.  Jenkins 
was  at  that  time  a  stenographer  in  the  treasury  department  at 
Washington,  D.  C,  and,  in  his  spare  time  had  been  experimenting 
in  the  making  of  motion  pictures. 

Jenkins  writes  of  his  first  inception  of  interest  in  the  subject 
as  follows : 

"In  1885,  while  standing  one  day  on  a  high  prominence  in  the 
Cascade  Mountains,  I  watched  the  reflections  of  sun- 
light from  the  axes  of  some  working  men  clearing  the  right  of 
way  for  a  railroad  in  the  valley  below.  The  reflection  from  two 
or  three  hundred  axes  produced  a  peculiar  scintillating  and 
beautiful  eflfect.  From  that  moment  I  date  all  of  my  efforts  to 
achieve  what  finally  resulted  in  the  perfection  of  the  chrono- 
photographic  apparatus  I  have  built  and  used. 

"My  experimentation  was  dependent  upon  what  could  be  spared 
out  of  a  small  salary.  This  is  my  excuse  for  the  delay  in  com- 
pleting a  commercial  machine  after  the  first  conception  of  the 



phantoscope,  which  is  simply  a  fanciful  name  for  the  various 
devices  I  have  employed  in  this  work — ^the  different  steps  of 
Avhich  may  readily  be  followed  by  an  inspection  of  the  old  ap- 
paratus now  on  exhibition  in  the  United  States  National  Museum. 

**My  active  efforts  were  begun  in  1890.  Of  course,  first  of  all, 
pictures  were  to  be  secured.  The  first  apparatus  built  for  this 
purpose  consisted  of  a  rachet  rotated  drum,  upon  which  the  film 
was  wound  to  feed  it  past  the  point  of  exposure.  The  camera 
made  a  succession  of  pictures  upon  this  film  by  short  exposures — 
the  film  being  jerked  forward  the  width  of  one  picture  in  the 
interim.  Two  shutters  were  supplied — one  with  a  narrow  open- 
ing employed  when  the  apparatus  was  used  as  a  camera,  and  the 
other  having  an  opening  three-fourths  of  the  complete  circum- 
ference of  the  disk  employed  in  reproducing  the  pictures.  The 
amount  to  cut  away  in  the  shutter  was  determined  wholly  by 
experiment.  The  film  was  wound  upon  the  drum  intermittently 
by  a  pawl  and  rachet  arrangement.  In  reproducing  the  pictures, 
an  oil  lamp  was  used  to  project  them  upon  a  small  screen.  By 
accident  the  camera  was  found  to  be  so  constructed  that  it  would 
take  pictures  without  a  shutter. 

**This  seems  at  first  glance  incredible,  but  as  the  film  gets  only 
just  sufficient  exposure  during  the  period  of  rest,  the  light  is  too 
weak  to  affect  it  during  the  movement  of  the  film,  for  if  five 
pictures  per  second  were  made  and  the  exposure  exceeded  by 
fifteen  times,  the  time  necessary  to  move  the  unexposed  por- 
tion of  the  film  into  position,  and  the  period  of  exposure  should 
be  just  sufficient  to  make  a  fully  timed  picture,  then  the  remaining 
one-three-hundredth  part  of  a  second  would  be  too  small  to  per- 
ceptibly affect  the  film  and  a  shutter  would  be  unnecessary. 

"In  these  early  experiments,  the  film  was  not  perforated.  At 
this  time,  the  manufacturers  did  not  keep  a  stock  of  film  of  any 
widths  in  considerable  lengths.  This  convenience  came  later. 
So  the  longest  film  obtainable  was  split  in  the  widths  of  about 
two  and  a  half  inches  by  drawing  wide  film  beneath  knives  set 
in  a  board." 

This  first  exhibition  at  Richmond,  Indiana,  could  not  be  prop- 
erly termed  a  public  exhibition,  as  no  admission  fee  was  charged, 
but  he  followed  this  with  a  public  exhibition  in  August,  1895  at 
the  Cotton  States  Exposition  in  Atlanta,  Georgia.  So  incredulous 
were  the  people  at  the  exposition  that  less  than  one  hundred  per- 



sons  could  be  induced  to  pay  an  admission  fee  of  twenty-five 
cents  to  see  motion  pictures — a  word  which  had  not  then  been 
coined.  The  ballyhoo,  or  announcer,  failed  utterly  to  convey  to 
the  minds  of  the  passing  populace  what  they  would  see  in  the 
exhibit.  Finally,  in  desperation,  he  decided  to  invite  the  crowd 
to  enter  for  nothing,  and  after  the  show  was  given,  it  was  ex- 
plained from  the  platform  that  those  who  so  desired,  might  de- 
posit a  coin  in  the  ticket  box  as  they  went  out. 

The  interest  aroused  by  those  who  saw  the  exhibition  was  such 
that  it  promised  to  be  a  success,  but  just  as  the  young  inventor 
had  commenced  to  spend  in  his  imagination  the  money  he  would 
make,  a  fire  broke  out  in  one  of  the  neighboring  concessions,  de- 
stroying not  only  the  exhibition  hall,  but  a  number  of  buildings 
surrounding  it. 

Between  the  time  of  exhibiting  the  pictures  in  Richmond, 
Indiana,  and  the  unfortunate  catastrophe  at  Atlanta,  Jenkins 
formed  a  partnership  with  another  young  man,  Thomas  Armat, 
who  had  worked  with  him  in  building  the  two  projecting  ma- 
chines which  they  took  to  the  fair  at  Atlanta.  Armat's  father 
was  a  manufacturer  of  some  means,  so  Armat  was  able  to  continue 
his  experiments  while  Jenkins  was  compelled,  for  financial  rea- 
sons, to  return  to  work  in  the  Treasury  department.  Jenkins' 
inability  to  devote  his  entire  time  to  experimentation  resulted  in 
a  breach  between  the  co-workers,  which  finally  resulted  in  a 
number  of  legal  controversies  which  dragged  through  the  courts 
for  a  long  time. 

Discouraged  by  lack  of  popular  interest  in  his  projection  ma- 
chine, Jenkins  came  to  believe  that  it  was  of  interest  only  to 
scientific  bodies,  and  on  December  i8th,  1895,  read  a  paper 
before  the  Franklin  Institute  of  the  state  of  Pennsylvania,  in 
which  he  described  and  showed  in  detail  the  working  of  the 

Meantime,  Armat,  working  independently,  made  another  ma- 
chine, which  he  showed  to  Raff  and  Gammon,  a  finn  largely  in- 
terested in  the  penny  peep  shows  prevalent  at  that  time.  They 
were  the  agents  for  the  Edison  coin-controlled  Kinetoscope, 
which  exhibited  to  one  person  only.  Raff  and  Gammon  did  not 
display  much  interest  in  the  Armat  machine  until  the  next  year, 
when  Jenkins  set  up  his  machine  in  a  hall  at  Atlantic  City 
directly  opposite  a  peep-hole  show.     The  managers  of  the  slot 


(Courtesy  of  the  Internat:u,.a:   Film  Service  Company) 



machine  arcade  complained  to  their  principals  in  New  York,  who 
investigated  the  cause  for  the  falling  off  of  patronage.  People 
found  it  much  more  comfortable  to  sit  in  an  orchestra  chair  and 
watch  the  pictures  on  the  screen  than  to  stand  in  an  awkard 
position  at  the  peep-hole  of  a  slot  machine.  This  stimulated 
Raff  and  Gammon  to  a  new  interest  in  the  Armat  machine,  for 
although  Edison  had  been  working  upon  a  projector,  he  had 
abandoned  it  for  other  matters.  Raff  and  Gammon,  therefore, 
made  arrangements  to  have  the  Armat  machine,  which  was 
copied  from  Jenkins'  original  model,  manufactured  in  the  Edison 
shops  to  be  put  out  as  the  Edison  Vitascope.  The  following 
letter  from  Raff  and  Gammon  to  Armat  shows  how  the  original 
Jenkins'  invention  came  to  be  known  as  the  Edison  machine : 

**Kinetoscope  and  phonograph  men  and  others  have  been 
watching  and  waiting  for  a  year  for  the  announcement  of  the 
perfection  of  the  Edison  machine  which  projects  kinetoscope 
views  upon  a  screen  or  canvas.  No  matter  how  good  a  machine 
should  be  invented  by  another,  and  no  matter  how  satisfactory  or 
superior  the  results  of  such  a  machine  invented  by  another  might 
be,  yet  we  find  the  greatest  majority  of  the  parties  who  are  in- 
terested and  who  desire  to  invest  in  such  have  been  waiting  for 
the  Edison  machine  and  would  never  be  satisfied  with  anything 
else,  but  will  hold  off  until  they  find  what  Edison  can  accomplish. 
We  find  that  many  of  these  parties  have  been  approached  in 
the  last  few  months  to  invest  in  other  similar  machines,  but  they 
hesitate  to  do  so,  evidently  believing  that  Edison  would  in  due 
time  perfect  and  put  out  a  machine  which  would  cast  the  others 
in  the  shade. 

**Tliis  being  the  case,  you  will  readily  reach  the  same  con- 
clusion that  we  have — ^that  in  order  to  secure  the  largest  profit 
in  the  shortest  time  it  is  necessary  that  we  attach  Mr.  Edison's 
name  in  some  prominent  capacity  to  this  new  machine.  While 
Mr.  Edison  has  no  desire  to  pose  as  inventor  of  this  machine,  yet 
we  think  we  can  arrange  with  him  for  the  use  of  his  name  and 
the  name  of  his  manufactory  to  such  an  extent  as  may  be  neces- 
sary to  the  best  results.  We  should,  of  course,  not  misrepresent 
the  fact  to  any  inquirer,  but  we  think  we  can  use  Mr.  Edison's 
name  in  such  a  manner  as  to  keep  within  the  actual  truth  and  yet 
get  the  benefit  of  his  prestige.  The  machine  might  be  made  with 
a  place  upon  which  we  could  inscribe  the  words  "Armat  Design" 



or  something  of  that  kind,  and  you  understand  that  after  we  have 
disposed  of  our  territory  and  the  business  is  fully  established, 
and  we  have  reaped  the  respective  rewards,  we  will  then  make  it 
our  busmess  to  attach  your  name  to  the  machine  as  inventor,  and 
we  are  confident  that  you  will  eventually  receive  the  credit  which 
is  due  you  for  your  invention.  We  regard  this  as  simply  a  matter 
of  business,  and  we  trust  that  you  will  view  it  strictly  in  this 

Jenkins  and  Armat,  before  their  dissention,  had  made  a  joint 
application  for  patent,  which  had  not  yet  been  issued  on  account 
of  the  friction  between  them.  Armat,  in  order  to  clear  the 
situation  between  them,  offered  to  buy  Jenkins'  interest  in  the 
joint  application,  and  finally  induced  him  to  accept  twenty-five 
hundred  dollars  in  cash  for  his  interest.  Having  disposed  of 
his  principal  asset  in  the  infant  industry,  Mr.  Jenkins  turned  his 
major  attention  to  other  inventions,  and  ceased  to  be  a  factor  in 
the  game  until  recently  he  entered  extensively  into  the  manu- 
facture of  projecting  machines  and  also  organized  the  Society 
of  Motion  Picture  Engineers. 

Having  thus  briefly  reviewed  the  early  history  of  the  motion 
picture  up  to  the  point  where  the  first  crude  projectors  of  the 
present  type  were  evolved,  we  will  leave  this  subject  to  pass  on 
to  present-day  practices.  To  give  even  a  skeleton  synopsis  of 
the  development  of  the  industry  from  that  time  to  this  would  fill 
several  volumes  the  size  of  this.  The  student  who  wishes  to 
delve  into  the  past  can  consult  the  many  books  mentioned  in  the 
bibliography  and  the  bound  volumes  of  motion  picture  periodicals 
in  the  libraries, 


Chapter  II 

MOTION  pictures  cover  a  field  that  is  almost  universal, 
and  the  person  who  is  skilled  in  taking  pictures  with  the 
cinematograph  camera,  or  interested  in  any  of  the  pur- 
suits intimately  connected  with  its  operation,  practically  has  an 
unlimited  field  in  which  to  exercise  his  creative  energy. 

Wander-lust,  the  desire  to  see  strange  countries  and  foreign 
peoples,  is  a  longing  which  many  possess,  but  few  are  able  to 
satisfy.  Many  a  man  with  a  longing  to  travel  and  see  the  far 
stretches  of  the  world  has  been  able  to  pay  all  the  expenses  of 
his  globe-trotting,  and  pocket  a  bonus,  by  taking  along  a  motion- 
picture  camera  and  bringing  back  to  his  less  fortunate  friends 
an  interesting  intimate  reproduction  of  the  sights  and  scenes 
which  have  held  his  interest  during  his  journey. 

The  making  of  dramatic  pictures  covers  a  field  of  ever  vary- 
ing novelty  that  is  the  very  antithesis  of  monotony. 

There  is  scarcely  a  trade  or  profession  in  which  cinematog- 
raphy has  not  important  and  direct  relation  to  its  improvement 
and  expansion. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  by  the  aid  of  the  motion  picture,  the 
duration  of  the  great  world  war  was  very  considerably  shortened. 
In  no  other  way  could  the  tremendous  amount  of  propaganda 
and  information  concerning  the  war  situation  have  been  made 
clear  to  the  populace.  The  committee  on  public  information,  in 
conjunction  with  the  government,  sent  out  thousands  upon  thou- 
sands of  feet  of  motion  picture  film,  showing  the  activities  of  the 
government  and  of  the  army  and  navy.  All  of  the  allied  war 
charities  attribute  their  ability  to  raise  tremendous  sums  for  phil- 
anthropic purposes  mainly  to  the  agency  of  motion  pictures. 
Thousands  of  men  and  women  were  engaged  in  making  propa- 
ganda films  of  all  kinds.  The  war  loan  committee,  aided  by  the 
motion  picture  industry,  made  thousands  of  feet  of  film  to  stim- 
ulate the  loan  drives. 



In  educating  and  training  our  army  and  navy,  the  motion  pic- 
ture was  of  incalculable  value.  So  remarkable  have  been  the 
results  achieved  in  the  training  of  men  by  the  use  of  motion 
pictures  that  it  is  freely  and  confidently  predicted  that  tremendous 
and  important  as  is  the  production  of  motion  pictures  for  amuse- 
ment and  entertainment  purposes,  in  a  comparatively  short  time 
to  come  that  use  will  be  relegated  to  a  position  of  insignificance 
in  comparison  with  the  tremendous  production  of  motion  pictures 
for  educational  and  pedagogical  purposes. 

In  the  making  of  these  pictures,  thousands  of  craftsmen  have 
yet  to  receive  their  training.  The  government  of  the  United 
States,  realizing  the  tremendous  importance  of  motion  pictures 
as  an  educational  factor,  is  establishing  a  bureau  in  Washington 
for  the  production  and  distribution  of  educational  pictures  to 
be  used  by  schools,  churches,  colleges,  community  organizations, 
and  welfare  units.  The  film  manufacturers,  who  have  hitherto 
been  blind  to  the  educational  possibilities  and  the  financial  op- 
portunities presented,  are  now  eagerly  seeking  to  make  up  for 
lost  time  and  are  hastening  their  preparations  to  supply  the 
rapidly  growing  demand  for  this  kind  of  picture. 

"Educational"  is  a  much  abused  word,  which,  in  the  past, 
generally  meant  to  the  exhibitor  and  show-man,  a  scenic  picture 
or  an  industrial  picture  of  haphazard  construction,  which,  more 
often  than  not,  acted  as  a  chaser  to  drive  people  from  the  theatre. 
Gradually,  producers  of  scenic,  industrial,  and  educational  pic- 
tures came  to  realize  that  unless  their  product  was  made  with 
the  same  care,  as  or  even  greater  care,  than  that  devoted  to  the 
production  of  dramatic  pictures,  they  could  not  continue  to  exist 
Today,  people  of  speciaHzed  training  in  nearly  every  profession 
are  being  employed  in  the  studios  and  laboratories  of  producers 
of  educational  pictures  in  order  to  make  them  more  interesting 
and  instructive. 

Thousands  of  manufacturers  are  using  motion  pictures  to  in- 
struct and  amuse  their  employees,  and  have  found  in  them,  one 
of  the  most  powerful  antidotes  for  labor  troubles  and  social 
unrest.  In  no  other  manner  can  the  destructive  conditions  caused 
by  labor  troubles  be  so  forcibly  and  favorably  impressed  upon  the 
mind  of  the  workers. 

All  of  this  is  quite  aside  from  the  use  of  motion  pictures  for 
the  advertisement  and  exploitation  of  the  manufacturer's  pro- 



duction.  Here  is  another  avenue  for  the  disposal  of  the  product. 
One  of  the  greatest  problems  in  connection  with  the  demonstra- 
tion of  large  and  not  easily  portable  pieces  of  machinery  has  been 
that  the  customer  could  not  see  these  machines  in  operation. 
Today  the  manufacturer's  salesman  can  carry  a  portable  projec- 
tion machine,  less  heavy  and  cumbersome  than  a  well-packed 
suit-case,  with  a  reel  or  reels  of  film,  with  which  he  can  demon- 
strate upon  the  walls  of  his  customer's  office  all  of  the  possibilities 
of  which  the  machine  is  capable,  with  far  greater  brevity,  and 
often,  with  greater  clarity  than  he  could  demonstrate  the  actual 
machine  in  operation.  By  means  of  close-up  views,  enlarge- 
ments, and  animated  diagrams,  he  can  show  details  and  features 
that  could  not  be  demonstrated  even  by  the  operation  of  the  ma- 
chine itself. 

For  the  production  of  pictures  of  this  kind,  thousands  of 
camera  and  laboratory  and  technical  workers  must  be  trained. 
Authors  of  industrial  scenarios,  directors,  who  understand  the 
intricacies  of  complicated  machinery  and  of  industrial  and  manu- 
facturing processes ;  camera  operators,  who  can  photograph 
the  things  which  the  directors  wish  to  show ;  title  writers  and 
film  editors  for  placing  the  photographer's  scenes  in  logical  and 
interesting  continuity ;  laboratory  workers  to  turn  out  prints  of 
the  highest  photographic  quality,  tinted  and  toned  in  attractive 
colors ;  all  are  needed  for  this  rapidly  growing  industry. 

The  film  reporter,  gathering  the  topical  news  of  the  day  with 
his  motion  picture  camera,  lives  a  strenuous  but  intensely  in- 
teresting life.  He  must  be  ready  at  a  moment's  notice  to  take 
his  grip  and  motion  picture  outfit  and  travel  to  any  point  on  the 
globe  to  feed  the  insatiable  appetite  of  the  news-loving  public  for 
minute  details  of  the  latest  event.  In  the  larger  cities,  the  big 
theatres  are  slow  indeed,  if  they  do  not  throw  upon  the  screen 
on  the  same  day  that  it  happens,  any  event  of  importance  taking 
place  within  two  or  three  hours'  ride  of  the  city. 

Besides  the  news  events,  thousands  of  short  subjects  of  more 
general  interest  have  brought  the  Animated  Screen  Magazine 
into  existence.  In  the  same  way  that  the  animated  newspaper 
satisfies  the  curiosity  of  the  public  for  the  latest  news,  the  screen 
magazine  treats  all  the  latest  topics  of  the  day  in  much  the  same 
manner  as  the  popular  magazine.  It  has  this  advantage  over  the 
magazine,  compelled  to  confine  itself  to  cold  type  and  still  pictures ; 



it  can  show  operations,  movements,  and  animated  diagrams  in 
a  few  seconds'  time,  that  pages  of  print  could  not  half  so 
adequately  explain. 

It  is  obvious  that  this  branch  of  the  business  must  fall  largely 
into  the  hands  of  the  unattached  or  independent  worker,  who 
bears  the  same  relation  to  the  picture  theatre  as  the  outside 
correspondent  to  the  newspaper.  A  firm  engaged  in  supplying 
news  films  cannot  hope  to  succeed  without  amateur  assistance. 
No  matter  how  carefully  and  widely  it  distributes  its  salaried 
photographers,  numberless  events  of  interest  are  constantly  hap- 
pening— shipwrecks,  accidents,  fires,  sensational  discoveries, 
movements  of  prominent  persons,  and  the  like,  at  places,  beyond 
the  reach  of  the  retained  cinematographer.  For  film  intelligence 
of  these  incidents  the  firm  must  rely  upon  the  independent 

Curiously  enough,  in  many  cases,  the  amateur  not  only  executes 
his  work  better  than  his  salaried  rival,  but  often  outclasses  him 
in  the  very  important  respect  that  he  is  more  enterprising.  Act- 
ing on  his  own  responsibility,  he  knows  that  by  smartness  alone 
can  he  make  way  against  professionals.  Only  by  being  the  first 
to  seize  the  chance  can  he  find  a  market  for  his  wares.  Thus 
when  Bleriot  crossed  the  English  Channel  in  his  aeroplane  it 
was  the  camera  of  an  amateur  that  caught  the  record  of  his 
flight  for  the  picture  theatres,  although  a  corps  of  professionals 
were  on  the  spot  for  the  purpose.  True,  the  successful  film 
showed  many  defects.  But  defects  matter  little  compared  with 
the  importance  of  getting  the  picture  first  or  exclusively.  Plenty 
of  similar  cases  exist.  The  amateur  has  an  excellent  chance 
against  the  professional.  His  remuneration,  too,  is  on  a  gener- 
ous scale.  The  market  is  so  wide  and  the  competition  so  keen, 
especially  in  New  York,  the  world's  centre  of  the  cinemato- 
graphic industry,  that  the  possessor  of  a  unique  film  can  dictate 
his  own  terms  and  secure  returns  often  twenty  times  as  great 
as  the  first  cost  of  the  film  he  has  used. 

Aside  from  the  wide  field  of  entertainment  to  which  most  of 
the  products  of  the  motion  camera  are  devoted  it  is  daily  broad- 
ening its  scope  in  the  field  of  scientific  investigation.  Technical 
laboratories  are  daily  finding  new  and  diverse  problems  in  the 
solution  of  which  the  cine  camera  plays  an  important  role. 

Scientific  research  has  received  a  mighty  and  tremendous  im- 



petus  in  this  country  through  the  conditions  arising  from  the 
great  world  conflict.  We  are  just  beginning  to  realize  how  de- 
pendent we  have  been  in  allowing  foreign  brains  to  solve  for 
us  the  great  bulk  of  the  more  complex  industrial  processes  and 
the  awakening  finds  us  determined  and  able  to  take  and  retain 
the  leadership  in  this  important  task. 

Efficiency  means  the  elimination  of  waste — one  of  our  greatest 
wastes  is  time  waste;  every  excess  movement  wastes  a  precious 
interval  of  time ;  the  cine  camera  has  become  a  detective,  sleuth- 
ing out  the  thieving  excess  motion  which  steals  valuable  time. 

Frank  Galbraith,  a  noted  efficiency  engineer,  has,  by  the  use 
of  motion  pictures,  succeeded  in  eliminating  false  and  useless 
motions  to  such  an  extent  that  various  factory  operations  have 
been  speeded  up  so  the  output  has  been  increased  as  much  as 
three  and  four  hundred  per  centum.  Marvelous  as  it  may  seem, 
the  worker  was  able  to  turn  out  this  increased  amount  of  work 
with  much  less  fatigue  than  when  he  had  done  a  less  amount 
under  the  haphazard  regime. 

When  the  motion  camera  is  used  for  time  studies,  a  split- 
second  clock  is  generally  placed  in  the  picture  and  photographed 
at  the  same  time,  thus  giving  an  accurate  record  of  the  time  in- 
terval between  each  frame  or  picture  on  the  celluloid  tape. 

Percy  Haughton,  the  Harvard  football  coach,  has  adopted  the 
motion  camera  for  revealing  the  faulty  and  unnecessary  motions 
of  players  on  the  football  field.  Every  fraction  of  a  second 
gained  on  the  athletic  field  is  a  big  boost  toward  victory. 

A  picture  released  about  a  year  ago  by  one  of  the  large  com- 
panies excited  much  comment  and  illustrated  how  motion  pictures 
may  prove  of  great  service  in  correcting  faulty  muscular  action. 
The  picture  showed  an  athlete  in  various  simple  gymnastic  feats 
such  as  walking,  running,  jumping  and  shot-putting,  taken  simul- 
taneously with  two  cameras.  One  camera  took  the  action  at 
the  ordinary  rate  of  sixteen  pictures  per  second,  while  the  other 
camera  made  one  hundred  exposures  to  the  second;  the  normal 
and  the  ultra-speed  pictures  were  projected  one  after  the  other 
at  the  normal  rate  of  projection  thus  prolonging  or  amplifying 
the  ultra  film  to  nearly  six  times  the  duration  of  the  normal 
motion.  It  was  very  weird  and  interesting;  the  ease  and  de- 
liberation of  the  prolonged  action  gave  time  for  the  study  of 
every  movement  and  the  play  of  every  muscle.  One  could  not  help 



but  marvel  at  the  co-ordination  of  the  work  of  the  muscles.  The 
figure  of  the  athlete  seemed  like  a  diver  immersed  in  crystal 
clear  water,  the  buoyancy  of  which  floated  him  through  the  grace- 
ful attitudes  of  his  movements. 

As  ordinarily  shown,  motion  pictures  are  taken  and  projected 
at  the  rate  of  sixteen  pictures  per  second,  but  for  the  scientific 
investigator  the  rate  of  speed  may  vary  from  as  high  as  30,000 
to  the  second  in  the  study  of  high  speed  phenomena  to  as  low 
as  one  exposure  per  hour  or  even  one  exposure  per  day,  as  used 
in  studies  in  the  change  of  structural  materials,  or  the  growth  of 
a  plant.  All  of  these  may  be  projected  at  normal  speed  for 
screen  study  or  each  frame  may  be  subjected  to  individual 
scrutiny  under  the  magnifying  glass  in  special  cases  as  in  seeking 
to  eliminate  lost  motions  in  machine  assembly,  etc. 

Reduced  to  normal  projection  speed,  bullets  swim  across  the 
screen  like  leisurely  fish  and  bursting  shells  separate  like  a  group 
of  mosquito  wrigglers.  Many  high  speed  processes,  such  as  the 
flow  of  steam;  air  and  gases;  combustion  and  explosions;  auto- 
mobile engines;  the  action  of  governors;  the  synchronism  of 
electric  generators;  the  flow  of  water  in  turbines  and  water 
wheels;  the  action  of  steel  and  wood-working  machinery;  and 
machine  tools;  etc.,  may  be  photographed  at  high  speed  and 
slowed  down  in  projection  so  that  they  may  be  studied  with  the 
greatest  accuracy. 


(Courtesy   of  E.   Fhxk,   Graduate   of  X.    Y.   Institute  of  Photography  ^ 


.  Chapter  III 

AS  the  whole  structure  of  photography  rests  upon  the  ap- 
pHcation  of  the  science  of  physics  and  chemistry,  the 
student  of  photography  or  of  cinematography  can  never 
be  too  well  informed  upon  these  subjects.  While  we  shall  en- 
deavor to  merely  touch  upon  the  more  important  principles  of 
physics  and  chemistry  which  are  most  intimately  concerned  in 
their  relation  to  photography,  it  would  be  well  for  the  reader, 
who  is  earnestly  in  search  of  information,  to  dig  up  his  high- 
school  text-books  and  study  the  subjects  of  the  physics  of  light 
and  the  chemistry  of  the  salts  of  silver.  If  he  has  no  such  books, 
he  will  find  a  mine  of  interesting  information  in  the  public  lib- 
raries, which  are  so  numerous  over  the  country  that  there  are 
very  few  who  do  not  have  access  to  them.  He  who  has  con- 
sidered these  subjects  dull  and  uninteresting  will  find  they  con- 
tain an  unsuspected  interest  when  he  comes  to  trace  their  relation 
to  and  use  in  photography.  It  is  not  necessary  to  go  deep  into 
these  subjects  to  get  the  simple  facts  upon  which  photography  is 
based.  When  one  has  a  clear  conception  of  these  facts,  they  will 
form  a  firm  foundation  upon  which  to  build  a  sound  structure  of 
photographic  knowledge.  New  facts  acquired  will  then  fit  upon 
this  foundation  like  bricks  into  a  wall.  If  the  student  is  uncertain 
as  to  what  books  to  consult  to  acquire  the  knowledge  which  he 
wishes,  he  may  find  some  assistance  in  consulting  the  bibliog- 
raphy or  list  of  suitable  text-books  given  in  another  place  in  this 

It  is  hardly  two  hundred  years  ago  since  people  first  had  any 
adequate  idea  that  our  atmosphere  exists  and  that  we  live  and 
move  about  at  the  bottom  of  a  sea  of  air — the  weight  of  which 
presses  upon  us  and  all  other  objects  about  us  with  a  pressure  of 
approximately  fourteen  pounds  to  the  square  inch.  With  our 
present  day  knowledge  gained  from  barometers,  air-ships  and 
balloons  floating  in  the  air,  and  from  hundreds  of  other  common 
facts,  we  accept  the  presence  of  the  atmosphere  as  a  matter  of 





The  existence  of  an  all  pervading  ether  is,  however,  somewhat 
more  difficult  to  grasp.  Much  like  our  knowledge  of  the  air,  its 
existence  is  only  an  inference  from  observed  facts.  Ether  is  an 
all-pervading  medium  in  which  the  entire  universe  is  submerged, 
and  by  means  of  radiation  or  vibration,  are  transmitted  light, 
radiant  heat,  actinic  radiation,  X-rays,  electro-magnetic  oscil- 
lations, magnetism,  and  Hertzian  waves.  Of  these  forms  of 
radiant  energy,  light,  or  those  radiations  which  enable  the  eye  to 
see  objects,  are  the  only  ones  with  which  we  are  to  deal. 

Light  is  transmitted  through  the  ether  in  straight  lines,  by  very 
minute  waves  or  vibrations,  which  travel  with  great  rapidity. 

For  purposes  of  comparison,  we  often  refer  to  the  similarity 
of  light  waves  to  sound  waves,  but  sound  waves  are  carried  by 



r  i  x"  --n\ 


Fig.  1. 

A  B  represents  a  minute  section  of  a  ray  of  light  traveling  in  the 
direction  indicated  by  the  arrows.  The  curved  line  represents  light 
waves.  The  distance  from  crest  to  crest  of  two  consecutive  waves 
is  the  wave  length  designated  by  C.  The  distance  Rr  from  the 
crest  to  the  bottom  of  the  curve  is  called  the  amiplitude  of  vibration. 

the  atmosphere  at  a  comparatively  slow  rate.  It  will  be  noted 
when  viewing  the  steam  emitted  by  a  whistle  at  some  distance 
from  the  observer  that  the  steam  is  seen  some  little  time  before 
the  sound  is  heard,  showing  that  the  light  waves  from  the  object 
travel  much  more  quickly  than  the  sound.  Ether  waves  do  not 
correspond  to  sound  waves  in  some  other  respects.  For  instance, 
sound  waves  are  composed  of  alternate  compressions  and  refrac- 
tions, while  the  wave  movement  or  displacement  in  light  waves  is 
from  side  to  side  at  right  angles  to  the  direction  in  which  the 
light  wave  is  traveling. 

Figure  one  is  an  illustration  of  the  movement  of  light  waves 
from  side  to  side  as  it  might  appear  if  it  were  possible  to  magnify 
a  ray  of  light  and  render  it  visible.  Light  itself  is  not  visible. 
When  we  say  we  see  a  ray  of  light,  as  we  sometimes  do  when  the 


THE        NATURE        OF       LIGHT 

sun-shine  falls  through  a  window  or  through  the  foliage  of  trees, 
we  do  not  actually  see  the  ray  of  light — what  we  see  is  small  par- 
ticles of  dust  floating  in  the  atmosphere  which  show  us  where 
the  ray  of  light  is  passing.  The  particles  of  dust  reflect  to  our 
eye  a  small  portion  of  the  light  which  comes  through  the  window 
or  between  the  leaves,  as  the  case  may  be.  In  ordinary  diffused 
light,  these  particles  are  too  small  to  be  seen,  but  under  the  strong 
light  of  the  sun,  each  particle  becomes  a  tiny  luminous  point. 

This   drawing   is   an   attempt   at   showing   figure   one  in   perspective 
with  the  purpose  of  revealing  the  fact  that  the  curved  line  of  figure 
one  not  only  extends  up  and  down  but  in   every  conceivable  direc- 
tion at  right  angles  to  the  direction  of  propagation  A.   B. 

For  an  experiment  to  prove  this,  turn  the  light  of  a  projection 
machine  on  in  a  quiet  room,  and  if  the  atmosphere  has  not  been 
disturbed  so  as  to  stir  up  dust,  the  path  of  the  light  will  not  be 
visible,  but  if  we  stir  up  a  little  dust,  or  blow  a  puff  of  smoke  in 
front  of  the  machine,  we  will  see  the  path  of  the  light  spring  out 
so  that  we  can  see  it  distinctly. 

To  return  to  the  vibration  of  the  ether  waves  back  and  forth 
in  a  ray  of  light,  we  see  that  in  the  first  diagram  the  waves  are 
represented  as  traveling  like  the  crests  and  hollows  of  waves  on 



water,  which  move  forward  without  moving  the  water  which 
composes  them  forward.  This  we  know,  because  a  boat  floating 
upon  water  agitated  by  waves,  does  not  move  forward  with  the 
waves,  but  simply  bobs  up  and  down  in  the  same  spot.  In  the 
same  manner,  light  waves  pass  through  the  ether  without  the 
ether  moving  forward  in  the  direction  of  the  waves.  There  is  a 
difference  in  the  light  waves  and  the  water  waves,  however;  for 
while  the  waves  in  water  move  up  and  down  only,  the  vibrations, 
or  waves,  which  occur  in  the  ether,  take  place  in  every  conceiva- 
ble direction — sideways  as  well  as  up  and  down.  Figure  2 
represents  a  cross-section  of  a  ray  of  light  in  which  may  conceive 
that  the  wave  or  ray  is  vibrating  back  and  forth  in  every  direc- 
tion within  the  limits  of  a  circle. 

Waves  of  light  pass  through  any  transparent  medium,  which 
may  be  air,  glass,  water,  celluloid,  amber,  or  any  other  substance 
through  which  we  can  see.  As  long  as  light  travels  in  the  same 
substance  or  medium,  it  goes  forward  in  a  straight  line,  but  as 
soon  as  it  strikes  the  surface  of  a  different  medium,  it  is  de- 
flected or  bent  at  a  slight  angle,  depending  upon  the  nature  of 
the  substance,  and  does  not  bend  again  until  it  encounters  another 
medium.  This  is  called  the  rectilinear  propagation  of  light,  which 
simply  means,  as  before  stated,  that  in  any  particular  medium — 
whether  air,  water  or  glass,  light  always  travels  in  straight  lines. 

The  principal  sources  of  light  are  from  objects  heated  to  a 
high  temperature.  The  most  common  source  of  light  is,  of 
course,  the  sun,  which  is  a  heavenly  body  incandescently  hot.  In 
the  arc  light,  the  light  is  emitted  by  the  carbon  tips  heated  to  in- 
candescency  by  the  passing  of  the  electric  current.  Incandescent 
lights  give  forth  light  because  their  filaments  are  heated  by  the 
passing  of  the  electric  current.  Ordinary  kerosene  lamp  flames 
are  luminous,  because  of  the  hot  particles  of  carbon  in  the  flame. 
Bunsen  burners  and  alcohol  lamps  give  forth  very  little  light, 
because  there  are  no  solid  particles  in  their  flames  to  be  heated 
to  incandescency.  There  are  exceptions  to  this  rule  of  light 
being  accompanied  by  heat,  such  as  the  glow  of  the  glow-worm, 
phosphorescence  of  phosphorus,  and  light  from  some  kinds  of 
electric  discharges.  These  exceptions  are  not  very  well  under- 
stood and  are  seldom  of  any  use  in  connection  with  photography. 

In  the  Cooper-Hewitt  lamp,  vapor  of  mercury  is  rendered  in- 
candescent by  the  passing  of  the  electric  current.     A  luminous 


Si.  a- 

P    ?    r- 

•o    o 

^  ►-.    t«      ^ 



-!          *- 



o       '~, 



T     ^ 


ri     i 







n     o 



3      S 



:*  ^. 



1     ^^ 



























































































































^ .' 

















THE       NATURE       OF       LIGHT 

body,  that  is,  an)rthing  g^iving  forth  light,  sends  forth  the  light 
in  all  directions  from  itself,  just  as  a  pebble  dropped  on  the 
surface  of  quiet  water  sends  out  ripples  which  leave  the  place 
where  the  pebble  dropped  in  ever-widening  circles.  Do  not  be- 
come confused  by  the  idea  of  the  circle.  Remember  that  any 
point  on  the  crest  of  any  of  these  ripples  or  waves  has  come 

FijT.  s. 

This   diagram   roughly   illustrates   how   a   luminous  point   S   radiates 

light    outwardly   in    every    direction    like    the    radii    of    a    sphere,    in 

this  case  the  figure  represents  a  cross-section  of  such  a  sphere. 

outward  from  the  pebble  in  a  straight  line.  In  a  similar  way, 
light  waves  move  ouit  in  straight  lines  from  their  point  of  origin, 
not  only  in  one  plane,  as  the  ripples  do  from  the  surface  of  the 
water,  but  in  every  direction.      (Fig.  3.) 



The  velocity  at  which  light  travels  is  i86,cxx)  miles  per  second ; 
that  is,  nearly  eight  times  the  distance  around  the  earth  in  one 
second.  What  increases  the  heat  in  a  light  source,  increases  the 
amount  of  light  from  that  source,  so  by  increasing  the  amount 
of  an  electric  light  current  or  energy  through  an  electric  arc  light, 
its  brightness  is  increased. 

The  size  of  the  waves  or  vibrations  of  light  varies  as  do  the 
size  of  the  ripples  in  a  pond  when  stones  of  different  size  have 
been  thrown  in,  but  no  matter  what  size  these  vibrations  possess, 
they  move  forward  at  the  same  speed  or  velocity.  The  ether 
waves  produced  by  a  luminous  body  vary  from  20,000,000,000,000 
to  40,000,000,000,000,000  waves  per  second,  and  the  wave  length 
in  ether  accordingly  varies  from  one  3,250,000th  of  an  inch  to 
about  one  1,675th  of  an  inch.  Light  waves,  as  they  travel 
through  ether,  are  all  alike  in  every  respect  except  that  of  size, 
and  in  that  respect,  they  differ  only  in  wave  length  and  amplitude 
of  vibration. 

In  figure  one,  the  distance  from  A  to  B  represents  a  ray  of 
light  traveling  in  the  direction  indicated  by  the  arrow.  The 
curved  line  represents  light  waves.  The  distance  from  crest  to 
crest  of  a  wave  is  the  wave  length.  The  distance  from  the  crest 
and  in  that  respect,  they  differ  only  in  wave  length  and  amplitude 
of  the  vibration. 

Light  waves  of  different  lengths  produce  different  effects  when 
they  strike  a  solid  body.  Those  of  the  greatest  wave  length  give 
the  sensation  of  red  light ;  as  the  wave  length  shortens,  the  color 
changes  to  orange-red,  then  to  orange,  and  so  on  through  orange- 
yellow,  yellow,  yellow-green,  green,  greenish-blue,  blue,  blue- 
violet,  and  violet.  Waves  of  shorter  lengths  than  these  cannot 
be  seen  by  the  eye  at  all,  but  they  are  still  able  to  produce  an 
effect  upon  a  photographic  plate.  They  are  called  ultra-violet 
waves,  or  actinic  waves.  There  is  no  fixed  line  between  actinic 
waves  and  visible  waves;  that  is,  between  light  which  we  can 
see  and  light  which  we  cannot  see,  but  which  will  have  an  effect 
upon  a  photographic  plate,  because  most  of  the  light,  which  we 
can  see,  also  has  an  effect  upon  a  photographic  plate. 

Actinic  light  simply  means  the  light  which  has  the  strongest 
action  upon  a  photographic  plate,  whether  visible  or  not. 

There  are  also  light  waves,  which  are  so  long  that  they  are  not 
visible,  they  are  longer  than  the  visible  red  rays  and  are  called 
infra-red  or  heat  waves. 


THE       NATURE       OF       LI  G"H  T 

The  intensity  of  light  refers  to  its  brightness,  for  example,  a 
sunshiny  day  possesses  a  more  intense  or  brighter  light  (degree 
of  illumination)  than  a  cloudy  day. 

The  intensity  of  light  diminishes  in  proportion  to  the  square 
of  the  distance  from  its  source.  For  instance,  let  us  refer  to 
Figure  No.  4,  which  represents  light  rays  emanating  from  a  small 
source,  such  as  an  arc  lamp  or  the  flame  of  a  candle.  Let  the 
square  A  represent  screen  one  foot  square  placed  at  a  distance 

Fig.  4. 

The  intensity  of  light  falling  upon  a  given  area  varies  inversely  as 
the  square  of  the  distance  from  which  it  is  removed  from  the  light 
source.  The  black  squares  marked  X  are  the  whole,  one-fourth, 
and  one-ninth,  respectively,  of  the  larger  squares  A,  B  and  C.  A 
is  one  foot,  B,  two  feet  and  C,  three  feet  away  from  the  light 
source  S.  The  black  squares  being  of  the  same  size  will  receive 
less  light  as  they  are  removed  from  the  arc  light. 

of  one  foot  from  the  light  and  the  square  B  screen  placed  at  a 
distance  of  two  feet  from  the  light.  These  two  squares  are  in 
a  line  with  the  light,  square  A  exactly  shades  square  B.  If  we 
remove  square  A  the  same  amount  of  light  which  fell  upon 
square  A  will  now  fall  upon  square  B.  Square  B  is  twice  the 
diameter  of  square  A,  or  four  times  its  area.  Since  the  same 
amount  of  light  which  fell  upon  square  A  covers  a  surface  four 
times  as  great  as  twice  the  distance,  it  follows  that  the  intensity 
of  the  light  falling  upon  B  is  only  one-fourth  of  the  intensity  of 



O  F 


light  falling  upon  A,  or  conversely,  the  intensity  of  the  light 
falling  upon  A  is  four  times  the  intensity  of  light  on  screen  B. 

This  law  of  illumination  must  be  taken  into  account  very  par- 
ticularly where  artificial  illumination  is  used,  for  if  it  takes  a  cer- 

Fig.    5. 

When  a  ray  of  light  strikes  another  medium  of  greater  or  lesser 
density  than  the  one  it  is  leaving  then,  unless  it  strikes  exactly 
perpendicular  to  the  surface  of  the  new  medium^  it  will  be  bent 
or  refracted.  Figure  5  shows  a  ray  passing  through  a  block  of 
glass  and  suffering  two  refractions,  one  upon  entering  and  one 
upon  leaving.  In  this  case  the  two  surfaces  being  parallel,  the 
first  refraction  is  neutralized  by  the  second  and  the  light  ray  con- 
tinues in  its  original  direction  slightly  displaced  but  parallel  to 
its   original   course. 

tain  number  of  lights  to  illuminate  a  certain  small  set  properly, 
it  will  require  four  times  as  many  lights  to  properly  illuminate  a 
set  which  is  only  twice  as  large.  Therefore,  it  is  practically  im- 
possible to  artificially  illuminate  a  very  large  set  since  the  limit 
of  the  practical  number  of  artificial  lights  is  soon  reached. 
When  light  strikes  an  object,  part  of  it  is  reflected  or  thrown 


THE        NATURE        OF       LIGHT 

back.  It  is  because  of  this  fact  that  we  are  enabled  to  see  objects 
and  to  photograph  them.  The  kind  or  quahty  of  Hght  reflected 
enables  one  to  photograph  objects.  The  violet  light  is  quite 
active  photographically,  while  the  other  end  of  the  spectrum, 
red,  is  not. 

If  the  object  reflects  all  blue  or  violet  the  photographic  sensi- 
tive surface  will  be  strongly  aflected  and  the  object  easily  photo- 
graphed, but  if  the  object  reflects  yellow  and  red*  waves  only, 
the  sensitive  surface  will  be  only  feebly  affected. 

Fig.    6. 

Production   of  the   spectrum   by   means   of  a   prismk 

It  is  for  this  reason  that  photographic  operations  are  carried 
on  in  dark  rooms  which  are  illuminated  only  by  faint  red  or 
orange  light.  All  dark  room  lights  should  be  carefully  tested 
by  exposing  a  sample  of  the  most  sensitive  surface  that  is  to 
be  worked  under  the  light  in  question  for  a  greater  period  of 
time  than  such  sample  would  be  exposed  under  any  ordinary 
working  conditions.  If  on  development  the  sample  shows  traces 
of  fog,  the  light  should  be  changed  or  its  intensity  decreased. 
When  a  certain  color  of  light  predominates,  the  unaided  eye  is 
not  able  to  distinguish  a  contamination  of  another  color,  con- 
sequently wherever  possible  it  is  very  desirable  to  make  a  spectro- 
scopic examination  of  the  light  passed  by  screens  used  for  dark 
room  illumination. 



O  F 


From  this  it  will  be  seen  that  much  depends  upon  the  quality 
of  light  reflected  in  photographic  work. 

Refraction — When  light  passes  from  one  medium  to  another 
of  dififerent  density  it  is  refracted  or  bent  as  shown  in  diagram 
No.  5.  The  different  colored  rays  being  ^refracted  or  bent  in 
different  degrees.  Upon  this  principle  depends  the  construction 
of  lenses. 

Dispersion  is  shown  in  diagram  No.  6  that  is,  light  in  passing 
through  a  glass  prism  is  separated  into  its  component  parts,  and 

Fig.  7. 

Showing    the    elementary    character    of    a    primary    color.     Primary 
colors    cannot    be    further    resolved    into    other    colors. 

in  case  of  white  light  into  the  spectrum  colors  violet,  indigo, 
blue,  green,  yellow,  orange  and  red. 

Absorption — When  light  falls  on  an  object  which  neither  re- 
flects, refracts  nor  transmits,  the  light  is  said  to  be  absorbed.  No 
known  substance  is  an  absolute  absorber  of  light ;  that  is,  an  ab- 
solute non-reflector.  A  flat  or  matte  black  surface  comes  the 
nearest  to  being  a  total  absorber  of  light,  but  it  is  not  possible  to 
paint  an  object  so  black  but  what  sufficient  light  will  be  reflected 
from  it  to  reveal  its  details  when  brilliantly  illuminated.  Thus 
we  see  that  what  we  call  blackness  is  not  caused  by  no  light 
reaching  the  eye  but  when  very  little  does.     The  blackest  object 


THE        NATURE        OF       LIGHT 

looks  gray  in  comparison  to  what  is  called  Chevreurs  black, 
which  is  the  darkness  of  the  mouth  of  a  dark  cavern  or  a  hole  in 
a  large  box  lined  with  black  velvet. 

If  the  object  reflects  only  red  all  the  other  colors  are  absorbed ; 
if  only  yellow  is  reflected,  then  all  others  are  absorbed.  Again, 
if  we  use,  as  our  incident  light,  any  particular  color  of  light 

Fig.   8. 

When  light  strikes  a  smooth  reflecting  surface  such  as  a  mirror 
or  a  pool  of  still  water  it  is  reflected  back  at  the  same  angle  at 
which  it  strikes  or  in  more  scientific  terms  the  angle  of  reflection 
N,  C,  B  in  figure  8  is  equal  to  the  angle  of  incidence  A,  C,  N, 
both  angles  being  measured  from  a  line  perpendicular  to  the  reflect- 
ing surface  at  the  point  where  the  reflection  takes  place.  These 
two  angles  always  lie  in  the  same  plane  with  the  perpendicular 
line  which   is  always  at  right  angles  to   the   reflecting   surface. 

which  happens  to  be  wholly  absorbed  by  the  object,  that  object 
will  appear  black;  if,  for  example,  we  look  at  a  yellow  and  a  blue 
flower  by  the  yellow  flame  of  a  spirit  lamp  with  common  salt  in 
the  wick,  the  yellow  flower  appears  distinctly  yellow,  for  it  does 
not  absorb  yellow  light  on  reflection,  but  the  blue  flower  looks 
black,  for  it  absorbs  all  the  yellow  light  and  reflects  none  of  it. 
We  have  briefly  discussed  four  qualities  of  light.    The  entire 



science  of  optics  is  embraced  under  these  four  sub-heads  and 
the  better  we  understand  these  properties  of  Hght  the  more  in- 
teUigently  will  we  be  able  to  know  how  to  illuminate  a  scene  and 
what  lenses  to  use,  in  order  to  obtain  any  photographic  result 
that  we  wish. 

We  have  already  found  that  light  is  propagated  outwardly  in 
straight  lines  in  every  direction  from  a  luminous  object.  When 
it  strikes  a  smooth  reflecting  surface,  such  as  a  mirror  or  a  pool 
of  still  water,  it  is  reflected  back  from  the  reflecting  surface  at 
the  same  angle  at  which  it  strikes,  or  in  more  scientific  terms,  the 
angle  of  reflection  is  equal  to  the  angle  of  incidence,  as  shown  in 
Figure  8.  As  we  have  become  accustomed  to  visualizing  objects 
as  being  in  a  straight  line  before  us,  since  light  always  travels 
in  straight  lines,  when  we  look  into  a  mirror  we  do  not  see  the 

Fig.    9 
Reflection    of    light    from    an    irregular    surface. 

mirror  itself  but  the  image  which  it  reflects  and  the  reflected 
image  appears  to  be  behind  or  beyond  the  mirror,  since  our  habit 
of  sight  perceives  the  reflected  object  in  that  direction.  If,  how- 
ever, the  rays  of  light  fall  upon  an  object  which  is  not  perfectly 
smooth,  each  tiny  particle  which  composes  its  surface  presents 
a  different  angle  to  the  light  rays  than  its  neighbor,  so  that  the 
light  will  be  reflected  at  a  dififerent  angle  from  each  of  these  par- 
ticles. This  light  reflected  from  the  rough  surface  has  thus  had 
its  direction  broken  so  that  it  travels  in  many  different  directions. 
This  is  shown  in  exaggerated  form  in  Figure  No,  9, 

























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f  2: 

THE        N  A  TURE       OF       LIGHT 

Such  light  is  called  a  diffused  light,  thus,  on  a  cloudy  or  hazy 
day,  the  light  of  the  sun  is  diffused  by  its  many  reflections  and 
re-reflections  from'  the  particles  of  watery  vapor  in  the  atmos- 
phere. On  a  clear  day  the  direct  rays  of  the  sun  cast  a  dark 
shadow  when  any  object  is  interposed  between  the  sun  and  any 
surface  upon  which  its  rays  fall,  but  when  the  light  is  diffused 
the  reflected  rays  from  many  directions  fall  beneath  the  object, 
since  the  object  is  not  in  line  with  these  reflected  rays,  and  il- 
luminate the  surface  beneath  the  object  and  we  axe  not  able  to 
distinguish  any  perceptible  shadows. 

Practically  all  interior  illumination  is  diffused  light,  for  we 
can  only  have  direct  illumination  where  the  sun  shines  through 
a  window  or  other  opening.  We  find  it  necessary  to  diffuse  the 
light  in  interior  scenes  in  order  to  make  them  appear  natural, 
for  it  is  not  yet  possible  in  the  majority  of  cases  to  obtain  suffi- 
cient illumination  in  an  actual  interior  to  act  upon  a  photographic 
film  with  sufficient  intensity  in  the  short  time  of  the  exposure 
necessary  with  the  motion  picture  camera.  We  have  to  build 
our  interior  sets  in  a  studio  leaving  them  open  to  the  light  at 
the  top,  and  generally  upon  two  sides,  thus  allowing  a  flood  of 
light  to  enter.  If  the  stage  is  an  open  platform,  or  if  the  studio 
is  not  of  ground  or  ribbed  glass,  which  of  itself  diffuses  the  light, 
it  becomes  necessaiy  to  suspend  screens  of  thin  white  cloth 
called  diffusion  or  halation  screens  above  the  set,  to  break  up 
and  diffuse  the  direct  rays  of  the  sun. 

We  can  all  recall  witnessing,  even  very  recently,  interior  scenes 
taken  in  the  direct  sunlight  where  the  pictures  hung  on  the  wall 
cast  long  oblique  shadows  and  the  characters,  as  they  went 
through  their  actions  on  the  screen,  were  each  accompanied  by 
a  funereal  silhouette  which  mocked  every  gesture  in  grotesque 
.distortion  upon  the  floor  or  wall.  Happily,  such  scenes  have  now 
passed  into  the  limbo  of  fading  memories.  When  artificial  lights 
are  used,  such  as  arc  lamps,  the  light  is  diffused  by  ground  or 
ribbed  glass  screens  or  with  tracing  cloth  or  similar  material. 
The  tubes  of  Cooper-Hewitt  lights  cover  such  an  area  that  it  is 
not  usually  necessary  to  use  a  screen  for  them,  for  the  light, 
coming  from  so  large  an  area  covered  by  the  tubes,  is  already 
sufficiently  diffused. 

When  we  produced  the  spectrum  by  passing  a  ray  of  light 
through  a  glass  prism  we  found  that  the  beam  of  light  was  bent 




or  turned  to  one  side  by  the  glass ;  that  is,  the  light  was  refracted. 
This  refraction  only  takes  place  at  the  point  of  entrance  between 
two  mediums  of  different  density.  After  being  refracted  at  the 
surface  the  light  continues  to  travel  through  the  second  medium 
in  a  straight  line  from  the  point  of  entry  to  the  point  where  it 
emerges  on  the  other  side  where  a  second  refraction  takes  place, 
light  again  continuing  to  travel  in  a  straight  line.  This  angle  of 
refraction  varies  according  to  the  density  of  the  medium  in  its 
relation  to  light  and  is  always  the  same  in  the  same  medium,  thus 
different  kinds  of  glass  and  all  transparent  crystals  and  liquids 
have  different  angles  of  refraction.     This  angle  of  refraction  is 

Illustrating   the    relationship   between    lenses   and   prisms.        If   we 

consider  a  lens  as  consisting  of  innumerable  small  prisms  built  up 

around  a  comimon  center  this  relationship  will  become  apparent. 

called  the  index  of  refraction.  These  indexes  of  refraction  have 
been  measured  by  mathematicians  who  make  calculations  for 
manufacturers  of  lens  and  predict  all  of  its  properties  before  one 
has  been  made.  Such  calculations  are,  however,  far  beyond  the 
scope  or  needs  of  any  ordinary  photographer. 

In  Figure  No.  lo,  we  have  a  point  from  which  emanates  rays 
of  light.  Suppose  we  take  a  number  of  prisms  with  varying 
angles  as  illustrated  in  the  diagram,  the  angle  of  each  being  such 
that  each  ray  which  passes  through  each  prism  is  refracted  to 
the  point  so  that  each  of  these  rays  is  again  collected  at  this  point. 
Let  us  now  examine  the  line  of  prisms  which  we  have  thus  placed. 
The  central  prisms  have  sides  which  are  nearly  parallel,  which 
progress  outward  from  the  center,  the  angle  increases  until  the 
two  faces  come  together.    We  will  now  replace  the  line  of  prisms 


THE        NATURE       OF       LIGHT 

with  a  lens  covering  practically  the  same  range  as  the  prisms  as 
in  Figure  No.  ii.  We  find  that  the  lens  also  gathers  all  of 
the  rays  as  the  prisms  did  and  refracts  them  again  to  the  same 
point  so  that  we  can  consider  the  lens  as  a  number  of  prisms 
rounded  off  into  a  single  piece,  or  speaking  still  more  exactly, 

This  is  the  same  as  Figure  10    with  the  proper  curved  surfaces  sub- 
stituted   for    the    angular    surface    of    the    joined    group    of    prisms. 

Fig.   12. 

If  we  take  two  luminous  points,  A  and  B,  we  find  that  the  lens 
will  form  images  of  these  two  points  as  a  and  b.  The  point  A 
being  on  the  principal  axis  of  the  lens  its  image  will  be  formed  at 
a,  also  on  the  principal  axis  any  motion  of  B  will  cause  a 
diametrically  opposite  motion  in  b. 

that  the  lens  is  a  continuation  of  an  infinite  number  of  prisms, 
the  flat  surfaces  of  which  are  too  small  for  the  eye  to  detect.  This 
infinite  number  of  surfaces,  or  points,  we  find  ranges  itself  into 
the  segment  of  a  circle.  This  refraction  of  rays  emanating  from 
a  point  back  to  a  point  again  is  termed  a  "point  of  focus." 
If  we  now  take  two  luminous  points  at  the  same  distance  from 



the  lens  but  separated  a  short  distance  from  one  another,  as  in 
Figure  No.  12  we  will  find  if  we  have  a  screen  for  the  rays  to 
fall  upon,  that  the  two  points  will  be  reproduced  side  by  side  in 
exact  miniature  on  the  screen,  but  that  the  point  of  illumination 
which  is  above  the  original  point  of  illumination  is  reproduced 
below  the  point  of  the  original  point  of  focus  of  the  first  point. 
If  we  now  move  this  screen  closer  to  or  farther  away  from  the 
lens,  we  find  that  the  point  of  light  enlarges  in  a  circle  of  illumin- 
ation. This  is  termed  the  circle  of  confusion.  By  moving  the 
screen  back  and  forth  we  also  find  that  there  is  only  one  position 
in  which  the  points  of  illumination  are  perfectly  reproduced.  If, 
however,  we  now  move  one  of  these  points  of  illumination  to  a 
much  greater  distance  than  the  other,  we  find  that  while  one  is 
sharp  and  distinct  the  other  forms  a  small  circle  of  confusion 
and  that  when  we  move  the  screen  so  that  the  more  distant  one 
is  in  focus,  that  the  other  becomes  a  circle  of  confusion,  or  out  of 
focus,  as  it  is  termed.  If,  however,  we  move  the  two  points 
closer  to  one  another,  but  still  at  different  distances  from  the 
lens,  we  find  that  we  can  bring  them  both  to  a  focus  on  the  screen 
or  rather,  so  nearly  to  a  focus  that  the  eye  is  not  able  to  dis- 
tinguish the  difference  in  sharpness  between  the  two.  This 
difference  of  distance  between  the  two  points  of  illumination  is 
called  the  depth  of  focus. 

Let  us  now  take  the  points  of  illumination,  as  in  Fig.  13,  with 
one  of  the  points  focused  sharply.  If  now  we  interpose  a  piece 
of  black  cardboard,  in  which  a  small  round  hole  has  been  cut, 
close  to  the  lens  so  that  this  hole  is  near  the  center  of  the  lens, 
we  find  that  the  brightness  of  the  images  is  much  decreased  but 
that  the  image  of  the  point  which  was  out  of  focus  is  now  much 
sharper.  Let  us  refer  again  to  our  Fig,  13.  Our  images  are  not 
nearly  so  brilliant  because  much  of  the  light  which  formerly 
came  throug'h  the  lens  has  been  cut  off  by  the  piece  of  black  card- 
board ;  but  as  the  cardboard  has  narrowed  down  the  angle  which 
the  light  ray  takes  from  the  lens  to  the  focal  plane,  we  have  nar- 
rowed down,  or  made  smaller,  our  circle  of  confusion. 

Up  to  this  point  we  have  only  considered  light  as  it  emanates 
from  a  point,  but  now  we  are  ready  to  consider  any  object  which 
may  be  reproduced  by  a  lens  as  an  image.  In  photography,  prac- 
tically all  images  that  we  have  to  consider  are  delineated  or 
formed  in  one  plane;  that  is,  either  upon  the  flat  surface  of  a 


THE        NATURE        OF       LIGHT 

photographic  plate  or  upon  a  film  stretched  flat  or  upon  a  piece 
of  photographic  paper,  as  in  a  photograph,  or  upon  a  screen  in 
a  moving  picture  theater,  so  that  no  matter  by  what  means  we 

Fig.   13. 

Let  us  take  the  points  A  and  B  in  these  two  diagrams.  In  both  the 
upper  and  lower  diagrams  the  image  of  A  will  formj  in  the  plane  a 
and  that  of  B  will  form  in  the  plane  b.  It  is  in  these  two  planes 
that  the  sensitive  surfaces  should  lie  to  render  sharply  the  images 
of  A  or  B  as  the  case  may  be. 

We  desire  to  receive  both  of  these  images  however  on  the  plate  at 
once  and  utilize  the  two  following  means  for  obtaining  the  result. 
First  we  compromise  between  the  two  planes  a  and  b  and  place 
our  plate  in  the  plane  "C."  We  do  this  because  the  circle  of  con- 
fusion at  C,  is  common  to  both  and  is  the  smallest  mean  between 
the  planes  a  and  b.  This  compromise  prepares  us  for  better 
results  in  our  2d  procedure.  This  consists  of  placing 
a  diaphragm  close  to  the  lens.  This  diaphragm  is  a  piece  of 
black  cardboard  with  a  smooth,  round  hole  in  it  and  its  function 
is  to  diminish  the  angle  on  the  rays  of  light  that  represent  the 
extremes  of  the  oones  of  light  which  form  the  images  a  and  b. 
This  has  the  desired  effect  of  reducing  the  size  of  the  circles  of 
confusion  at  C  to  an  inappreciable  size.  This  size  depends  on  the 
distance  between  A  and  B  and  on  the  size  of  the  hole  in  the 
diaphragm.  A  circle  not  greater  than  1/100  inch  is  permissible  in 
stills  but   for  the  cinema  film  one  of  1/400   inch   is  about  the  limit 

of  size. 

produce  a  photographic  image  it  is  practically  always  done  upon 
a  flat  surface.  Let  us  for  the  purpose  of  our  analysis,  consider 
any  object  or  any  image  as  being  composed  of  a  collection  of  a 





vast  number  of  small  points  of  different  degrees  of  illumination, 
placed  beside  each  other  forming  an  infinitely  fine  mosaic  which 
delineates  the  object  or  image  which  we  have  under  consideration. 
To  make  this  point  clearer,  inspect  very  closely  with  the  naked 
eye,  or  better  still,  with  a  small  magnifying  glass,  any  half-tone 
cut  in  this  or  any  other  book  or  paper  and  you  will  see  that  the 
entire  picture  is  formed  by  small  dots  of  varying  sizes  which 
make  up  the  picture.  In  the  same  manner  we  may  consider  any 
object  or  image  as  consisting  of  an  infinite  number  of  small  points 
not  necessarily  arranged  in  mechanical  order  as  in  a  half-tone 
cut.  This  mechanical  sequence  in  a  half-tone  is  merely  a  method 
of  surmounting  certain  mechanical  difficulties  in  photo-mechanical 

Fig.    14. 
Production   of  an  image  by  a  lens. 

reproduction,  the  size  of  the  dot  representing  the  intensity  of 
illumination  of  that  particular  portion  of  the  picture  which  it 

There  are  many  other  processes  of  photogravure  too  com- 
plicated for  ordinary  book  production  in  which  the  dots  are 
arranged  in  irregular  order  or  in  which  the  light  intensity  is 
registered  by  other  means,  such  as  the  Mosstype,  the  Albertype 
and  various  photogelatine  and  lithographic  processes. 

We  have  already  seen  that  all  objects  reflect  a  certain  per- 
centage of  light.  If  by  means  of  a  lens  we  can  focus  the  lumi- 
nous points  which  delineate  an  object  upon  a  flat  surface,  we  must 
necessarily  obtain  an  image  of  that  object  upon  the  focal  plane, 
as  in  Fig.  14. 


THE        NATURE        OF       LIGHT 

This  image  is  always  reversed  and  inverted;  that  is,  like  a 
mirror  reflection  turned  upside  down.  By  again  referring  to 
Fig.  14  we  see  the  reason  for  this.  All  of  the  light  rays  emanat- 
ing from  A  on  the  tree  which  strike  the  lens  are  condensed 
and  brought  to  a  focus  at  the  point  a  in  the  image.     Likewise, 

Fig.   15. 
Indistinct    image    caused    by    overlapping   circles    of    confusion. 

all  of  the  rays  which  strike  the  lens  from  the  point  B  are  focused 
at  the  point  b  in  the  image;  in  a  like  manner  all  of  the  other 
points  on  the  surface  of  the  tree  are  delineated  on  the  screen 
without  rendering  the  diagram  too  complicated  by  trying  to 
reproduce  the  path  of  the  light  rays  from  all  of  the  other  points 
on  the  tree.     If  we  move  the  screen  a  small  distance  in  either 

Fig.    16. 
Double    inversion    by    means    of    two    lenses. 

direction  from  the  focal  plane  the  image  becomes  blurred  and  in- 
distinct, since  our  points  of  illumination  then  become  overlapping 
circles  of  confusion,  as  in  Fig.  15.  The  image  ab  in  Fig.  14  is 
termed  a  real  image,  because  it  may  be  focused  upon  a  screen  and 
to  distinguish  it  from  certain  other  images  which  we  will  con- 
sider later,  which  can  be  seen  but  which  cannot  be  focused  upon 
a  screen  and  which  are  termed  virtual  images.    This  image  may 



be  again  focused  by  another  lens  which  again  inverts  the  image, 
as  in  Fig.  i6. 

In  Fig.  17  we  have  a  diagram  of  the  ordinary  telescope  in 
which  the  real  image  has  been  twice  enlarged,  in  order  that  the 

Fig.  17. 

Diagram  showing  the  path  of  the  light  rays  in  an  ordinary  telescope. 

eye  may  see  the  enlarged  image  as  an  erect  object.  As  it  is  of  no 
consequence  that  the  image  be  inverted  in  an  astronomical  tele- 
scope, it  is  provided  with  only  two  sets  of  lenses  and  the  image 
is  enlarged  but  once,  the  large  lens,  or  objective,  being  made  as 

Fig.  18. 
Light    dispersion    caused    by    an    uncorrected    lens. 

large  as  possible  in  order  to  collect  all  of  the  possible  light  from 
dim  and  distant  stars.  The  image  formed  by  this  large  objective 
with  great  light  collecting  power  being  then  examined  by  a 
magnifying  eye-piece  selected  by  the  astronomer  as  being  most 
suitable  for  whatever  investigation  he  is  conducting;  large  as- 
tronomical telescopes  being  provided  with  a  number  of  eye-pieces 


















THE        NATURE        OF       LIGHT 

of  various  degrees  of  magnification.  When  photographs  are 
taken  of  heavenly  bodies  the  eye-pieces  are  removed  and  the 
photographic  plate  inserted  in  the  tube  of  the  telescope  at  the 
proper  focal  distance. 

In  our  experiments  with  the  prism,  we  learned  that  the  glass  of 
the  prism  had  not  only  the  power  of  refracting  or  bending  the 
light,  but  also  of  dispersing  or  separating  it  into  its  component 
colors,  and  in  our  previous  experiments  with  a  single  lens  we  will 
have  noticed,  if  we  have  observed  closely,  that  the  images  which 
we  produced  were  fringed  with  prismatic  color.     In  diagram  i8 

Fig.  19. 
Correction  of  dispersion  by  lens  elements  of  different  kinds  of  glass 

we  see  the  reason  for  this,  the  blue  and  violet  rays  being  refracted 
to  a  greater  extent  than  those  of  the  other  end  of  the  spectrum. 

Very  happily  for  photographic  purposes,  the  light  refracting 
power  and  the  dispersive  power  of  different  kinds  of  glass  are 
very  different  and  not  interdependent  so  that  we  are  able  to  pro- 
duce by  cementing  together,  as  in  Fig.  19,  or  sometimes  only 
mounting  together  in  a  metallic  mount,  lenses  from  certain  com- 
binations of  different  kinds  of  glass  in  which  one  kind  counteracts 
the  dispersive  power  of  another  kind  and  thus  the  different  colors 
are  brought  to  a  focus  at  the  same  point.  It  would  be  very  incon- 
venient to  make  a  mathematical  calculation  and  a  very  fine  read- 
justment of  a  ground  glass  from  the  visual  focus  to  the  actinic 
focus  of  a  lens  every  time  we  wished  to  take  a  photograph. 
This  correction  for  visual  and  actinic  focus  is  thus  very  impor- 



tant  and  is  one  of  the  principal  reasons  an  ordinary  magnifying 
lens  is  not  suitable  for  making  photographs. 

It  is  an  unfortunate  fact  that  there  are  on  the  market  today 
some  makes  of  cinematographic  lenses  which  are  not  fully 
corrected  for  visual  and  actinic  focus.  The  writer  was  at  one 
time  compelled  through  force  of  necessity,  to  use  such  a  lens, 
and  it  was  only  after  making  many  tests  to  obtain  a  focusing 
scale  or  by  focusing  upon  an  object  at  a  certain  ratio  of  distance 
nearer  the  lens,  that  he  was  able  to  produce  pictures  of  satis- 
factory sharpness  with  it.  As  it  is  never  necessary  to  change  the 
focal  distance  from  infinity  in  astronomical  photography,  no  at- 
tempt is  made  to  correct  telescopic  objectives  since,  when  actinic 
focus  is  once  obtained,  it  is  never  necessary  to  change  it. 

The  lens  is  the  agent  by  which  the  light  is  directed  to  the 
right  spot  in  forming  the  image  depending  upon  the  refraction 
of  light.  But  before  taking  up  the  consideration  of  this  impor- 
tant piece  of  apparatus  for  photographic  work  it  will  be  necessary 
to  explain  what  we  mean  by  the  "Optics  of  Photography"  as 
distinguished  from  the  optics  of  other  sciences,  such  as  those  of 
the  telescope  and  the  microscope. 

The  chief  distinctions  are  of  two  kinds:  ist,  in  photographic 
optics,  the  lens  must  be  capable  of  transmitting  and  bringing 
to  a  focus  in  the  same  plane  oblique  and  axial  rays  of  light, 
as  shown  in  Fig.  20. 

The  principal  lens  or  objective  of  the  telescope  will  not  give  a 
sharp  image  of  an  object  if  removed  a  slight  degree  from  the 
axis  or  perfect  squareness  of  position  in  relation  to  the  line  of 
light.  Hence,  the  sharpness  of  the  image  produced  by  the 
objective  of  the  telescope  is  confined  to  a  small  area  close  to  the 
axis.  The  photographic  lens,  on  the  other  hand,  must  be  so 
constructed  that  it  will  give  a  sharp  image  of  objects  in  front 
of  the  center  of  the  lens  and  also  of  those  that  are  situated  to  a 
certain  extent  on  each  side  of  the  center. 

2d.  The  photographic  lens  must  also  be  so  constructed  that  it 
will  bring  to  a  focus  at  the  same  spot  the  chemical  and  visual 
rays  of  light.  If  not  corrected,  the  lens  will  act  as  a  prism  and 
separate  the  light  into  its  component  parts  and  produce  the 
spectral  or  rainbow  fringe  around  the  edges  of  the  image. 

The  violet  or  active  end  of  the  spectrum  is  brought  to  a  focus 
close  to  the  lens   and  the   red   at   the   greatest   distance.    The 


THE        NATURE        OF       LIGHT 

yellow,  which  is  brightest  visually,  is  also  further  from  the  lens 
than  the  active  violet.  In  focusing  visually,  the  plane  of  the 
yellow  would  be  sharp,  but  in  photographing  the  sensitive  sur- 
face would  have  to  occupy  the  plane  of  the  violet.  The  result 
would  be  that  the  image  of  the  object  focused  by  the  eye  would 
be  a  blur  in  the  photograph.  The  photographic  lens  must  be  so 
constructed  that  the  image  of  the  object  will  appear  sharp  and 
clearly  defined  to  the  eye,  and  be  equally  sharp  as  a  result  of  the 

A  cross  section  of  a  photographic  objective,  one  of  the  combinations 
consisting  of  uncemented  elements  and  the  other  of  cemented  lenses. 

chemical  rays,  when  it  is  developed  upon  the  photographic  plate. 
Such  a  coincidence  of  the  chemical  and  visual  rays  does  not  exist 
in  the  telescope  or  the  microscope,  but  only  in  the  photographic 
lens.  In  the  telescope  and  the  microscope,  which  are  constructed 
for  visual  work,  it  is  not  necessary. 

To  sum  up  these  remarks  it  can  be  stated  briefly  that  photo- 
graphic lenses  transmit  oblique  as  well  as  axial  rays  and  bring 
them  to  a  focus  in  the  same  plane;  and  also  bring  the  chemical 
and  visual  rays  of  light. to  a  focus  at  the  same  spot. 

This  brings  us  to  the  consideration  of  the  photographic  lens 
and  the  principles  which  underlie  its  construction.  By  a  lens  is 
understood  a  piece  of  clear  glass  bounded  by  polished  curved 
surfaces.  The  various  forms  of  simple  lenses  are  divided  into 
two  general  classes: 




iist.  Double  Convex. 

2nd.  Piano  Convex. 

3rd.  Convexo-Concave. 

{1st.  Double  Concave. 

2nd.  Piano  Concave. 

3rd.  Concavo-Convex. 

The  first   are  thickest   in   the   center,   while   the   second   are 
thinnest  in  the  center. 

Fig.    21. 

A,  B,  C,  positive  or  converging  lenses.  D,  E,  F,  negative  or 
diverging  lenses.  A,  double  convex;  B,  plano-convex;  C,  convexo- 
concave    or    meniscus;    D,    double    concave;    E,    plano-concave;    F, 


These  simple  forms  may  be  made  up  of  one  single  piece  of 
glass  or  they  may  be  composed  of  several  cemented  together,  as 
will  be  seen  later.     Diagram  21,  illustrates  these  forms  of  lenses. 

All  lenses,  whether  considered  singly  or  in  combination,  have 
the  following  properties : 

1.  Principal  axis. 

2.  Optical  center. 

3.  Principal  and  conjugate  foci. 

4.  Nodal  points. 

1st.  Principal  axis  of  a  lens  is  a  line  passing  through  the 
thickest  part  of  positive  lenses  and  thinnest  part  of  negative 



THE        NATURE        OF       LIGHT 

lenses,  perpendicular  to  the  surfaces  of  the  lens,  as  in  diagrams 
No.  22  and  No.  23. 

2d.  The  optical  center  of  a  lens  is  the  point  from  which  focal 
measurements  are  made.  This  does  not  refer  to  a  photographic 
objective  which  (in  other  than  single  view  lenses)  is  a  combina- 
tion of  lenses  and  quite  another  matter  for  the  reason  that  a 
combination  may  have  its  optical  center  at  a  number  of  places 
according  to  the  circumstances  under  which  it  is  employed.     The 

Fig.    22. 
NodaJ   point   within   the  lens. 

positive  Optical  center  of  a  lens  is  determined  by  its  form  as 
follows  and  shown  in  diagrams  No.  22  and  No.  23. 

Draw  two  parallel  radii  AB  and  ab  one  from  each  center  of 
curvature,  and  both  inclined  to  principal  axis ;  then  connect  the 
two  points  B  and  b  at  which  they  touch  the  curved  surfaces  of 
lens.  The  point  O,  at  which  the  line  connecting  B  and  b  cuts  the 
principal  axis,  is  the  optical  center.  In  most  cases  the  optical 
centre  is  within  the  lens  itself  but  in  some  cases  as  with  telephoto 
combinations  and  single  meniscus  lenses  it  may  be  some  distance 
outside  the  lens.     Such  an  example  is  shown  in  Fig.  23. 

3d.  Conjugate  foci.  If  a  lens  which  has  been  carefully 
focused  upon  a  distant  object  be  then  directed  toward  one  com- 
paratively near  at  hand,  the  nearer  object  will  be  found  to  be 




out  of  focus,  necessitating  the  withdrawal  of  the  ground  glass 
from  the  lens  before  the  image  will  assume  its  maximum  sharp- 
ness. This  establishes  the  fact  that  there  exists  a  relation  be- 
tween the  object  that  is  focused,  as  regards  its  distance  from  the 
camera,  and  the  focus  of  the  lens.  This  relation  is  termed  "con- 
jugate foci."  Foci  is  the  plural  of  focus;  conjugate  means  com- 
bined in  pairs ;  kindred  in  meaning  and  origin.  Conjugate  foci 
are  then  the  distances  from  the  lens  to  the  image  and  from  the 

Fig.    23. 

Nodal    point    outside    the    lens. 

lens  to  the  object.  Hereafter  we  will  speak  of  the  distance  be- 
tween the  lens  and  the  object  as  the  anterior  or  major  conjugate, 
and  that  existing  between  the  lens  and  the  ground  glass  of  the 
camera,  as  the  posterior  or  minor  conjugate  focus.  Parallel  rays 
aa — ^that  is,  rays  from  a  great  distance — falling  upon  a  lens  come 
to  a  focus  at  f ;  but  those  from  b,  which  may  serve  to  represent 
any  object  ten  or  twenty  yards  distant,  have  their  focus  at  c 
(Fig.  24).  Then  fo  is  the  solar  focus,  bo  and  co  are  conjugate 
foci.  The  former  of  these  is  the  anterior,  and  the  latter  the 
posterior  conjugate.  To  facilitate  reference,  the  lines  indicating 
the  conjugate  foci  are  solid,  while  those  relating  to  the  solar  focus 


THE        NATURE        OF       LIGHT 

are  dotted.     The  points  b  and  c  are  interchangeable;  an  object 
placed  at  either  is  sharp  at  the  other. 

Rule  for  Conjugate  Foci.  Now  for  every  position  of  the 
object  there  is  a  certain  position  of  the  camera,  and  these  two 
distances,  the  distance  of  the  object  from  the  lens  and  of  the 
lens  from  the  plate,  are  called  conjugate  foci. 

ft   ^^^.P'o^'i^m^^^t^im^m^mtm^ 

Fig.    24. 
Conjugate   foci. 

A  very  simple  mathematical  rule  connects  the  distance  from 
lens  to  object  (D)  the  distance  from  lens  to  plate  (d)  and  the 
enlargement  or  reduction  of  the  object  (i.e.,  the  number  of  times 
a  given  line  in  the  object  is  larger  or  smaller  in  the  image). 
Note  the  word  Hne,  because  some  prefer  to  calculate  reduction 

Fig.   J 5. 
Determination    of   Conjugate   foci. 

and  enlargement  on  the  basis  of  area,  which  introduces  diflferent 

Let  F  be  the  focal  length  of  the  lens  and  r  the  ratios  of  en- 
largement or  reduction. 

Then  the  distance  d  is  equal  to  F  plus  F  divided  by  r.  Ex- 
pressed more  shortly : 




d  =  F  plus  — . 


On  the  other  hand,  D  equals  F  plus  F  multiplied  by  r,  or 

D  =  F  plus  F  X  r. 

An  example  will  show  how  simple  this  rule  is.  Suppose  one 
wants  to  reduce  a  picture  so  that  a  twelve-inch  line  becomes  three 
inches — i.  e.,  r  =  4. 

If  a  six-inch  lens  is  being  used,  d  (camera  extension)  =6  plus 
6/4  ==  6  plus  lyi  =  73^  inches,  and  D  =  6  plus  6x4  =  6  plus 
24  =  30  inches. 

Bear  two  other  things  in  mind  which  will  help  to  use  this 
formula:  (i)  Positions  of  image  and  object  are  reversible.  If 
we  were  enlarging  3  inches  to  12  with  a  6-inch  lens  we  should 
place  the  lens  and  negative  7^  inches  apart  and  the  paper  30 
inches  apart.  (2)  The  smaller  conjugate  is  just  r  times  the 
larger,  e.g.,  7^  x  4  =  30.  This  is  always  the  case,  and  is  useful 
as  a  check  on  calculation. 


iPhoto  by    U.   S.   Signal  Corps  School  of  Photography) 

An   American-made   camera   copied   after  the   French    De   Brie.     The 
De  Brie  is  the  most  compact  of  any   model   of  Professional  camera. 

{Courtesy  of  Wilart  Instrument  Coui/^cny ) 

This  camera  is  extensively  used  in  our  school  because  of  the  various 
modern     devices     embodied     therein. 

Chapter  IV 


LONG  before  motion  pictures  were  dreamed  of,  philosophers 
and  medical  men  were  conscious  of  persistency  of  vision. 
They  knew  from  their  experiences  and  the  experiences  of 
others,  if  they  looked  at  a  bright  object,  such  as  the  sun  or  a 
lighted  lamp  and  turned  their  eyes  to  a  dark  corner  the  image,  or 
at  least  a  bright  spot,  would  remain  before  their  eyes  for  a  few 
moments.  The  brain  retained  the  illumination  that  the  eye  had 
sent  to  it  for  a  few  moments.  Experiments  proved  that  this 
persistency  of  vision  did  not  occur  in  the  retina  of  the  eye.  Close 
inspection  of  the  retina  showed  that  the  picture  projected  thereon 
by  the  lens  of  the  eye  vanished  the  instant  the  entering  ray  was 
cut  off.  Therefore  scientists  stated  definitely  that  the  illusion  was 
centered  in  the  brain.   No  further  explanation  has  been  made. 

No  human  being  or  animal  has  ever  been  known  to  be  without 
this  peculiar  trait.  No  human  being  or  animal  has  been  known 
to  lose  this  persistency  of  vision.  If  a  mortal  could  be  found 
who  did  not  possess  it,  when  looking  at  moving  pictures,  he 
would  see  not  pictures  in  motion,  but  a  number  of  "still"  or  inani- 
mate pictures  following  one  another  very  rapidly,  each  one  per- 
fectly still  for  about  a  sixteenth  of  a  second. 

Motion  pictures  are  simply  a  number  of  snapshots  run  before 
a  strong  illuminating  light  and  projected,  by  means  of  a  power- 
ful lens,  upon  a  white  screen  or  surface.  Each  picture  is  ar- 
ranged so  that  it  will  stop  for  a  fraction  of  a  second  and  then 
move  on,  succeeded  by  another  slightly  different  in  appearance. 
The  brain  retains  the  image  of  the  first  picture  and  when  the 
image  of  the  second  is  telegraphed  to  it,  by  the  sense  of  sight, 
the  two  blend  and  overlap  and  the  spectator  imagines  he  has 
seen  but  one  image. 

The  camera  in  which  the  pictures  are  taken  is  similar  to  the 
projecting  apparatus  but  instead  of  the  light  rays  being  emitted 
from  the  machine,  as  in  the  case  of  the  projecting  machine,  they 
are  gathered  in  or  admitted  through  the  lens.     The  rays   fall 



upon  a  long  strip  of  sensitized  film,  the  same  as  that  used  in  small 
hand  cameras,  made  into  a  continuous  roll  which  is  fed  past  the 
lens  intermittently  at  the  rate  of  sixteen  exposures  a  second. 
A  revolving  shutter  is  used  in  both  camera  and  projector  to 
cut  off  the  light  w^hile  the  film  is  moving  and  a  new  section  is 
being  drawn  into  position  before  the  lens. 




Diagram    of    the    mechanism    of    the    Universal    Camera.     A    single 
sprocket    camera     with     harmonic    cam    movement. 

The  motion  picture  camera  is  similar  to  the  ordinary  camera 
with  the  exception  that  it  is  provided  with  a  mechanism  for 
making  exposures  in  rapid  succession  on  a  ribbon  of  film.  Six- 
teen pictures  per  second  has  been  adopted  as  the  standard  speed 
for  taking  and  projecting  motion  pictures.  This  rate  was  adopted 
after  a  long  series  of  experiments  to  ascertain  the  least  number 


THE        MOTION        PICTURE        CAMERA 

of  pictures  necessary  to  produce  upon  the  screen  a  moving  pic- 
ture which  would  not  offend  the  eye  by  the  flicker  or  pulsation 
due  to  the  intermittent  succession  of  light  and  darkness  which 
produces  the  illusion  of  motion. 

If  the  number  of  pictures  thrown  upon  the  screen  is  less  than 
sixteen  per  second,  the  persistency  of  vision  is  not  sufficient  to 
carry  the  impression  of  light  over  the  intervening  period  of  dark- 
ness. Although  the  eye  ma}»not  be  able  to  distinguish  that  the 
light  is  completely  cut  off  while  the  next  succeeding  picture  is 
being  drawn  Into  place,  there  is  an  unpleasant  pulsation  com- 
monly called  "flicker,"  which  is  very  fatiguing  and  annoying. 
By  increasing  the  number  of  alternate  dark  and  light  periods  per 
second  the  persistency  of  vision  is  able  to  bridge  the  gap  between 
the  successive  periods  of  light  thrown  on  the  screen.  As  the 
flashes  increase  In  their  rapidity,  they  gradually  merge  Into  a 
sensation  of  continuous  light  upon  the  screen  without  perceptible 
pulsation  or  flicker. 

At  sixteen  pictures  per  second  flicker  is  very  perceptible  so 
that  many  of  the  first  cameras  made  w^ere  constructed  to  take 
many  more  than  sixteen  pictures  per  second.  Some  of  them 
made  as  many  as  sixty-four  exposures  and  used  a  film  four  times 
the  area  of  the  present  standard.  With  the  small  returns  obtain- 
able from  the  exhibition  of  motion  picture  films  in  those  days, 
this  rendered  the  expense  of  taking  motion  pictures  almost  pro- 
hibitive. The  present  narrow  width  of  film  was  adopted  to  cut 
down  expense. 

It  was  also  found  that  it  was  not  necessary  to  take  so  many 
pictures  to  produce  a  satisfactory  illusion  of  motion.  However, 
flicker  is  unpleasant  when  the  number  of  light  flashes  is  less  than 
thirty  per  second.  Sixteen  pictures  per  second  produce  a  satis- 
factory illusion  of  motion  so  Instead  of  taking  and  projecting 
thirty  or  more  pictures  per  second,  a  second  blade  or  flicker  blade 
was  placed  upon  the  shutter  of  the  projection  machine.  This 
Intercepted  the  light  for  an  instant  while  the  individual  pictures 
stood  still  upon  the  screen  so  that  there  were  two  flashes  of 
light  for  each  picture. 

Any  camera  mechanism  which  records  the  successive  pictures 
upon  the  sensitive  film  Is  satisfactory — ^there  Is  no  need  of  a 
flicker  blade  except  to  make  a  perfect  record  for  reproduction. 

It  is  highly  desirable  that  the  pictures  be  accurately  spaced  at 



the  standardized  distance  of  three-quarters  of  an  inch  apart  or 
sixteen  pictures  per  foot.  Each  successive  picture  when  thrown 
upon  the  screen  will  be  as  nearly  as  possible  in  perfect  register, 
that  is  in  exactly  the  same  place  upon  the  screen.  If  this  is  not 
done  an  unpleasant  jumpiness  or  wavering  of  the  picture  will 

In  recording,  that  is  in  photographing,  a  motion  picture  at  the 
rate  of  sixteen  per  second,  there  are  several  operations  in  making 
each  frame  or  picture  which  must  be  accomplished  in  one- 
sixteenth  part  of  a  second.  It  is  not  possible  to  utiHze  all  of 
this  sixteenth  part  of  a  second  in  making  the  exposure  because 
the  film  must  be  drawn  down  into  position  for  a  succeeding  ex- 
posure before  the  next  sixteenth  part  of  a  second.  During  this 
very  short  period  of  time  it  is  necessary  to  cut  off  the  light  from 
the  lens  by  means  of  the  shutter,  draw  the  film  down  accurately 
just  three-fourths  of  an  inch,  hold  it  in  place,  and  expose  it  to 
the  image  from  the  lens  long  enough  to  impress  that  image  upon 
the  sensitive  surface,  then  completely  cover  the  film  exposed 
in  the  frame  aperture  before  repeating  this  cycle  of  operations. 
All  must  take  place  in  the  sixteenth  part  of  a  second. 

It  will  be  appreciated  that  a  mechanism  which  fulfills  these 
conditions  must  be  accurately  and  substantially  constructed  and 
be  able  to  perform  this  cycle  of  operations  many  thousands  of 
times  without  appreciable  wear.  It  is  possible  to  construct  an 
intermittent  mechanism  which  will  draw  the  film  down  so  rapidly 
that  only  a  fifth  or  sixth  part  of  this  sixteenth  of  a  second  is 
used  in  changing  the  film,  but  such  a  mechanism  wears  out  many 
times  more  rapidly  than  one  which  takes  a  longer  time  to  pull 
the  film  down  for  the  next  exposure. 

In  constructing  a  camera,  therefore,  it  has  been  the  generally 
accepted  practice  to  use  an  intermittent  mechanism,  comparatively 
slow  in  moving  the  film  and  to  make  up  for  its  slowness  by  in- 
creasing the  "rapidity"  or  "speed"  of  the  film.  Although  these 
words  are  not  correct,  they  are  often  used  to  indicate  the  sensi- 
tiveness of  the  photographic  emulsion.  Sensitiveness  of  the  film 
is  its  ability  to  record  the  lens  image  in  a  given  time. 

There  are  many  types  of  camera  movement,  but  the  best  of 
these  is  probably  the  harmonic  cam.  This  is  often  called  the 
Lumiere,  or  the  Lumiere-Carpentier  movement,  as  it  was  first 
used  in  a  camera  of  that  name.     The  harmonic  cam  is  a  trian- 



(Courtesy    Wilart   Instrument   Company) 


(Photo  by    U.   S.   Signal  Corps  School  of  Photography) 

Wilart  Professional  Camera  mounted  on  a  Motion  Picture  Apparatus 
Company's     Precision     Ballbearing    Tripod. 

THE        MOTION        PICTURE        CAMERA 

gular  cam  with  curved  sides,  working  between  two  guides  which 
it  moves  up  and  down  as  it  revolves.  As  it  accomplishes  the 
downward  movement  of  the  fingers  in  a  third  of  a  revolution  it 
permits  of  a  larger  shutter  opening  than  any  other  movement  in 
general  use. 

The  Geneva,  or  Maltese  Cross  movement  has  been  used  in 
camera  construction,  and  while  it  gives  a  quicker  downward 
pull  of  the  film  than  the  harmonic  cam,  it  has  several  dis- 
advantages which  preclude  its  use.  In  ihe  Geneva  movement 
the  downward  draw  of  the  film  is  accomplished  in  about  an  eighth 
of  a  revolution,  but,  as  this  movement  has  four  bearing  surfaces 
which  are  liable  to  wear  unevenly  it  has  not  found  much  favor  as 
a  camera  movement.  Should  one  side,  for  instance,  wear  a  trifle 
more  than  the  other  three  sides,  every  fourth  picture  in  the 
negative  would  be  slightly  out  of  register  with  the  other  three. 
In  addition  to  this,  slight  variations  in  the  thickness  of  the  nega- 
tive film,  or  its  pliability,  cause  it  to  ride  the  intermittent  sprocket 
more  or  less  snugly,  causing  a  variation  in  the  frame  line,  or  an 
up  and  down  movement  of  the  picture. 

The  harmonic  cam,  on  the  other  hand,  revolves  once  for  each 
frame  taken.  Any  small  amount  of  wear,  being  the  same  for 
each  successive  picture,  is  not  appreciable.  This  wear  may  be 
readily  taken  up  in  most  constructions  by  loosening  two  screws 
which  hold  one  of  the  guides  between  which  the  cam  runs,  and 
the  guides  may  be  adjusted  firmly  against  the  cam.  The  shutter 
opening  with  the  Lumiere  movement  may  be  greater  than  i8o 
degrees,  which  is  much  more  than  any  other  movement  in  com- 
mon use.  The  shutter  blade  could  be  reduced  to  120  degrees 
were  it  not  for  the  fact  that  it  must  have  an  additional  width 
sufficient  to  cover  the  aperture  opening,  so  that  the  smallest 
shutter  blade  that  can  be  used  in  any  movement  is  that  fraction 
of  a  revolution  during  which  the  film  moves  downward  plus  a 
segment  wide  enough  to  completely  cover  the  aperture  opening 
from  corner  to  corner.  The  Pathe,  Prevost,  the  Universal,  the 
Gillon,  and  many  other  makes  of  cameras,  use  the  harmonic  cam. 

Almost  all  other  movements  are  some  variation  of  the  rod 
and  crank  principle.  That  is,  a  rod,  or  other  connection,  fitted 
to  a  crank  pin  on  the  shutter  shaft  actuates  the  up  and  down 
movement  of  the  claws.  Since  the  downward  movement  of  the 
crank  is  one-half  of  a  revolution,  no  rod  and  crank  motion  can 



have  as  wide  a  shutter  opening  as  the  harmonic  cam.  Some  of 
them  decrease  the  time  in  which  the  film  is  moved  down  by  having 
a  crank  whose  throw  is  greater  than  the  distance  from  picture 
to  picture,  and  use  only  a  portion  of  the  crank  throw  for  draw- 
ing the  film  down,  the  engagement  of  the  pins  or  claws  with  the 
film  taking  place  after  the  crank  has  commenced  to  move  down- 
ward and  releasing  before  the  crank  reaches  the  bottom  of  its 

There  are  many  variations  of  the  rod  and  crank  movement. 
In  the  Pittman  model  the  fingers  are  upon  springs  actuated  by  a 
crank.  The  fingers  move  in  a  circular  path  except  when  drawing 
down  the  film,  where  they  are  forced  to  subtend  a  chord  of  the 
circle  by  a  friction  plate  in  the  plane  through  which  the  film 
moves.  This  friction  plate  being  struck  i6  times  per  second  by 
the  revolving  spring  claws  makes  this  movement  a  very  noisy 
one.  In  the  Williamson  movement  a  small  arc-shaped  slot  guides 
the  pins  in  an  approximately  straight  line  during  the  period  of 
their  engagement  with  the  film.  In  other  movements  a  double 
crank  is  used,  giving  both  the  in  and  out  and  up  and  down  move- 
ment to  the  claws.  A  third  variety  of  movement  which  was 
much  used  a  few  years  ago  was  called  the  slip  claw  movement. 
In  this  movement  the  claws  were  ratchet-shaped  and  in  their 
upward  travel  slipped  along  the  perforation  as  a  pawl  slips  over 
a  ratchet. 

The  Pathe  Freres  formerly  made  an  amateur  model  which  used 
the  slip  claw  movement.  The  slip  claw  movement  has  almost  en- 
tirely gone  out  of  use  because  it  could  not  be  reversed.  No  mat- 
ter in  which  direction  the  crank  of  the  camera  was  turned  the 
slip  claws  would  pull  the  film  down  in  the  same  direction.  An 
inadvertent  throwing  back  of  the  crank,  for  even  a  fraction  of  a 
revolution,  would  cause  the  film  to  lose  its  upper  loop.  Unless 
there  was  a  great  nicety  of  adjustment  between  the  friction  at 
the  gate  and  the  pressure  of  the  spring  claws  they  were  liable  to 
push  the  film  backward  on  their  upward  travel,  causing  the 
frames  to  overlap,  thereby  making  what  is  called  a  creep  in  the 

The  in  and  out  movement,  or  the  movement  of  the  pins  in  and 
out  of  the  perforations,  is  accomplished  in  various  cameras  by 
many  different  methods.  A  positive  in  and  out  movement  is 
much  to  be  preferred  over  one  which  is  accomplished  by  some 


THE        MOTION        PICTURE        CAMERA 

sort  of  spring  pressure.  A  positive  in  and  out  movement  is  one 
in  which  the  pins  are  pressed  in  and  withdrawn  by  a  mechanical 
movement,  such  as  a  cam  or  drunken  screw.  In  the  Pathe  or 
Gillon  types  the  in  and  out  movement  is  accomplished  by  a 
drunken  screw.  A  drunken  screw  is  a  thread  having  an  ir- 
regular pitch,  the  thread  used  for  the  in  and  out  movement 
being  a  continuous  one  with  the  contours  so  placed  as  to  force 
the  pins  into  the  perforations  at  the  beginning  of  the  downward 
throw  of  the  cam  and  withdraw  them  at  the  bottom  of  the  throw. 
In  the  Prevost  movement  the  in  and  out  throw  of  the  pins  is 
accomplished  by  small  harmonic  cams  of  the  same  design  as  the 
larger  cam  which  produces  the  up  and  down  movement.  Most 
of  the  rod  and  crank  types  of  movement  have  a  cam  working 
against  a  spring  to  push  the  fingers  in  and  out,  the  cam  pressing 
the  fingers  in  and  the  spring  pushing  them  out  when  released  by 
the  cam.  It  is  possible  to  operate  a  movement  of  this  type  so 
fast  that  the  spring  does  not  have  an  opportunity  to  withdraw 
the  fingers  quickly  enough,  thereby  causing  creeping  and  losing 
of  the  loop.  The  Ememann  camera  has  a  rod  and  crank  move- 
ment with  cam  and  spring  for  the  in  and  out  finger  movement. 

There  are  many  types  of  movement  beside  those  mentioned, 
none  of  which,  however,  are  enough  in  general  use  to  justify 
discussion  here.  In  purchasing  a  camera,  therefore,  make  sure 
that  the  movement  is  some  modification  of  the  harmonic  cam 
with  a  positive  in  and  out  movement  of  the  claws.  A  second 
choice  is  one  of  the  better  types  of  rod  and  crank  movement. 
The  DeBrie  camera  is  one  of  the  highest  type  of  rod  and  crank 

As  nearly  all  parts  of  a  camera  movement  shift  backward  and 
forward  i6  times  per  second  they  are  subjected  to  a  great  deal 
of  wear.  All  of  these  parts  subject  to  wear  must,  of  course, 
be  kept  constantly  but  lightly  lubricated,  and  should  be  provided 
with  means  for  adjustment  so  that  there  is  the  least  possible 
amount  of  play  between  bearing  surfaces.  The  finger  shuttle, 
that  is  a  frame  bearing  the  fingers,  which  moves  up  and  down, 
is  carried  in  some  sort  of  guides  which  should  be  provided  with 
adjustable  gibs  for  taking  up  wear. 

The  shutter  is  the  revolving  blade  which  cuts  oflF  the  light 
from  the  lens  while  the  film  is  being  moved  downward  for  the 
next  picture,  or  exposure.     The  circular  revolving  shutter  is  so 



universally  used  in  motion  picture  cameras  that  it  is  almost  un- 
necessary to  take  any  other  type  into  consideration.  The  shutter 
should  consist  of  two  blades,  one  of  which  is  set  immovably  with 
a  minimum  area  for  keeping  the  aperture  closed  during  the  down- 
ward movement  of  the  film.  Another  blade  should  be  provided 
which  may  be  adjusted  so  as  to  decrease  the  opening  in  the  shut- 
ter by  revolving  it  past  the  fixed  blade,  so  that  the  opening  may 
be  entirely  closed  if  necessary.  While  it  is  preferable  to  use 
the  maximum  opening  of  the  shutter  in  most  instances,  there  are 
many  times  when  it  is  desirable,  for  various  reasons,  to  cut  down 
the  exposure  by  means  of  the  shutter  opening  instead  of  a  smaller 
diaphragm  opening. 

A  means  for  decreasing  the  shutter  opening  while  the  camera 
is  in  operation  is  called  a  shutter  dissolve.  By  its  employment 
are  obtained  such  effects  as  fade-outs,  fade-ins,  dissolves,  etc. 
There  are  two  types  of  shutter  dissolve,  the  automatic  and  the 
hand  operated.  In  the  automatic  dissolve  the  pressure  of  a 
button  on  the  camera  throws  a  clutch  into  operation  that  closes 
the  movable  shutter  blade  gradually  in  a  predetermined  number 
of  feet  of  film.  With  the  hand  operated  dissolve  the  shutter  may 
be  closed  gradually  by  hand  in  any  length  of  film  desired.  Gen- 
erally neither  one  of  these  features  is  provided  by  camera  manu- 
facturers, one  of  the  few  exceptions  being  the  Bell  &  Howell 
camera,  which  has  an  automatic  dissolve  incorporated  in  the 
camera  mechanism.  So  desirable  is  this  form  of  dissolve  that 
most  professional  cameramen  have  had  them  installed  in  their 
cameras  by  some  mechanic  who  makes  a  specialty  of  cinematog- 
raphic machinery.  It  is  to  be  expected  that  most  manufacturers 
will  meet  the  demand  for  this  device  in  their  later  models  of 

One  of  the  hardest  problems  for  the  student  motion  picture 
photographer  is  the  choice  of  a  camera.  The  popularity  of  motion 
pictures  has  caused  many  inventors  and  promoters  to  place  minia- 
ture or  toy  motion  picture  outfits  on  the  market.  While  such 
cameras  and  projectors  may  have  a  field  of  their  own  among 
amateurs  who  have  no  serious  intention  of  becoming  professional 
motion  picture  photographers,  they  are  of  little  use  for  any 
other  purpose. 

The  reason  for  their  existence  is  the  decreased  cost  in  their 
operation,  by  reason  of  the  very  small  film  which  they  use.     This 


TH  E       MOTION       PICTURE       CAMERA 

puts  them  within  the  reach  of  those  who  could  not  otherwise 
afford  the  expense  of  private  production.  In  some  cases,  they 
may  be  a  boon  to  a  student  with  professional  aspirations  whose 
financial  position  will  not  permit  the  purchase  of  apparatus  using 
standard  film.  In  general,  however,  the  use  of  toy  or  miniature 
picture  apparatus  by  those  for  whom  the  contents  of  this  book 
are  intended,  is  strongly  deprecated.  In  the  first  place,  cheap 
cameras  using  standard  film  may  be  purchased  for  the  same  price 
as  a  good  miniature  camera.  In  the  second  place,  there  is  always 
a  chance  that  the  owner  or  user  of  a  standard  camera  may  be 
able  to  dispose  of  his  production  in  some  commercial  way.  On 
the  other  hand,  there  is  no  chance  for  the  operator  of  the  minia- 
ture camera  to  obtain  any  financial  return  of  the  expenditure 
which  he  has  made. 

By  judicious  forethought,  the  owner  of  a  standard  camera 
may  conduct  his  exf)eriments  with  very  short  lengths  of  film, 
using  only  a  foot  or  two  at  a  time.  The  cost  of  material  need 
not  influence  even  those  whose  financial  restrictions  are  most 

It  must  be  understood  that  the  purchase  of  a  cheap  camera 
for  serious  work  is  not  recommended.  By  all  means,  purchase 
the  highest  grade  of  camera  that  your  means  will  allow.  Gen- 
erally speaking,  the  price  of  a  camera  is  in  fairly  direct  propor- 
tion to  the  quality  of  work  which  it  will  produce.  A  cheap 
camera  produces  poor  work  because  the  manufacturer  cannot 
afford  to  put  accurate  workmanship  into  it.  On  the  other  hand, 
some  of  the  better  makes  of  the  cheaper  cameras  will  produce 
pictures  for  certain  purposes,  which  are  almost,  if  not  quite,  as 
satisfactory  as  those  made  by  a  much  higher  priced  instrument. 
It  would  be  ridiculous  for  a  man  who  expected  to  use  his  camera 
only  for  taking  a  few  topical  events  for  exhibition  in  a  local 
theatre  to  buy  an  expensive  studio  outfit  with  an  equipment  of 
lenses,  diaphragms,  hoods  and  dissolves,  when  a  cheaper  camera 
would  do  perfectly  well  for  his  purpose. 

So  many  different  types  and  brands  of  cameras  have  been 
placed  on  the  market  that  it  is  not  possible  to  give  a  description 
of  all  of  them  here,  but  most  of  the  principal  types  are  shown  in 
the  illustrations  and  the  reader  must  depend  upon  his  judgment 
in  selecting  the  type  of  instrument  best  adapted  to  his  re- 



The  ease  or  difficulty  with  which  the  film  may  be  threaded 
through  the  camera  has  an  important  bearing  upon  its  usefulness. 
As  a  rule,  a  camera  of  a  straight  line  threading,  that  is  one  in 
which  there  are  no  twists  in  the  film  in  its  passage  through  the 
camera,  is  the  simplest  and  most  desirable.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  more  compact  models,  in  which  the  retorts  are  placed  side 
by  side,  cannot  be  threaded  without  a  twist  in  the  film. 

The  general  rule  for  threading  the  camera  is  as  follows : 

Place  the  feed  retort  in  position. 

Pull  out  as  much  film  as  is  needed  to  thread  the  camera. 

Pass  the  film  over  the  feed  sprocket  and  open  the  gate. 

Place  the  film  smoothly  between  the  side  guides  with  the 
emulsion  towards  the  lens. 

Close  the  gate  carefully  and  latch,  leaving  a  loop  of  film  be- 
tween the  feed  sprocket  and  the  upper  portion  of  the  gate  large 
enough  so  that  pulling  the  film  down  in  the  gate  for  six  perfora- 
tions will  not  draw  the  loop  taut  between  the  sprocket  and  the 
top  of  the  gate,  and  yet  not  so  large  that  the  loop  will  strike  any 
portion  of  the  camera  mechanismi. 

Then  leave  another  similar  loop  at  the  bottom  of  the  gate. 

Carry  the  film  around  the  take-up  sprocket  beneath  the  rollers, 
through  the  light  trap  in  the  retort  to  the  spool  in  the  take-up 
sprocket  and  the  take-up  spool. 

Fasten  the  cover  of  the  take-up  magazine. 

Give  the  handle  a  turn  to  see  that  the  film  is  feeding  through 
properly  and  close  the  camera. 

The  film  in  the  feed  retort  must  be  wound  so  that  when  the 
retort  is  in  place  the  film  is  threaded  properly,  the  emulsion  side 
of  the  film  in  the  gate  toward  the  lens.  In  straight  line  thread- 
ing the  loop  is  not  a  true  loop  but  only  a  slackness  in  the  film 
to  provide  for  a  quick  downward  movement  of  that  portion  of 
the  film  within  the  gate  when  it  is  dragged  down  by  the  claws. 

In  cameras  with  the  magazines  side  by  side  a  true,  or  return, 
loop  must  be  made  in  the  film  between  the  feed  sprocket  and  the 
gate  and  between  the  gate  and  the  take-up  sprocket.  Types  of 
the  double  return  loop  threading  are  found  in  the  DeBrie,  Pathe 
Portable  and  Newman  &  Sinclair  cameras. 

The  Prevost,  carrying  its  magazines  side  by  side  on  top  of  the 
camera,  is  an  exception,  the  feed  magazine  being  directly  above 
the  feed  sprocket  and  gate,  feeds  downward  in  a  straight  line 



S.  M.  UWHUN. 

fniCATIOI    nifO    MAT  21.   19 

Patented  Apr.  29. 1919 



(An   imiirovenieiit   over   Mr.    Lavvluni's   former   patent.     See   diagram.) 









I— I 




THE       MOTION        PICTURE       CAMERA 

and  simple  loop  into  the  gate.  From  the  bottom  of  the  gate 
it  goes  upward  and  to  the  right  in  a  long  single  loop,  without  a 
twist,  to  the  take-up  sprocket,  where  it  feeds  directly  into  the 
take-up  retort.  The  return,  or  true,  loop  is  the  same  sort  of  a 
loop  as  would  be  formed  by  wrapping  a  piece  of  film  in  a  spiral 
direction  about  a  round  object,  while  the  simple  loop  of  straight 
threading  is  merely  a  slackness  in  the  film  without  any  other 
twist  or  turn. 

In  addition  to  the  simple  directions  given  here  there  are  a 
number  of  variations  in  different  cameras  which  provide  rollers 
for  guiding  the  film  in  various  directions.  For  example,  in  the 
old  style  Gillon  a  roller  is  provided  which  brings  the  film  in  a 
straight  line  from  the  feed  retort,  from  whence  it  passes  over 
another  roller  before  passing  to  the  feed  sprocket ;  the  object  of 
the  second  roller  being  to  engage  the  film  around  a  greater  part 
of  the  circumference  of  the  feed  sprocket,  in  which  only  two 
teeth  would  engage  the  film  around  a  greater  arc  of  the  sprocket's 


Chapter  V 


TECHNICAL  terms  used  in  photography  are  often  puzzling 
to  the  amateur,  particularly  those  terms  which  relate  to 
the  science  of  optics.  The  following  glossary  of  optical 
terms  has  been  prepared  to  give  general  information  as  to  the 
descriptive  words  and  phrases  in  ordinary  use. 

Equivalent  focal  length.  Focal  plane,  is  the  plane  in  which  a 
far  distant  object  is  imaged  by  the  lens.  The  line  drawn  per- 
pendicularly through  the  center  of  the  lens  is  its  Optical  Axis; 
the  point  at  which  the  Focal  Plane  intersects  the  Optical  Axis, 
the  Focal  Point  of  the  lens. 

The  Focal  Length  of  a  lens  is  the  value  upon  which  depends 
the  size  of  the  images  produced  by  that  lens.  Its  magnitude  can 
be  determined  only  by  comparing  the  size  of  a  given  object  with 
its  image  as  formed  by  the  lens.  The  distance  of  the  object, 
unless  very  great,  must  also  be  considered. 

For  far  distant  objects  the  size  of  the  image  is  in  direct  pro- 
portion to  the  focal  length.  A  lens  of  12-inch  focal  length  will 
produce  an  image  of  a  distant  steeple  twice  as  large  as  the  image 
formed  by  a  lens  of  6-inch  focal  length. 

Back  Focus  is  the  distance  from  the  focal  point  to  the  rear 
surface  of  the  lens.  In  very  thin  lenses,  this  back  focus  is  equal 
to  the  focal  length.  In  lenses  of  considerable  thickness  and  in 
combinations  of  lenses,  the  back  focus  cannot  be  relied  upon  as 
any  indication  of  the  value  of  the  focal  length.  The  focal  length 
of  such  a  lens  is  equal  to  the  focal  length  of  a  thin  lens,  which 
gives  an  image  equivalent  in  size  to  the  one  formed  by  the  com- 
bination lens,  hence  the  term  Equivalent  Focal  Length. 

In  using  short  focus  cinematographic  lenses  it  is  important  to 
know  both  the  back  and  the  equivalent  foci,  since  the  construction 
of  some  makes  of  motion  picture  cameras  is  such  that  the  re- 
volving shutter  has  not  been  placed  close  enough  to  the  aperture 
to  admit  a  lens  of  very  short  back  focus  without  interfering  with 
the  shutter  blades. 


(Photo  by  U.  S.  Signal  Corps  School  of  Fhotcgraphy) 

Lt.   Charles   Downs,    S.   C.    U.    S.   A.,   operating      a   Bell   and    Howell 

Canieia.     The  Bell  and  Howell  Camera  is  all  metal  and  has  a  turret 

w'hich   holds   four   lenses   of   different   focal    lengths. 


The  installation  of  a  35  mm.  lens  often  demands  considerable 
alteration  in  a  cine  camera,  not  only  of  the  shutter,  but  of  the 
front  board  as  well,  since  the  lens  flange  ordinarily  used  with 
lenses  of  longer  focal  length  is  apt  to  cut  off  the  comers  of  the 

On  account  of  the  exaggerated  perspective,  lenses  of  extremely 
short  focus  are  not  recommended  for  use  except  where  limited 
space  prevents  the  use  of  a  lens  of  sufficient  focal  length  to 
give  a  normal  perspective. 

In  the  majority  of  photographic  lenses  the  equivalent  focal 
length  is  greater  than  the  back  focus,  an  exception  being  found 
in  single  meniscus  or  single  concavo-convex  combinations,  which 
are  practically  never  used  as  cine  lenses  where  the  back  focus  is 
the  longer. 

By  measuring  back  from  the  focal  point  a  distance  equal  to 
the  equivalent  focal  length,  we  find  the  position  of  the  so-called 
optical  center  of  the  lens,  which  is  nearly  always  near  the  dia- 

Angle  of  mew  is  the  angle  under  which  the  diameter  of  the 
circular  area  covered  sharply  by  the  lens  appears  from  the  center 
of  the  lens.  If  the  largest  plate,  which  the  lens  covers  sharply, 
is  used,  the  angle  of  view  is  equal  to  the  angle  under  which  the 
diagonal  of  the  plate  appears  from  the  center  of  the  lens.  The 
angle  of  view  increases  with  the  increase  of  the  focus  of  the 
lens  or  the  same  size  plate.  Lenses  for  general  purposes  are 
calculated  for  an  angle  of  about  60°.  Lenses  covering  75°  to 
100°  are  termed  Wide  Angle  Lenses.  Wide  angle  lenses  have 
necessarily  shorter  foci  than  other  lenses  rated  for  the  same  plate. 

As  a  motion  picture  is  customarily  viewed  at  a  distance 
relatively  greater  than  a  still  photo  the  angle  of  view  averaging 
nearest  normal  is  about  28°,  using  the  base  and  not  the  diagonal 
of  the  picture  as  a  basis  for  calculation.  This  is  the  angle  sub- 
tended by  a  two-inch  lens  on  the  standard  ^  by  i  inch  aperture 
or  picture  frame.  Lenses  of  shorter  focus  than  this  are  termed 
wide  angle,  although  the  angle  of  view  is  still  not  so  great  as 
that  found  in  many  still  pictures  which  are  taken  with  lenses 
which  would  be  far  from  being  considered  wide  angle  for  an  or- 
dinary photograph. 

The  circular  area  which  is  covered  by  the  lens  on  the  ground 
glass  is  called  its  image  circle,  and  Its  diarrteter  is  expressed  in 
linear  measure  (inches  or  centimeters). 



Effective  aperture  is  measured  by  the  diameter  of  the  beam  of 
light  admitted  by  the  lens.  The  effective  aperture  is  not,  as  often 
thought,  equal  to  the  diameter  of  the  front  lens,  nor  is  it  equal 
to  the  linear  diameter  of  the  diaphragm  opening  used.  It  equals 
the  diameter  of  the  diaphragm  as  it  appears  when  observed 
through  the  front  lens;  therefore,  the  effective  aperture  cannot 
be  found  by  unscrewing  the  front  lens  and  measuring  the  actual 
diameter  of  the  diaphragm.  Only  in  the  case  of  a  landscape  lens, 
or  meniscus,  where  the  diaphragm  is  placed  in  front  of  the  lens, 
is  the  effective  aperture  expressed  by  the  linear  diameter  of 
the  diaphragm. 

The  actual  diameter  of  the  effective  aperture  may  be  obtained 
by  placing  a  piece  of  developing  paper  against  the  glass  of  the 
front  combination  of  the  lens  and  exposing  it  through  the  lens. 
The  diameter  of  the  round  black  spot  obtained  by  developing  the 
paper  is  that  of  the  effective  aperture  of  the  lens. 

The  effective  aperture  varies,  of  course,  with  the  size  of  the 
diaphragm  opening. 

Relative  aperture  is  a  fraction  which  expresses  the  ratio  of 
effective  aperture  to  focal  length ;  for  instance,  relative  aperture 
of  1 :6.3  means  that  the  focal  length  is  6.3  times  greater  than 
the  effective  aperture.  The  denominator  of  the  fraction,  in  this 
instance  the  figure  6.3,  is  called  the  F  value.  If  the  relative  aper- 
ture is  known,  the  effective  aperture  can  be  found  by  multiplying 
the  relative  by  the  focus.  For  example:  F:i6o;  relative  aper- 
ture =  1 :8;  effective  aperture  =  160  x  i  :S  =  20.  The  relative 
aperture  is  a  term  of  greatest  value  and  convenience  in  judging 
the  time  of  exposure.  All  lenses  of  the  same  relative  aperture, 
no  matter  what  their  focus  may  be,  require  the  same  exposure 
under  the  same  conditions.  An  exception  will  be  mentioned 
under  the  heading  "Depth  of  Focus." 

The  exposure  necessary  for  different  relative  apertures  can  be 
found  easily  because  they  are  proportionate  to  the  square  of  the 
F  values.  For  instance,  if  two  lenses  are  compared  with  the 
relative  apertures  i  4  and  i  :8  respectively,  the  squares  of  F 
values  are  16  and  64  respectively,  which  means  that  the  1 :8  re- 
quires four  times  as  long  exposure  as  the  1 4  lens,  since 
64/16  =  4.  This,  of  course,  holds  true  also  in  comparing  the 
different  stops. 

Speed.     The  relative  aperture  is  very  commonly  called  the 



speed  of  the  lens,  although  speeds  of  two  lenses  are  not  propor- 
tionate to  their  relative  apertures,  but  to  the  squares  of  the 
aperatures.  In  other  words,  a  lens  with  the  speed  of  i  4  is  not 
twice  as  fast  as  a  lens  with  the  speed  of  i  :8,  but  four  times  so, 
as  the  comparison  of  the  squares  of  their  relative  apertures 
1/16  and  1/64  shows. 

There  are  two  methods  of  designating  lens  stops,  znz:  the 
so-called  F  System  of  the  Royal  Photographic  Society,  wherein 
the  stop  is  expressed  by  fractions  of  the  focal  length,  and  the 
U.  S.  (Uniform  System),  in  which  every  following  stop  requires 
a  doubling  of  the  exposure  or  represents  half  the  speed  of  the 
foregoing,  the  exposure  required  with  F  4  being  taken  as  the 

Comparison  between  the  F  system  and  the  U.  S.  (Uniform 
System)  of  Stops: 

F.   System F:4   F:4.5   F:5.6   F:6.3    F:8   F:11.3    F:16   F:22.6    F:33 

U.  S.  System...        1        1.2        2  .2.5        4  8  16        32  64 

The  above  table  gives  the  comparative  stops  in  the  two  systems 
and  shows  at  the  same  time  the  exposure  values  of  the  different 
stops  in  the  F  system.  For  instance,  F  111.3  requires  four  times 
as  long  as  F  15.6;  and  F  :32,  an  exposure  sixteen  times  longer  than 
F  :8,  since  S/2  =  4  and  64/4  =  16. 

At  first  glance  it  would  seem  that  the  U.  S.  system  would  be 
the  more  convenient  one  to  use  since  it  gives  the  relative  exposure 
direct,  but  in  practice  it  is  really  just  as  simple  to  use  the  F 
system  if  it  is  well  fixed  in  the  mind  that  each  succeeding  F 
number  as  customarily  marked  on  the  lens  barrel  is  half  the 
speed  of  the  preceding  one.  Wherever  any  calculation  is  in- 
volved the  F  number  is  the  one  used  and  a  U.  S.  number  must 
first  be  resolved  to  its  F  equivalent  to  obtain  a  result.  The 
U.  S.  is  becoming  obsolete  except  on  some  of  the  simpler  hand 
cameras  with  low  grade  lenses. 

Depth  of  focus.  Very  closely  connected  with  the  speed  of 
a  lens  is  its  depth  of  focus.  All  well-corrected  lenses  image 
only  one  plane  of  the  object  space  sharply.  The  reason  why  a 
lens  focused  at  a  house  images  also  with  sufficient  sharpness, 
a  horse  in  front  and  a  tree  back  of  it,  is  that  a  slight  racking  out 
of  focus  will  not  cause  an  indistinctness  great  enough  to  be  notice- 
able to  the  eye.     The  range  of  sharpness  forward  and  back  of 



the  object  is  called  "depth  of  focus"  or  "depth  of  field."  It  de- 
pends on  several  factors,  viz:  the  focal  length  of  the  lens,  the 
aperture  used  (consequently  its  speed),  the  distance  of  the  object, 
and  the  amount  or  lack  of  sharpness  which  seems  permissible 
to  the  operator.  Of  these  factors,  focal  length,  aperture  and 
distance  are  definite  numerical  values. 

That  the  amount  of  indistinctness  permissible  on  the  picture 
is  susceptible  of  numerical  expression  is  easily  seen  from  the 
following:  If  an  object  at  a  given  distance  is  in  sharp  focus,  the 

D  is  the  Depth  of  Field  and  is   that  distance  between  two  planes 

within    which    all    objects    are    rendered    reasonably    sharp    on    the 

ground    glass.     It    varies    directly    as    the   /;    value    and    inversely 

as  the  focal  length. 

light  issuing  from  a  point  of  that  object  is  converged  to  a  point 
on  the  plate.  Light  issuing  from  a  point  in  the  original  object 
will  also  be  converged  to  a  point,  but  not  on  the  plate,  the  cone 
of  light  showing  in  either  case  a  circular  patch  of  light  on  the 
plate.  This  circle  of  light  is  known  as  the  "circle  of  confusion." 
Its  diameter  can  be  used  to  express  the  amount  of  indistinctness 
existing  in  a  picture.  If  the  circle  of  confusion  is  not  greater 
than  i/io  mm.  or  1/250  inch,  it  would  appear  as  a  point  to  an 
eye  10  inches  away,  hence,  an  object  no  point  of  which  is  imaged 
by  a  circle  larger  than  i/io  mm.  would  appear  sharp. 

No  matter  what  their  type  of  construction  may  be,  all  lenses 
of  the  same  equivalent  foci  and  the  same  relative  aperture  require 
the  same  exposure — that  is,  have  the  same  speed,  other  condi- 
tions being  equal.     They  will  have  the  same  depth  also. 

The  depth  of  focus  decreases:  i.  with  increase  of  focal 
length;  2.  with  increase  of  relative  aperture  (speed);  3.  with 
increasing  nearness  of  object. 

Of  two  lenses  of  equivalent  foci,  the  one  with  the  lower  rela- 
tive aperture  (sp«ed)  has  the  greater  depth  of  field.    On  the 

V  68 


Other  hand,  if  the  focal  length  of  the  lens  is  very  short,  a  speed 
as  high  as  F:  4.5  will  allow  bringing  every  object  from  10  feet 
to  infinity  to  a  sharp  focus,  while  a  studio  lens  of  long  focus  and 
the  same  speed  may  not  even  image  an  object  of  the  depth  of 
a  head  sharply  within  the  range  of  the  length  of  a  studio. 

Speed,  great  focal  length  and  depth  of  focus  cannot  be  com- 
bined in  the  same  lens.  This  is  an  unalterable  law  of  optics.  If 
speed  be  the  most  desirable  quality,  depth  of  focus  must  be  sac- 
rificed ;  if  depth  of  focus,  speed.  This  does  not  detract  from  the 
value  of  fast  lenses,  because  with  a  given  lens  the  depth  of  focus 
can  be  increased  by  diaphragming  down  the  lens  which  means  re- 
duction of  speed.  If  a  short  exposure  demands  the  use  of  the 
lens  wide  open,  one  must  not  expect  great  depth  of  focus.  Under 
ordinary  conditions  of  light  and  distance,  with  fair  judgment,  and 
with  lenses  not  too  long  in  focus,  these  opposing  qualities  may  be 
happily  combined,  so  that  lack  of  depth  is  hardly  perceptible. 

Some  apparent  exceptions  may  be  stated,  for  instance,  a  lens 
which  produces  images  of  general  "softness,"  i.e.,  a  lens  in 
which  the  aberrations  are  not  corrected  to  the  utmost  perfec- 
tion. Such  lenses,  which  lack  snap  and  brilliancy,  may  show 
greater  depth  of  focus  than  a  first-class  lens.  There  is  less 
difference  between  the  "sharpest"  focus  and  the  image  of  objects 
forward  and  back  of  it,  simply  because  the  "sharpest"  focus  itself 
is  not  really  sharp.  Thus  the  statement  that  one  lens  has  a 
greater  depth  of  focus  than  others  of  the  same  aperture  and 
focus,  must  be  regarded  as  rather  detrimental  to  the  lens,  for  as 
stated  above,  depth  of  focus  cannot  be  made  subject  to  special 

Another  case  may  be  mentioned  in  which  one  lens  may  really 
have  an  advantage  over  another  in  regard  to  depth  of  focus. 
In  some  camera  constructions  correction  of  astigmatism  is  ob- 
tained at  a  great  sacrifice  of  simplicity  by  employing  an  unusual 
number  of  lenses  separated  by  air  spaces.  There  is  a  certain  loss 
of  light  by  reflection  on  a  lens  surface  and  it  is  easily  intelligible 
that  the  fewer  reflecting  surfaces  in  a  lens,  the  smaller  the  loss 
of  light.  In  some  constructions  the  number  of  the  lens  surfaces 
runs  as  high  as  ten,  while  the  Tessar  contains  only  six.  The 
consequence  is  that  the  lens  with  the  greater  number  of  reflecting 
surfaces  requires  a  longer  exposure  than  a  lens  of  simple  con- 
struction, although  both  may  have  the  same  relative  aperture. 



Or  to  express  it  differently :  the  lens  with  the  greater  number  of 
reflections  requires  an  aperture  of  F:6.3  with  a  certain  time  of 
exposure,  while  the  other  lens  will  give  a  negative  of  equal 
density  with  its  aperture  stopped  down  to  Y\j.2  or  F:7.5,  which 
means  a  gain  in  depth  of  focus  for  the  lens  with  the  smaller  num- 
ber of  reflecting  surfaces. 

Cinematograph  lenses  are  usually  made  with  the  smallest  num- 
ber of  reflecting  surfaces  consistent  with  the  requisite  correction. 
They  are  also  slightly  faster  than  larger  lenses  of  equal  aperture 
because  their  small  size  makes  the  glass  to  be  traversed  by  the 
light  much  thinner. 

Spherical  Aberration.  Owing  to  the  fact  that  lenses  are  made 
wath  spherical  curves,  all  single  collective  lenses  have  the  defect 
of  imaging  an  object  through  their  marginal  zone  at  a  shorter 
focus  than  through  their  central  zone.  Such  a  lens  may 
give  a  sharp  image  with  a  small  central  diaphragm,  and  a  sharp 
image  as  well  if  the  center  is  covered  with  a  round  opaque 
stop  so  that  only  an  annular  zone  around  the  margin  comes  into 
action.  But  both  images  will  not  lie  in  the  same  plane,  nor  will 
they  be  of  the  same  size.  Even  if  a  lens  is  spherically  corrected, 
so  that  the  parallel  rays  penetrating  the  lens  near  the  optical  axis 
and  those  going  through  the  lens  near  the  margin  come  to  exactly 
the  same  focus,  there  may  be  a  slight  remnant  of  spherical  aber- 
ration in  the  zone  between  center  and  margin.  Small  remnants 
of  this  kind  (so-called  Zonal  Errors)  are  found  in  almost  all 
photographic  lenses,  especially  of  the  cemented  symmetrical  type. 
The  unsymmetrical  combination  upon  which  the  Tessar  con- 
struction is  based,  allows  a  better  correction  of  the  zonal  errors 
than  any  other  known  construction.  The  greater  the  relative 
aperture  (speed  of  the  lens),  the  greater  the  task  to  correct  the 
spherical  aberration  for  all  zones  of  the  lens. 

Unsatisfactory  spherical  correction  is  indicated  either  by  a 
general  indistinctness  of  the  image  or  by  a  fairly  sharp  image, 
which  is  entirely  covered  by  halo  (fog).  Stopping  down  the 
aperture  may  improve  the  performance  of  a  badly  corrected  ob- 

Coma.  The  spherical  aberration  of  pencils  of  light  going 
through  the  lens  in  oblique  direction  is  called  coma.  This  mani- 
fests itself  in  the  fact  that  although  objects  in  the  center  of  the 
field  appear  perfectly  defined,  objects  outside  the  center  show  a 



one-sided  indistinctness  which  increases  toward  the  margin  of  the 
field,  and  in  the  image  of  a  point-shaped  object  assumes  the  form 
of  a  tail  like  a  comet,  wherefrom  this  aberration  takes  its  name. 
Stopping  down  reduces  the  amount  of  coma. 

Astigmatism  is  that  aberration  which  withstood  longest  the 
efforts  of  the  opticians.  A  lens  which  is  not  corrected  for 
astigmatism  will  not  image  sharply  horizontal  and  vertical  lines 
at  the  same  time  near  the  margin  of  the  plate,  although  the 
center  of  the  image  may  be  perfect.  This  aberration  is  in- 
herent in  narrow  pencils  of  light,  so  that  stopping  down  the  lens 
will  not  decrease  the  amount  of  astigmatism  to  the  same  degree 
that  it  decreases  other  uncorrected  aberrations. 


In  the  absence  of  a  test  chart  a  very  simple  test  for  astigmatism 
may  be  made  by  focusing  on  the  joints  of  a  brick  wall.  No 
matter  how  much  the  lens  may  be  racked  in  or  out,  both  horizon- 
tal and  vertical  lines  will  never  be  sharply  defined  at  the  same 
time  near  the  margin  of  the  plate. 

Curvature  of  Field.  The  ordinary  lens  images  a  flat  object, 
not  in  a  plane,  but  in  a  spheroidal  surface,  so  that  when  the 
center  of  the  image  is  focused  sharp,  the  ground  glass  has  to  be 
brought  nearer  to  the  lens  to  obtain  a  sharp  image  of  an  object 
point  near  the  margin  of  the  plate. 

It  Is  only  In  recent  years  that  It  Is  possible  to  correct  astigma- 
tism, together  with  the  curvature  of  field  In  lenses  of  high  speed. 
Lenses  which  are  free   from  spherical  aberration   for  a  large 



aperture  and  produce  a  flat  image  free  from  astigmatism,  are 
called  "Anastigmats,"  the  prefix  "an"  meaning  "without,"  hence, 
without  astigmatism. 

Distortion  is  that  fault  of  a  lens  which  prevents  the  render- 
ing of  straight  lines  as  such.  The  straight  lines  are  repro- 
duced as  curves.  All  single  lenses  used  with  a  diaphragm 
in  front  (landscape  lenses)  are  subject  to  this  defect  in  some 
degree.    The  distortion  is   called  "cushion-shaped,"  when  the 



curves  are  concave,  and  "barrel  shaped,"  when  the  curves  are 
convex  toward  the  margin  of  the  plate. 

Lenses  which  are  free  from  distortion  are  called  rectiUnear. 

A  lens  which  distorts  cannot  be  improved  by  using  smaller 

Distortion  has  nothing  to  do  with  curvature  of  field.  The 
image  can  be  properly  flat  and  the  definition  perfect,  and  yet 
straight  lines  may  be  distorted  into  curves. 

Chromatic  aberration  is  due  to  the  fact  that  in  a  lens,  unless 
corrected  from  chromatic  aberration,  the  visual  rays  which  form 



the  image  seen  on  the  ground  glass  do  not  form  the  images  at 
the  same  position  as  the  actinic  or  chemical  rays,  which  aifect 
the  sensitive  plate.  Since  the  image  is  focused  with  rays  for 
which  the  eye  is  most  sensitive,  the  image  formed  by  the  rays 
for  which  the  plate  is  most  sensitive  will  fall  outside  of  the  visual 
focus  (focal  point),  and  therefore  must  be  blurred  on  the  plate. 
Of  course  all  photographic  lenses  which  are  of  any  value  at  all 
must,  first  of  all,  be  corrected  for  chromatic  aberration.  An 
objective  which  has  chromatic  aberration  is  sometimes  said  to 
have  chemical  focus. 




U — Focal  plane  of  Violet  Rays 
R — Focal   plane   of   Red   Rays. 

This  is  not  an  uncommon  defect  in  cinematograph  lenses,  but 
may  easily  be  tested  for  by  focusing  upon  coarse  printed  matter 
with  other  placards  at  varying  distances  before  and  beyond  the 
one  focused  upon.  If  any  of  the  placards  film  clearer  than 
the  one  focused  upon  it  is  plain  proof  that  the  visual  and  chemi- 
cal foci  do  not  coincide. 

Definition  is  that  quality  which  enables  a  lens  to  produce 
sharp  and  crisp  images,  and  its  presence  in  an  objective  is 
a  proof  of  exact  workmanship  as  well  as  careful  computation. 
The  best  workmanship  will  be  wasted  in  a  lens  not  well  designed, 
and  bad  workmanship  will  annihilate  the  best  computer's  skill. 
If  the  various  defects  and  aberrations  are  corrected  and  the  work- 
man has  done  everything  to  carry  out  the  designer's  ideas,  the 



lens  will  give  at  full  aperture  a  flat  and  sharply  cut  image  over 
the  entire  area  covered.  The  area  covered  with  perfection  is 
sometimes  called  area  of  critical  definition.  Since  most  of  the 
aberrations  depend  upon  the  opening  of  the  lens,  the  definition 
may  be  improved  in  some  cases  by  reducing  the  opening  at  the 
sacrifice  of  speed. 

Illumination.  We  speak  of  even  illumination  when  the  margin 
of  the  plate  receives  as  much  light  as  the  center,  and  the  negative 
shows  an  even  density  over  its  entire  surface.  A  perfectly 
even  illumination  is  only  possible  with  small  stops,  especially 
when  a  larger  plate  than  the  lens  is  rated  for,  is  used.  All 
speed  lenses  when  used  with  full  aperture,  show  more  or  less 
drop  in  the  illumination  (vignetting)  toward  the  margin  of 
the  field  covered. 

This  vignetting  or  cutting  of  oblique  rays  by  the  lens  barrel  is 
apt  to  show  quite  plainly  in  pictures  taken  at  large  aperture  with 
extreme  short  focus  cine  lenses.  To  get  a  full  exposure  at  the 
edges  may  even  require  a  slightly  larger  diaphragm  opening  than 
is  needed  with  a  lens  of  longer  focus  where  the  vignetting  effect 
is  imperceptible  within  the  small  area  of  the  aperture  plate. 

Covering  Power  is  expressed  by  the  area  which  the  evenly 
illuminated  flat  field  covers  with  perfect  definition.  It  depends 
upon  the  diameter  of  the  lenses  and  on  the  degree  to  which  the 
different  aberrations  are  corrected  and  may,  in  some  cases,  be 
increased  by  using  smaller  stops. 

The  greater  the  relative  aperture  and  the  greater  the  covering 
power,  the  more  valuable  the  lens. 

Flare  Spots.  Occasionally  a  negative  will  show  a  nebulous 
patch  of  light  covering  shadows  and  high  lights  alike.  Such 
patches  are  called  flare  spots  or  ghosts.  They  are  formed  by 
light  reflected  within  the  lens,  at  the  lens  surfaces  bounding 
air  spaces.  It  may  be  stated  as  a  rule  that  every  lens  having  an 
air  space  will  show  a  flare  spot  under  some  conditions.  Al- 
though it  is  possible  to  so  adjust  the  curvature  and  direction  of 
the  lens  surfaces  that  the  flare  spot  is  spread  over  nearly  the 
whole  plate  (therefore  not  noticeable)  this  generally  could  be  ac- 
complished only  by  sacrificing  more  important  corrections. 

Before  it  can  be  said  that  one  lens  is  superior  to  another  with 
respect  to  flare  spot  formation,  the  two  lenses  must  be  thoroughly 



tried  out  under  a  great  variety  of  conditions  of  illumination. 
Generally  it  will  be  found  that  if  a  lens  shows  a  flare  spot  and 
another  of  different  construction  does  not,  by  changing  condi- 
tions, the  second  lens  will  show  a  flare  spot  and  the  first  will  not. 

Very  small  stops  may  show  flare  spots  when  larger  stops  do 

Flare  spots  are  most  apt  to  appear  when  photographing  an 
object  against  a  strong  light  and  least  apt  to  appear  when  the 
light  is  coming  from  back  of  the  camera. 

A  condition  resembling  flare  is  apt  to  occur  in  a  dirty  lens  par- 
ticularly from  almost  imperceptible  spots  from  oil  spattered  by 
the  camera  mechanism  or  from  finger  prints.  Moral :  Examine 
the  lens  frequently  and  keep  it  immaculately  clean  and  well 

Flare  will  occur  with  the  best  of  lenses  if  strong  extraneous 
light  is  allowed  to  strike  the  lens.  Moral  number  two :  Use  a 
lens  hood. 


Chapter  VI 

THE  first  requisite  for  obtaining  a  sharply  defined  image  on 
cine  film  is  focusing  the  lens  accurately.  The  poorest 
lens  made  will  make  a  sharper  image  at  its  focus  than  the 
best  lens  made  which  is  out  of  focus. 

Most  cinematographers  are  prone  to  focus  each  scene  upon 
the  ground  glass  or  upon  the  film  for  every  different  set  up  of 
the  camera  and  many  even  focus  between  scenes  in  the  same  set 
taken  at  the  same  distance.  This  is  decidedly  wrong  and  a  grievous 
waste  of  valuable  time.  Often  the  cameraman  has  used  from  five 
to  fifteen  minutes  of  the  entire  producing  company's  valuable 
time  in  obtaining  an  accurate  focus. 

This  is  not  a  criticism  of  the  photographer  who  composes  his 
picture  on  the  film  aperture,  although  many  also  take  an  unneces- 
sarily long  time  for  that  operation. 

The  fact  of  the  matter  is  that  no  man  can  focus  as  accurately 
every  time  as  a  well  mounted  lens  can  be  calibrated  for  focus 
and  the  cameraman  who  has  not  taken  the  time  to  accurately 
scale  his  lens  must  be  very  inefficient  in  focusing.  Many  of  them 
do  not  seem  to  know  that  the  focal  distance  of  the  lens  is  always 
the  same  for  any  object  at  a  given  distance  from  the  camera. 
Others  are  content  to  work  with  a  camera  so  ramshackle  that 
even  if  they  were  to  calibrate  their  lens  mount  it  would  not 
work  the  same  two  days  in  succession.  A  tape  line  measure- 
ment from  the  front  of  the  camera  takes  but  a  moment  and  with 
the  lens  properly  scaled  on  a  solid  mount  the  photographer  is 
always  sure  of  a  sharp  focus. 

The  scale  is  almost  indispensable  to  the  topical  operator  whose 
work  must  often  be  made  on  the  jump.  He  can  soon  learn  to 
estimate  with  his  eyes  within  a  few  inches  or  feet  of  the  distance 
of  the  principal  figure  that  he  is  taking.  A  few  feet  away  from 
the  camera  the  depth  of  focus  is  so  great  that  it  is  easy  to  set 
the  lens  quickly  between  fifteen  or  twenty  feet  and  the  infinity 
mark  and  be  absoluely  sure  of  a  sharp  focus.     He  must  have 



very  poor  judgment  indeed  if  he  cannot  estimate  distances  under 
fifteen  feet  within  a  very  few  inches.  The  more  careful  studio 
worker  can  always  verify  his  judgment  with  the  tape  measure 
and  in  many  cases,  by  a  proper  arrangement  of  his  focusing  de- 
vice, is  able  to  change  the  focus  as  a  figure  advances  toward  or 
retreats  from  the  camera. 

In  this  day  of  multitudinous  effects  of  moving  cameras  on 
trucks  and  wheels,  slide  ways  and  moving  cranes,  it  is  essential 
that  the  up-to-date  worker  be  able  to  change  the  focus  while 
taking  pictures. 

We  shall  soon  have  practical  motor-driven  cameras  and  gimbal 
panoramas  which  may  be  turned  in  any  direction  without  the  use 
of  two  panorama  handles  at  once,  as  is  now  necessary  to  produce 
a  straight  diagonal  panorama.  These  are  logical  conclusions  and 
even  today  many  of  the  effects  must  be  produced  by  two  and 
even  three  or  more  working  simultaneously  with  one  camera. 
Simplification  of  manipulation  should  be  sought  by  the  operator 
who  wishes  to  keep  in  the  front  rank. 

Here  are  a  few  simple  directions  for  scaling  or  calibrating  a 
lens  mount. 

Before  starting  to  scale  the  mount  give  your  camera  a  thorough 
looking  over,  making  sure  of  the  following  points: 

First — That  the  film  in  its  travel  past  the  aperture  plate  or 
frame  opening  is  always  in  flat  contact  with  the  opening;  that 
there  is  no  possibility  of  the  pressure  plate  sliding  askew  in  its 
seat  on  the  gate  and  producing  an  uneven  pressure  against  the 
film ;  that  the  side  guides  are  not  so  close  together  that  they  will, 
by  pressure  against  the  edges  of  the  film,  cause  it  to  belly  or 
buckle;  that  the  fingers,  claws,  or  pins,  that  feed  the  film  down 
for  each  frame  are  in  perfect  alignment  and  do  not  wrinkle  the 
film  by  a  diagonal  downward  pull,  caused  by  the  pin  engaging  and 
dragging  the  film  down  by  a  pull  on  one  side  only ;  that  the  gate 
tension  is  always  sufficient  to  hold  the  film  against  the  frame 
place  securely  but  without  needless  friction. 

It  is  well  to  mention  here  also  that  velvet  lined  tracks,  pressure 
plates  and  gates  are  not  only  an  abomination  when  trying  to 
obtain  accurate  results  in  focusing,  but  are  also  great  scratch  and 
static  breeders  and  should  be  replaced  wherever  possible  with 
some  hard,  non-corrosive  metal  polished  to  a  glass  smoQthness, 



as  perfectly  straight  and  flat  as  can  be  obtained,  and  with  short 
tapers  and  rounded  edges  at  all  points  where  they  receive  the 
moving  film. 

Second — That  the  parts  of  the  camera  which  hold  the  flange 
of  the  lens  mount  should  be  so  rigid  as  to  eliminate  any  pos- 
sibility of  there  being  the  minutest  change  in  the  distance  be- 
tween the  frame  aperture  and  the  lens  mount.  Wood  is  far  too 
liable  to  warp  and  bulge  to  be  trusted  for  a  lens  front  board  and 
any  wooden  front  board  supporting  the  lens,  should  be  changed 
to  one  of  metal  or  other  rigid  material  and  firmly  connected  to 
the  metal  frame  of  the  camera  by  metal  struts  or  columns  to 
which  it  may  be  firmly  screwed  or  clamped.  Bayonet  joints  are 
used  for  this  purpose  in  many  cameras.  If  they  are  used  they 
should  be  frequently  inspected  to  see  that  they  have  not  worn 
and  permitted  play  between  the  locking  keys  and  the  lens  frame. 

Third — The  backlash  or  play  or  lost  motion  in  the  focusing 
mount  itself  should  be  reduced  to  a  minimum.  In  many  cameras, 
especially  those  in  which  the  focusing  is  done  from  the  back  by  a 
system  of  rods  and  connections,  it  is  impossible  to  eliminate  a 
considerable  amount  of  this  lost  motion.  If  it  can  be  assured 
that  this  backlash  is  a  constant  factor,  that  is  always  the  same, 
it  may  be  advisable  to  calibrate  in  both  directions. 

For  example,  suppose  the  camera  was  focused  upon  an  object 
fifteen  feet  away  and  one  wished  to  change  the  focus  to  ten 
feet.  If  the  backlash  were  considerable  the  pointer  might  be 
moved  back  to  the  scale  mark  for  ten  feet  without  moving  the 
lens,  in  which  case  the  camera  would  still  be  focused  at  fifteen 
feet  and  to  make  the  lens  move  to  the  right  focus  for  ten  feet, 
the  points  would  have  to  be  pushed  on  to  the  mark  for  eight 
feet,  although  the  backlash  now  being  in  the  opposite  direction 
would  allow  it  to  be  brought  back  to  the  ten  mark  without  mov- 
ing the  lens.  As  this  backlash  is  generally  a  constant  factor, 
the  error  produced  by  it  is  avoided  by  making  two  scales,  one 
for  the  pointer  when  being  turned  in  one  direction  and  another 
for  it  when  turned  in  the  opposite  direction.  Such  a  focusing 
device  is,  of  course,  more  sensitive  to  wear  than  any  other  and 
should  be  carefully  checked  for  error  at  least  once  a  month. 

Having  thus  checked  up  the  sources  of  error  in  the  camera, 
we  are  now  ready  to  scale  the  lens  mount.     For  this  we  need  a 



piece  of  very  fine  ground  glass  the  same  width  as  the  film,  a  good 
focusing  or  small  magnifying  glass,  a  tape  line,  and  a  test  chart. 
Lens  testing  charts  may  be  obtained  from  any  good  optician : 
Bausch  &  Lomb  or  Wollensack  Optical  Company,  both  of 
Rochester,  N.  Y.,  each  publish  good  ones  which  they  would  prob- 
ably be  glad  to  send  for  ten  cents  postage.  For  our  purpose, 
however,  a  newspaper  with  some  bold  headlines  will  serve  per- 
fectly well. 

Set  the  camera  up  rigidly  on  the  tripod  and  pin  the  newspaper 
or  test  chart  against  a  well  lighted  wall.  If  you  can  improvise 
some  sort  of  light  easel  for  the  chart  it  will  be  much  easier  to  move 
it  accurately  to  the  different  distances,  than  to  move  the  camera. 
Place  a  short  strip  of  film  in  the  gate  of  the  camera,  remove  the 
front  board  and,  with  calipers,  compasses,  or  a  finely  divided  scale, 
make  sure  that  the  distance  from  the  film  to  a  steel  straight  edge 
held  across  the  camera  front  is  exactly  the  same  as  the  distance 
from  the  straight  edge  to  the  ground  surface  of  the  ground  glass 
when  it  is  held  at  the  aperture  instead  of  the  film.  If  there  is  any 
variation  in  this  distance  the  film  is  either  buckled  or  out  of  con- 
tact and  the  cause  should  be  found  and  remedied.  After  checking 
the  film  in  this  way  a  second  time,  we  may  now  feel  reasonably 
safe  in  going  ahead  with  our  calibration. 

First  rack  the  lens  out  as  far  as  it  will  go  and  with  the  ground 
glass  in  place  and  making  sure  of  minute  sharpness  move  the 
chart  or  the  camera  until  the  chart  is  in  focus.  Now  with  the 
tape  line,  measure  the  distance  from  the  front  board  to  the  chart. 
This  distance  will  be  the  closest  that  you  can  bring  an  object  to 
your  camera  and  have  it  remain  in  focus.  This  distance  depends 
on  the  range  of  the  focusing  mount  and  is  ordinarily  one  to 
three  feet.  If  you  wish  to  make  closeups  of  small  visiting  cards 
or  other  small  objects  you  can  do  so  by  using  a  supplementary 
lens  like  the  kodak  portrait  lens  or  have  a  mechanic  make  you  an 
extension  ring  one  side  of  which  fits  the  lens  flange  and  the  other 
side  the  lens  mount.  By  the  use  of  this  you  can  extend  the 
distance  between  the  lens  and  the  film  and  thereby  regulate  the 

With  a  sharp  steel  point  mark  this  as  the  first  point  on  your 
scale  and  the  distance  which  it  represents ;  then  at  successive 
greater  distances,  each  carefully  measured  and  recorded  on  your 



scale,  complete  your  range  of  distances,  i8  inches,  2  feet,  3,  4,  5, 
6,  8,  TO,  12,  15,  20,  35  and  infinity  being  a  good  range.  Dis^- 
tances  between  these  can  be  estimated  easily  as  being  proportion- 
ately between  the  nearest  known  distances  on  the  scale.  For 
objects  closer  than  three  feet,  unless  your  scale  is  marked  in 
differences  of  a  few  inches,  it  is  safer  to  use  the  ground  glass ;  as 
the  nearer  the  object  the  greater  the  change  in  the  focal  distance 
of  the  lens. 

If  you  have  followed  these  directions  closely  you  can  with  the 
aid  of  your  tape  measure  be  sure  of  getting  your  pictures  in 
focus  every  shot. 

Besides  the  purely  mechanical  errors  that  are  liable  to  occur 
in  focusing  a  cinematographic  lens,  there  remain  others  to  which 
reference  has  not  been  made. 

These  come  chiefly  under  two  heads :  First,  the  inherent 
errors  of  the  lens ;  and  second,  errors  in  the  method  of  focusing. 

Cinematograph  lenses  are  not  apochomatic,  that  is,  corrected 
for  light  of  all  different  wave  lengths.  If,  however,  they  have 
been  corrected  for  visual  and  actinic  focus  this  is  of  no  par- 
ticular importance  as  the  ordinary  brands  of  film  are  only  sen- 
sitive to  the  actinic  blue  and  blue-violet  rays. 

Without  entering  too  deeply  into  the  physics  of  light  rays  and 
their  wave  lengths,  it  is  still  important  that  we  take  into  con- 
sideration some  of  their  better  known  properties  and  discuss  them 
with  relation  to  the  subject  in  hand. 

We  are  all  familiar  with  the  brilliant  band  of  prismatic  colors 
which  results  from  passing  a  ray  of  white  light  through  a  prism. 
The  light  waves  may  be  compared  to  sound  waves  of  different 
pitch  and  there  are  many  light  waves  which  are  invisible  to  the 
human  eye  just  as  there  are  sound  waves  too  low  and  too  high 
in  pitch  to  be  audible  to  the  human  ear.  The  red  end  of  the 
spectrum  is  the  low  pitch  end,  or  long  wave  length  end,  and  does 
not  affect  ordinary  photographic  emulsions  except  by  greatly 
prolonged  exposure.  For  this  reason  we  illuminate  dark  rooms 
with  red  lights,  to  which  our  eyes  are  sensitive  while  the  film  is 

The  actinic  and  visual  rays  are  not  two  separate  and  distinct 
kinds  of  light,  but  are  terms  which  are  used  to  designate  two 
different  sections  of  the  spectrum  which  overlap  one  another. 


(Photo  by   U.  S.  Signal  Corps  School  of  Photography) 

Students  receiving  instruction  in  the  use  of  the  Akeley  camera. 
This  ingenious  instrument  can  be  panned  and  tilted  in  any  direction 
by  the  handle  projecting  at  the  back.  It  has  a  focal  plane  shutter 
and    numerous    other    improvements    found    in    no    other    make    of 

cine    camera. 


The  visual  rays  are  those  which  we  discern  when  we  make  the 
spectrum  with  a  prism  as  has  been  described — the  actinic,  how- 
ever, begin  in  the  region  of  bluish  green  and  extend  far  into  the 
ultra  violet,  which  though  invisible  to  the  eye,  extend  for  a  dis- 
tance beyond  the  visible  several  times  the  length  of  the  visible 

If  it  were  not  for  the  fact  that  ordinary  optical  glass  is  prac- 
tically opaque  to  these  ultra  violet  rays,  we  would  be  let  in  for 
a  tremendous  lot  of  complications  with  invisible  lights,  which 
could  fog  the  film  without  visible  knowledge  on  our  part.  Most 
of  us  have  a  hard  enough  time  to  keep  from  fogging  the  film 
as  it  is,  without  having  to  take  precautions  against  an  invisible 
enemy,  such  as  the  X-ray  photographer  has  to  contend  with. 
The  X-ray  photographer  or  radiographer,  as  he  prefers  to  be 
called,  has  either  to  keep  the  photographic  materials  at  a  long 
distance  from  his  Crookes  tubes  or  to  wrap  them  carefully  in 
sheet  lead. 

The  invisible  rays  at  each  end  of  the  spectrum  are  intensely 
interesting  subjects  to  study  and  the  readers  will  do  well  in 
their  spare  time  to  get  some  popular  books  on  physics,  and  read 
up  the  subject  of  light,  where  they  will  find  fascinating  facts 
that  have  no  room  here. 

By  means  of  certain  dye  chemicals,  it  is  possible  to  sensitize 
ordinary  emulsions  so  that  they  are  sensitive  not  only  to  all  the 
visible  colors  but  to  the  infra-red  as  well.  Sir  W.  W.  de  Abney 
has  even  photographed  a  kettle  by  the  infra-red  rays  emanating 
from  boiling  water  contained  therein.  Radiant  heat  and  infra- 
red are  practically  synonymous  and  interchangeable  terms. 

Professor  R.  W.  Wood,  of  Johns  Hopkins  University,  one  of 
the  most  distinguished  of  American  physicists,  has  attracted 
much  attention  recently  by  ingeniously  photographing  the  com- 
mon objects  about  us,  as  well  as  the  planets,  by  these  invisible 
rays.  As  has  been  stated,  glass  is  opaque  to  ultra  violet  light  but 
quartz  and  rock  crystal  are  as  transparent  to  them  as  is  glass  to 
ordinary  light.  Therefore  to  make  photographs  by  ultra  violet 
light,  it  is  necessary  to  use  a  filter  or  screen  to  keep  out  the 
visible  light  just  as  one  uses  a  yellow  screen  with  orthochromatic 
plates  to  screen  off  the  blue  rays  to  which  these  plates  are  also 



Silver  foil  and  bromine  vapor  confined  in  a  rock  crystal  cell 
are  opaque  to  visible  rays,  but  transparent  to  ultra  violet  Pro- 
fessor Wood  also  discovered  that  a  black  dye  called  nitroso- 
dimethyl  aniline  possesses  this  property. 

For  the  infra-red  or  heat  waves  a  glass  lens  will  serve.  Again 
it  is  necessary  to  screen  off  the  visible  light,  which  can  be  done 
with  pitch  or  thin  sheets  of  vulcanite.  A  number  of  these  in- 
teresting photographs  by  Professor  Wood  were  published  in  the 
Popular  Science  Monthly. 

It  may  puzzle  some  readers  to  know  why  we  distinguish 
between  visual  and  actinic  rays  if  all  the  actinic  rays  with  which 
we  are  concerned  are  also  visible.  The  reason  is  this :  The  blue 
and  violet  rays  which  comprise  the  actinic  rays  produce  the 
strongest  effect  on  a  photographic  emulsion  and  the  weakest 
effect  of  any  of  the  visual  rays  on  the  retina.  Therefore  when 
we  focus  on  the  ground  glass  we  are  adjusting  the  image  by  the 
strongest  visual  or  the  yellow  rays  and  we  are  unconsciously  dis- 
regarding the  actinic  or  blue  image,  because  it  is  overpowered 
and  quenched  by  the  more  visible  yellow  rays.  Although  it  may 
amount  to  considerable  when  the  picture  is  magnified  on  the 
screen,  the  difference  is  so  slight  that  it  requires  a  powerful 
focusing  glass  and  an  extremely  fine-grained  ground  glass  to  per- 
ceive it  with  the  eye.  Suppose  the  actinic  and  the  visual  focal 
planes  were  2/1000  of  an  inch  apart,  about  the  thickness  of  a 
thin  cigarette  paper,  by  theoretical  calculations  it  would  appear 
to  produce  a  blurring  more  than  an  inch  in  width  in  any  sharp 
outline  on  the  screen  with  a  sixteen  foot  picture,  considering  the 
lens  to  have  been  used  at  F  3.5.  Actually,  for  several  reasons 
which  have  to  do  with  the  theory  of  development  and  light  dis- 
persion, it  would  be  much  more. 

Ordinarily  we  would  consider  the  edge  of  a  cigarette  paper 
as  defining  a  sharp  line,  and  yet  the  visible  color  fringe  in  the 
image  on  the  ground  glass  for  this  same  amount  of  error  in 
correction  would  be  only  six  ten  thousandths  (6/10,000)  of  an 
inch  or  less  than  one  third  (H)  as  thick  as  the  cigarette  paper. 

Suppose,  on  the  other  hand,  that  a  lens  is  absolutely  correct  and 
you  are  taking  a  scene  which  requires  F  3.5  aperture  and  your 
error  in  focusing  is  two  one-thousandths  (2/1000)  of  an  inch, 
or  less  than  one-third  (yi)  the  thickness  of  the  film,  the  amount 
of  blurring  will  be  the  same. 



With  the  lens  stopped  down  these  errors  are  reduced  propor- 
tionately, but  with  a  good  lens,  properly  focused,  you  should 
get  just  as  sharp  a  picture  of  objects  at  the  same  distance  at 
F  3.5  as  at  F  16. 

Do  not  misinterpret  this  statement  to  mean  depth  of  focus. 
It  means  that  at  F  3.5  and  the  lens  focused  at  sixteen  feet  (16  ft.) 
all  objects  in  the  range  of  the  camera  and  sixteen  feet  (16  ft) 
from  it,  should  be  just  as  sharp  as  those  taken  at  F  16,  but  it 
does  not  mean  that  any  object  closer  or  farther  away  than 
sixteen  feet  (16  ft.)  with  the  lens  set  for  that  distance  will  be 
as  sharp  at  F  3.5  as  at  F  16. 

Instead  of  using  a  ground  glass  or  a  piece  of  film  for  focusing, 
get  a  piece  of  first  quality  lantern  slide  cover  glass  or  better  still, 
get  a  piece  of  "optical  flat"  from  the  optician  and  cut  it  to  the 
correct  size  to  fit  in  the  film  rack  at  the  frame  aperture. 

Get  an  optician  to  rule  the  glass  in  one-eighth  to  one-quarter 
inch  squares  making  the  lines  as  thin  and  fine  as  possible,  and 
just  deep  enough  to  retain  a  spider-web  line  of  fine  black  enamel 
or  lampblack  when  rubbed  over  the  surface  of  the  glass.  If  you 
have  a  fine  pointed  glazier's  diamond  you  can  do  this  yourself. 
When  you  have  finished,  the  cross  lines  should  look  as  if  they 
had  been  drawn  with  india  ink  and  a  ruling  pen,  but  should  be 
many  times  finer  than  could  possibly  be  made  with  a  pen. 

Now  you  must  have  a  focusing  glass  of  fairly  high  power, 
preferably  of  the  type  known  as  a  focusing  loup,  which  is  an 
achromatic  magnifying  glass  set  in  a  short  tube  with  a  screw 
thread  for  adjusting  the  focus.  Place  the  ruled  glass  against  the 
lower  end  of  the  loup  with  the  lines  outward  and  with  it  turned 
to  the  light,  adjust  the  focus  until  the  black  lines  are  the  sharpest. 
Now  place  the  ruled  screen  in  the  aperture  plate  with  the  lines 
toward  the  lens  and  with  the  loup  against  the  screen,  focus  the 
lens.  You  will  see  the  image  just  as  in  the  opera  glass  or  tele- 
scope, except  that  it  is  upside  down.  When  the  image  and  the 
lines  are  in  focus  at  the  same  time  and  the  lines  look  like  bars 
dividing  the  picture,  your  camera  lens  is  in  focus. 

This  is  termed  an  aerial  focus.  As  the  human  eye  has  a  con- 
siderable range  of  focal  adjustment,  or  "accommodation,"  as  it 
is  called,  and  could  possibly  focus  on  the  aerial  image  even  if  it 
were  not  quite  in  the  focal  plane,  the  lines  on  the  glass  form 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOT  O  G  R  A  P  H  Y 

a  correct  fixation  point  for  the  ocular  focus  and  prevent  its  stray- 
ing ahead  or  behind  the  proper  plane. 

If  the  focusing  glass  which  you  use  for  this  is  an  achromat 
from  a  reputable  maker  and  you  can  detect  a  prismatic  fringe 
about  any  of  the  objects  on  which  you  are  focusing,  you  may  be 
sure  that  your  photographic  objective  (your  cinematographic 
lens)  is  not  properly  corrected.  If  so,  return  it  to  the  maker. 
Don't  try  to  take  pictures  with  it. 

A  microscopic  focusing  tube  with  which  a  needle  point  sharp- 
ness of  focus  may  be  obtained  almost  instantly  is  such  a  com- 
paratively easy  device  for  a  cameraman  to  make,  that  it  is  re- 
markable that  more  camera  workers  have  not  provided  them- 
selves with  such  an  instrument. 

Practically  every  cameraman  carries  a  focusing  glass  or  mag- 
nifying loup  of  some  simple  character,  but  one  who  has  used  a 
focusing  glass  of  medium  high  power  will  never  again  be  satis- 
fied with  the  rough  approximation  that  is  the  best  he  can  do  with 
the  ground  glass  and  an  ordinary  loup. 

It  is  remarkable  how  many  cameramen  regard  an  aerial  image 
as  something  mysterious  and  beyond  their  comprehension.  When 
the  camera  is  focused  correctly  the  image  exists  at  the  focal  plane, 
i.e.,  the  frame  opening,  whether  it  be  cast  upon  the  film  or 
ground  glass  or  whether  they  be  absent  altogether.  In  focusing 
with  the  ordinary  low  power  glass  on  the  film  or  a  piece  of  ground 
glass  it  is  impossible,  except  by  chance,  to  obtain  a  definition 
which  is  finer  than  the  structure  of  the  film  or  the  granular  struc- 
ture "'f  the  abraded  or  ground  surface  of  the  ground  glass. 

The  ground  glass  or  film  is  an  almost  indispensable  part  of 
the  cinematographer's  outfit,  it  is  true.  Its  use,  however,  should 
be  for  the  composition  of  the  picture  and  the  placing  of  the  side 
lines  rather  than  as  a  necessary  part  of  a  focusing  device.  We 
cannot  dispense  with  it  if  we  have  nothing  more  than  ordinary 
focusing  glass  to  depend  on  for  sharpness  of  definition.  If  we 
attempt  to  view  the  aerial  image  with  a  low  power  glass,  even 
though  it  be  mounted  in  a  tube  at  the  proper  focal  distance  for 
the  eye,  it  cannot  be  relied  upon  unless  a  cross  lined  glass  is 
interposed  in  the  focal  plane. 

The  human  eye  is  a  wonderful  instrument  and  is  able  by  a 
muscular  contraction  of  its  flexible  lens  to  change  the  focal  length 


FOCUSING        THE        CAMERA 

of  the  lens  so  that  either  near  or  distant  objects  may  be  brought 
automatically  to  focus.  This  is  termed  the  accommodation  of 
the  eye ;  that  is,  the  eye  accommodates  itself  within  certain  limits 
to  more  or  less  diverging  rays  of  light.  If  we  attempt  to  focus 
on  the  aerial  image  at  the  aperture  plate  without  providing  a 
cross  line  at  the  focal  plane  so  as  to  focus  the  eye  at  the  proper 
distance  we  might  find  that  the  eye  had  accommodated  itself  to 
an  aerial  image  having  a  position  before  or  behind  the  actual 
focal  plane.  With  the  cross  line  in  place,  however,  the  image 
must  be  in  the  same  plane  as  the  cross  line  or  it  will  be  out  of 
focus,  so  that  when  focus  is  obtained  both  the  cross  line  and 
the  image  are  equally  clear  and  the  image  will  be  bisected  by 
the  cross  line  as  in  a  surveyor's  transit. 

If,  however,  we  take  a  step  forward  and  increase  considerably 
the  power  of  the  magnifying  glass  with  which  we  examine  the 
aerial  image  the  slightest  deviation  of  the  image  from  the  focal 
plane  throws  the  lens  system  of  the  microscope  so  badly  out  of 
focus  that  it  is  much  beyond  the  range  of  the  eye's  accommoda- 
tion to  bring  it  to  a  focus  and  we  are  thereby  enabled  to  dispense 
with  the  cross  line  if  we  wish,  as  we  have  no  further  use  for  it. 

It  is  imperative,  however,  in  , using  a  high  power  glass  that 
some  rigid  mounting  be  provided  by  which  it  may  be  made  cer- 
tain that  the  magnifying  glass  be  set  always  at  the  correct  focal 
distance  from  the  focal  plane. 

Resolved  into  its  lowest  principles  a  high  power  focusing  de- 
vice is  a  compound  microscope  mounted  in  a  camera  so  that  the 
image  produced  by  the  camera  lens  may  be  considerably  en- 
larged. In  the  foregoing  sentence  the  words  "high  power"  are 
used  merely  as  a  term  to  differentiate  a  compound  microscope 
from  the  magnification  produced  by  a  simple  lens  combination  as 
found  in  an  ordinary  focusing  loup.  In  reality,  such  a  micro- 
scope is  of  very  low  power  as  compared  to  compound  microscopes 
used  for  bacteriological  examination. 

Probably  the  cheapest  and  quickest  way  to  obtain  such  a  glass 
is  to  buy  a  student's  ordinary  compound  microscope,  which  may 
be  had  for  prices  as  low  as  two  dollars  and  fifty  cents  to  five 
dollars.  Withdraw  the  tube  containing  the  eye  piece  and  ob- 
jective and  mount  it  directly  in  the  camera. 

If  the  construction  of  the  camera  prohibits  the  tube's  being 



mounted  permanently,  it  is  an  easy  matter  to  provide  a  ring 
mount  into  which  it  may  be  sHpped  for  use,  taking  care  to  pro- 
vide a  stop  screw  or  ring  upon  the  tube  of  the  microscope,  so 
that  the  instrument  must  come  to  rest  at  the  proper  distance  from 
the  aperture  plate. 

The  first  section  of  an  ordinary  brass  draw  telescope  contains 
a  similar  lens  combination  and  an  old  or  second-hand  telescope, 
if  it  can  be  purchased  at  a  reasonable  figure,  will  make  an  ex- 
cellent focusing  lens  system. 

If  you  are  more  ambitious  you  may  purchase  from  one  of  the 
many  excellent  microscope  makers  an  eye-piece  and  a  low  power 
objective  and  mount  them  yourself  in  a  brass  tube.  An  excellent 
set  may  be  purchased  for  about  fifteen  dollars  or  even  less  and 
should  you  wish  to  go  in  for  photo-micrographic  motion  pictures, 
you  will  be  already  provided  with  a  lens  set  for  photo-microg- 
raphy. It  must  be  understood  that  the  higher  the  power  of  the 
magnifying  glass  the  smaller  will  be  the  field.  As  any  lens  worthy 
of  being  fitted  with  a  microscopic  focusing  tube  must  be  truly 
anastigmatic,  all  objects  within  its  range  at  the  same  distance  as 
the  object  focused  upon  will  be  in  focus  also.  The  image 
through  the  glass  presents  also  the  advantage  of  being  right  side 
up,  so  that  you  will  find  your  camera  an  excellent  telescope  which 
you  focus  with  your  focusing  device  instead  of  the  usual  magnifier. 

The  DeBrie  camera  is  fitted  with  a  focusing  device  admired 
by  many  cameramen.  It  gives  the  entire  field  of  the  aperture 
plate  right  side  up  and  slightly  magnified.  It  is  always  in  place 
in  the  camera  and  the  image  may  be  almost  instantly  examined 
on  the  film  by  drawing  out  the  eye-piece  at  the  back  and  opening 
it.  Such  a  glass  may  be  made  by  using  an  objective  of  much 
longer  focus  than  is  ordinarily  used  in  a  microscopic  combina- 
tion. It  gives  such  a  low  power  that  it  is  not  safe  to  use  with- 
out film  or  ground  glass  in  the  aperture  on  account  of  the  ac- 
commodation of  the  eye,  as  previously  explained. 

A  dodge  to  use  in  this  case  is  to  perforate  the  film  and  turn 
back  until  the  hole  is  in  the  centre  of  the  aperture  plate,  when  the 
edges  of  the  hole  will  serve  the  same  purpose  as  a  cross  line. 
Unfortunately,  unless  the  perforating  device  is  correctly  placed 
in  relation  to  the  frame  line  turning  back  will  not  bring  it  into 
correct  position. 



For  the  ordinary  sized  camera  one  may  use  for  a  DeBrie  type 
of  glass,  the  lens  combinations  from  two  achromatic  loups  of 
about  one  inch  focal  length,  using  one  for  the  objective  and  one 
for  the  eye-piece. 

With  such  a  low  power  objective  the  distance  from  the  aperture 
plate  can  be  varied  considerably,  but  is  best  determined  experi- 
mentally to  suit  the  distance  from  the  aperture  plate  to  the  back 
of  the  camera. 

It  is  well  to  arrange  to  have  the  eye-piece  project  beyond  the 
back  of  the  camera ;  otherwise  it  is  hard  to  get  the  eye  close 
enough  for  proper  inspection. 

For  the  first  type  of  glass  described  a  ^  or  ^-inch  objective 
is  of  ample  power  and  the  eye-piece  should  be  at  the  other  end 
of  a  six  or  eight-inch  tube  or  a  longer  one  if  the  size  of  the 
camera  makes  it  necessary. 

This  will  bring  the  objective  within  an  inch  of  the  aperture 
plate.  To  find  the  exact  focus,  cut  a  piece  of  clear  glass  the 
width  of  the  film  and  mark  it  with  a  rub  of  emery  cloth  on  one 
side ;  lay  this  in  the  aperture  plate  with  the  scratched  side  toward 
the  lens,  remove  the  lens  and  with  the  camera  turned  toward  the 
light  and  the  glass  in  the  aperture  plate  securely  in  position  focus 
the  microscope  on  ^le  scratches  on  the  glass.  This  is  the  posi- 
tion in  which  it  must  be  fastened  for  focusing. 

With  the  DeBrie  type  of  glass,  place  the  eye-piece  on  a  stand 
at  the  distance  from  a  piece  of  printed  paper  equal  to  the  dis- 
tance from  the  aperture  plate  in  your  camera  to  the  point 
where  you  wish  the  eye-piece  to  project  at  the  back.  Move  the 
objective  back  and  forth  in  a  straight  line  between  the  eye-piece 
and  the  printed  paper.  When  you  can  bring  the  image  of  the 
type  to  a  focus  through  the  two  lenses  their  separation  is  the 
length  of  the  tube  you  will  need  for  mounting  them. 

The  degree  of  definition  required  in  motion  picture  negatives 
is  far  beyond  that  usually  necessary  in  an  ordinary  photograph. 
The  screens  are  too  great  for  accurate  work,  especially  where 
the  source  of  light  is  not  of  great  strength. 

A  strip  of  glass  or  film  the  same  width  as  the  cine  film,  and 
two  or  three  inches  long  is  an  almost  indispensable  part  of  the 
cameraman's  outfit.  It  is  slipped  into  the  film  track  over  the 
aperture  opening  and  used  in  conjunction  with  a  focusing  loup 
or  magnifier  for  obtaining  an  accurate  focus. 



Especially  fine  specimens  may  be  made  by  the  cameraman 
himself  by  following  these  directions,  which  are  adopted  from 
methods  described  in  The  British  Journal  of  Photography. 

Carborundum  powder  may  be  relied  upon,  if  the  finest  and 
purest  quality  is  used,  to  produce  a  first-class  focusing  screen  in 
a  very  short  time.  With  the  exception  of  the  powder,  the  only 
thing  wanted  is  a  "rubber,"  which  consists  of  a  piece  of  glass  fixed 
with  cement  to  a  block  of  wood,  which  serves  as  a  handle.  In 
use  the  glass  or  film  to  be  ground  is  wetted,  a  little  powder  is 
thrown  upon  it,  and  then  the  rubber  is  brought  into  play.  Of 
course,  the  surface  of  the  rubber  becomes  ground  as  well  as  that 
of  the  plate,  and  when  it  is  in  this  condition  it  works  at  its  best. 
The  time  required  depends  on  the  size  of  the  rubber.  Using  one 
about  2  inches  by  i,  a  4  x  5  screen  can  be  completely  and  per- 
fectly ground  in  five  minutes  or  less.  It  is  best  to  grind  a  large 
piece  and  cut  out  the  best  sections  for  use. 

A  most  useful  application  of  the  "rubber"  is  for  grinding  the 
backs  of  lantern  or  stereo  slides.  The  former  are  sometimes,  and 
the  latter  nearly  always,  all  the  better  for  being  on  ground  glass, 
yet  transparency  plates  on  ground  glass  are  not  always  available. 
A  second  cover  glass  is  the  usual  expedient,  but  this  adds  un- 
necessarily to  the  weight  and  thickness  of  the  slide.  In  view  of 
the  possibilty  of  wet  and  dirt  getting  on  the  film  side  of  the  plate 
during  the  grinding  process,  it  is  very  advisable  to  formalin,  dry 
and  varnish  the  slide  before  grinding.  Put  the  slide  in  a  printing 
frame,  glass  side  out,  and  grind  with  a  small  rubber.  Take  care 
that  the  slide  is  well  backed  up,  and  that  the  springs  are  strong 
enough  to  hold  it  up  against  the  rubber.  It  can  easily  be  packed 
up  with  a  few  spare  or  spoiled  plates,  or  with  cardboard,  and 
then  there  will  be  no  fear  of  the  plate  giving  from  the  rubber, 
and  so  letting  wet  in  under  the  frame  rebate.  When  ground, 
the  glass  is  cleaned  while  still  in  the  frame,  and  on  removal  the 
film  side  should  be  found  to  be  perfectly  clean. 

A  series  of  three  screens  for  general  and  special  work  is  ob- 
tained as  follows :  Take  three  pieces  of  negative  film  and  immerse 
them  without  any  exposure  at  all  in  any  non-staining  developer 
free  from  bromide.  At  the  end  of  twenty  minutes  remove  two 
pieces  from  the  developer,  and  fix  and  wash  them  in  the  usual 
way.     At  the  end  of  twenty  minutes  remove  the  third  piece  from 



the  developer,  and  fix  and  wash  that  also.  Next,  iodize  this 
third  piece  together  with  one  of  the  others  in  a  solution  of  iodine 
in  potassium  iodide.  When  the  action  is  complete,  rinse  the 
pieces  and  bleach  them  in  dilute  ammonia.  Then  wash  and  dry. 
Finally,  take  the  remaining  film  and  immerse  it  in  a  solution 
containing  ten  grains  of  potassium  bichromate,  and  five  grains 
of  hydrochloric  acid  to  every  ounce.  When  the  chlorizing  action 
is  complete,  rinse  the  film  and  put  it  into  a  fresh  plain  hypo 
fixing  bath  for  ten  minutes ;  then  wash  well  and  dry.  You  now 
have  three  screens  of  different  degrees  of  density. 

No.  I  is  a  dense  iodide  screen,  No.  2  a  thin  iodide  screen,  and 
No.  3  a  thin  "chromium"  screen.  No.  i  screen  will  be  an  ex- 
cellent substitute  for  the  ground  glass  in  all  ordinary  work.  It 
can  be  used  without  a  magnifier  or  with  one,  and  in  either  case 
it  will  show  detail  that  would  not  be  visible  on  the  s<:reen  of 
ground  glass. 

No.  2,  the  thin  iodide  screen,  cannot  well  be  used  without  a 
magnifier,  but  while  it  is  too  nearly  transparent  to  permit  focus- 
ing with  the  eye  alone,  it  shows  enough  grain  to  render  the 
use  of  the  magnifier  easy.  There  is  no  accommodation  difficulty, 
and  the  detail  visible  on  the  screen  is  a  revelation  to  those  who 
have  never  used  anything  but  ground  glass.  This  screen  is  of 
special  value  for  indoor  work,  such  as  architectural  interiors  and 

No.  3,  the  chromium  screen,  is  quite  useless  without  a  mag- 
nifier, being  almost  transparent  to  the  eye.  But  with  the  magni- 
fier a  very  fine  grain  becomes  visible,  and  as  it  is  perfectly  easy  to 
keep  this  grain  and  the  image  in  focus  at  the  same  time,  there  is 
no  accommodation  difficulty.  This  screen  is  a  substitute  for  clear 
glass,  and  is  especially  adapted  for  copying  and  for  low-power 
photo-micrography.  For  high-power  work  it  does  not  seem  pos- 
sible to  find  any  good  substitute  for  clear  glass,  but  with  moderate 
powers  the  No.  3  screen  seems  to  show  almost  as  much  detail  as 
the  clear  glass,  while  it  has  not  its  disadvantages. 

The  screens  can  be  ruled  in  pencil  or  with  fine  cuts  to  give 
datum  marks.  A  cross  ruling  of  fine  cuts  made  with  a  lancet 
may  be  used  but  this  is  only  a  matter  of  personal  choice.  The 
surface  is  somewhat  readily  abraded  in  the  case  of  No.  2  and 
No.  3  screens,  hence  they  should  be  used  carefully.     It  must  be 



remembered  that  no  fine  grain  screen  shows  such  a  bright  image 
as  ground  glass.  In  comparison  the  image  looks  dull,  but  this  is 
a  very  minor  matter,  and  the  extra  detail  visible  more  than 
compensates  for  the  loss  of  brightness. 

Douglas  Carnegie,  writing  in  reference  to  the  fine  focusing 
screens  made  according  to  the  formulae  given  above,  says  that 
though  the  latter  give  much  more  detail  than  ground-glass  screens, 
yet  they  labor  under  the  disadvantage  that,  with  the  exception  of 
a  small  portion  of  the  image  which  happens  to  lie  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  the  line  joining  the  eye  with  the  optical  center  of  the 
lens,  the  image  as  a  whole  is  much  dimmer  than  in  the  case  of 
the  coarser  ground  glass  screens,  and,  therefore,  the  eyes  must 
be  very  carefully  shielded  from  extraneous  light,  in  order  to  per- 
mit of  the  composition  and  proper  centering  of  the  picture  on 
the  screen. 

A  novel  screen  is  made  as  follows:  A  plate  which  has  been 
exposed  in  the  camera  to  a  uniformly  lighted  sheet  of  paper  is 
developed,  fixed,  and  then  placed  in  a  bath  of  hydrogen  peroxide 
acidulated  with  sulphuric  acid.  The  bath  is  warmed  to  a  tem- 
perature of  about  20  degrees  centigrade.  In  a  short  time  the 
hydrogn  peroxide  removes  the  developed  silver  and  concomi- 
tantly some  of  the  gelatine  in  which  the  silver  was  embedded, 
leaving  the  remaining  gelatine  in  a  very  faintly  opalescent  con- 
dition. The  plate  is  now  washed,  treated  with  Farmer^s  reducer 
if  it  still  looks  brown,  and  dried.  A  screen  so  made  has  just 
enough  optical  irregularity  to  prevent  the  image  being  viewed 
through  it,  but  not  enough  to  militate  against  the  pre- 
sentation of  a  very  fine  detail  in  the  focused  image.  There 
is  sometimes  failure  to  get  a  good  screen  by  this  process  even 
Avhen  observing  the  same  conditions  that  led  to  satisfactory  re- 
sults in  previous  trials. 

A  method  of  focusing,  which  avoids  the  trouble  of  "accommo- 
dation," which  takes  place  when  a  magnifier  is  used  with  a  focus- 
ing screen  containing  a  transparent  patch,  is  as  follows:  The 
screen  used  is  a  plate  of  glass  fairly  heavily  ground  all  over,  with 
a  view  to  a  bright  general  image,  with  the  exception  of  a  small 
circular  central  spot,  which  is  left  transparent.  Such  a  screen  is 
made  in  a  few  minutes  by  sticking  a  small  washer  on  the  center 
of  the  plate  and  grinding  round  this  with  carborundum  powder, 


FOCUSING        THE        CAMERA 

using  as  a  muller  a  small  piece  of  flat  glass  to  which  a  slab  of 
wood  has  been  stuck  to  act  as  a  handle.  A  small  strip  of  tinfoil 
cut  with  a  razor  is  stuck  across  the  transparent  portion  of  the 
screen.  On  the  unground  surface  of  the  glass,  just  over  the 
region  of  the  transparent  disc,  a  small  adjustable  mag- 
nifier of  about  y2  inch  focal  length  is  permanently  fixed. 
The  magnifier  actually  used  was  constructed  from  a  cheap 
linen  tester.  The  magnifier  is  focused  on  the  edge 
of  the  tin-foil  slip  and  set  It  is  not  necessary  to  bestow  any 
especial  care  on  this  adjustment.  The  lens  is  now  racked  until 
there  is  no  apparent  relative  movement,  parallax  between  the 
edge  of  the  slip  and  any  selected  portion  of  the  image  seen 
through  the  magnifier  when  the  eye  is  moved  laterally  across  the 
field  of  view  of  the  magnifier.  This  being  the  case,  the  lens 
image  must  of  necessity  lie  precisely  in  the  plane  of  the  front 
surface  of  the  screen.  The  function  of  the  magnifier  here,  it  will 
be  noticed,  is  not  to  aid  the  attainment  of  that  verv  uncertain 
condition,  the  exact  position  of  clearest  visualization  of  fine  de- 
tail in  the  image,  but  simply  to  magnify  a  displacement.  Hence 
there  can  be  no  complications  arising  from  unavoidable  accom- 
modative changes  in  the  eye. 

The  delicacy  of  this  method  of  focusing  is  quite  surprising ;  the 
most  insignificant  rotation  of  the  focusing  pinion  from  the  posi- 
tion of  zero  parallax  produces  an  easily  perceptible  relative  dis- 
placement of  the  tin-foil  edge  and  any  selected  image  detail. 


Chapter  VII 

MOST  studios,  up  to  a  recent  date,  have  been  in  the  habit 
of  furnishing  the  cameraman  with  all  of  his  apparatus, 
and  the  best  of  them  have  maintained  mechanical  depart- 
ments where  such  apparatus  could  be  kept  tuned  up  to  the  best 
mechanical  perfection.  The  increasing  demands  upon  the  limited 
facilities  of  these  machine  shops  for  the  repair  of  factory  ma- 
chinery, such  as  perforators  and  printers,  coupled  with  a  shortage 
of  the  necessary  number  of  cameras,  has  retarded  the  work 
of  camera  repair  and  put  into  the  background  that  primary  re- 
quisite for  the  making  of  good  negatives,  a  camera  in  perfect 
mechanical  condition.  So  bad  has  this  situation  become,  and  the 
number  of  new  studios  which  have  started  without  even  a  pre- 
tense of  a  machine  shop,  that  many  of  the  more  conscientious 
operators  have  purchased  their  own  outfits  and  fitted  them  up  at 
their  own  expense  in  order  to  have  the  facilities  for  turning  out 
work  of  which  they  need  not  be  ashamed. 

The  cinematographer  must  learn  to  be  on  the  job  constantly, 
to  be  prepared  always  for  whatever  emergency  may  arise,  to  have 
his  camera  loaded  and  ready  to  shoot  when  the  scene  is  rehearsed, 
to  use  judgment  and  tact,  to  keep  in  mind  the  dignity  and  im- 
portance of  the  proper  photographing  of  the  picture,  and  to  in- 
sist, as  far  as  consistent  with  holding  his  job,  that  he  be  furnished 
with  every  reasonable  facility  for  the  production  of  the  best  qual- 
ity of  work. 

He  should  make  it  his  business  to  know  whether  it  is  for  the 
best  interests  of  the  company  to  sacrifice  a  small  percentage  of 
photographic  quality  and  take  pictures  in  a  waning  light  in 
order  to  finish  with  a  large  cast  so  that  it  will  not  be  necessary  to 
call  them  a  second  day,  or  whether  the  improvement  in  better 
negative  will  justify  the  expense  involved  in  quitting  when  the 
light  is  getting  poor  and  hiring  the  large  cast  again  the  second 
day.  Confer  with  your  director  at  the  close  of  work  each  day 
and  schedule  your  work  for  the  next  day.     It  does  away  with  the 


PREPARATION        FOR        THE        DAY'S        WORK 

haphazard  method;  it  saves  money  for  the  concern,  and,  if  you 
train  yourself  to  do  more,  you  can  earn  more. 

Let  us  assume  that  the  cameraman  reports  for  duty  on  a  certain 
morning.  He  will  be  assigned  to  a  director  who  usually  says : 
"We  work  on  exteriors  today,"  or  "Set  up  in  the  studio,"  and 
will  designate  a  certain  scene.  This  is  about  all  the  information 
the  cameraman  will  get.  He  is  supposed  to  know  exactly  what 
to  do.  If  he  follows  our  instructions  he  will  not  be  in  a 
moment's  doubt.  Go  to  the  office  or  stock- room  and  ask  for  i,6oo 
ft.  of  stock  (negative  stock),  be  sure  it  is  perforated — that  is  to 
say  either  ask  whether  or  not  it  is  perforated  or  look  for  a  mark 
on  the  can  stating  this. 

In  some  studios  it  is  customary  to  draw  enough  film  for  several 
days  or  a  week's  supply,  but  this  can  be  ascertained  by  judicious 

Another  important  matter  is  to  be  sure  to  ask  for  X-back  film 
if  the  weather  is  cool.  Most  studios  begin  using  X-back  film 
about  September  ist  and  continue  doing  so  through  the  winter 
until  about  May.  In  California,  X-back  is  seldom  used  as  the 
weather  does  not  get  cool  enough  to  cause  electrical  markings,  or 
"static"  as  it  is  called. 

X-back  is  film  which  has  been  coated  on  the  back  with  a  gum 
or  resinous  substance  by  the  manufacturer.  This  backing  tends 
to  keep  the  celluloid  base  of  the  film  from  actual  contact  with 
the  camera  as  it  moves  through  and  therefore  prevents  the  fric- 
tion from  acting  on  the  celluloid  and  producing  electrical  flashes 
in  the  camera.  It  is  always  safer  whenever  there  is  the  slightest 
doubt  about  the  weather  being  cool  enough  for  "static"  to  ask  for 
X-back.  It  costs  the  studio  no  more  and  the  emulsion  is  exactly 
the  same  and  all  the  backing  washes  of?  in  the  first  few  minutes 
in  the  developing  solution.  Many  workers  use  it  the  whole  year 

Anyone  who  has  ever  seen  a  fine  scene  utterly  ruined  by  a 
series  of  fern-hke  black  lines — static — which  magnify  on  the 
screen  until  they  look  like  the  branches  of  a  tree — will  appreciate 
the  advantages  of  using  X-back  film  for  X-back  certainly  does 
prevent  static.  I  have  never  been  bothered  with  a  foot  of  static  on 
X-back  although  on  days  only  slightly  chilly  I  have  had  some 
wonderful  criss-cross  patterns  on  films  when  I  did  not  use  it. 



After  getting  the  film,  go  to  the  dark  room  which  you  should 
also  ask  for  and  load  your  magazine  by  the  light  of  the  ruby 
lamp  therein. 

Allow  about  a  foot  of  film  to  project  from  the  slit  in  the  maga- 

In  the  Pathe  magazines  there  are  two  slits.  The  proper  method 
to  load  this  magazine  is  so  the  ribbon  of  film  will  exit  through 
the  left  hand  slit  when  the  magazine  is  laid  on  the  table  v»^ith  the 
two  slits  at  the  bottom  facing  the  operator.  It  must  also  go 
through  the  slit  with  the  emulsion  of  the  film  facing  the  roller 
which  is  just  inside  the  slit. 

In  all  cameras  the  magazines  must  be  so  loaded  that  the  film 
will  leave  the  magazines  with  the  film  in  such  position  that  the 
emulsion  side  will  be  TOWARD  the  lens  IN  ALL  CASES. 

When  you  have  loaded  four  magazines  be  sure  you  have  at 
least  one  more  empty  to  take-up  the  film  you  are  going  to  expose. 
It  is  safer  to  have  two  empties  on  hand.  If  your  work  is  to  be 
exterior  it  is  a  good  idea  to  pack  a  small  changing-bag  along.  It 
takes  up  very  little  room  and  is  of  great  value  in  case  of  a 
"buckle"  or  "twist"  in  the  film  inside  a  magazine,  as  sometimes 

See  that  the  camera  is  properly  oiled.  This  means  that  every 
part  that  moves  or  rotates  on  another  must  have  a  thin  film  of 
oil  upon  it  at  all  times.  The  best  oil  to  use  on  cameras  is  sperm 
oil.  The  old  fashioned  sewing-machine  oil  is  excellent.  The 
much  exploited  patent  oils  that  are  advertised  to  clean,  prevent 
rust  and  pretty  near  anything  from  wear  and  tear  to  hook- 
worm, are  useless.  They  contain  little  or  no  "body"  and  a 
camera  lubricated  with  "4  in  5"  or  "6  in  i"  or  similar  oils  will 
wear  out  in  a  few  months. 

On  the  other  hand  heavy  greasy  oils  tend  to  gum  up  and  collect 
dust.  Vaseline  or  cup  grease  should  never  be  used  on  anything, 
not  even  gears  in  a  camera.  Graphite  is  dangerous  as  it  clogs 
oil  holes  and  prevents  oil  from  reaching  hidden  bearings. 

Next  be  sure  your  still  camera  shutter  is  working  and  the 
holders  loaded.  The  cameraman  is  expected  to  take  "stills"  of 
his  scenes  and  it  is  not  considered  necessary  to  tell  him  to  bring 
his  "still"  along.  He  always  takes  it  along  whether  needed  or 
not.  A  dozen  plates  or  cut  films  are  sufficient  and  all  that  will 
be  required. 


PREPARATION        FOR        THE        DAY'S        WORK 

Do  not  forget  a  focusing  cloth.  No  tripod  will  be  required 
for  the  "still"  as  they  are  furnished  by  the  studios  with  a  screw 
base  to  fit  the  motion  picture  cairiera-tripod.  The  usual  size 
still  cameras  furnished  are  8  x  lo. 

Try  always  to  be  on  time.  If  the  director  calls  his  people  for 
nine  o'clock  be  ready  and  waiting  in  the  studio  auto  or  wherever 
you  know  your  place  to  be  exactly  at  that  hour.  A  call  for  nine 
o'clock  does  not  mean  that  you  are  to  come  drowsily  into  the  studio 
at  that  hour  and  then  hold  everybody  up  until  you  get  film  loaded, 
camera  packed,  etc.  Be  always  ready  on  the  job  and  you  will 
have  won  nine-tenths  of  the  battle  of  installing  yourself  as  a 
valuable  man  in  that  studio. 

Most  studios  provide  assistant  cameramen  to  take  care  of  the 
camerman's  equipment,  but  he  is  a  wise  cameraman  who  loads  and 
unloads  his  own  magazines  and  sees  that  everything  is  ready 
himself.  It  is  proper  and  advisable  to  allow  the  assistant  to 
carry  the  equipment  and  load  it  in  the  auto  but  it  is  highly  ad- 
visable for  the  cameraman  himself  to  take  a  last  look  to  see  that 
all  is  there.  I  have  repeatedly  found  that  when  an  assistant  re- 
ported "all  is  on  board"  some  small  unimportant  piece  like  the 
camera  itself  was  peacefully  reposing  in  the  dark  room. 

A  good  assistant  in  whom  the  cameraman  can  place  absolute 
trust — even  to  the  confidence  of  his  position — would  be  a  boon 
indeed  but,  I  greatly  fear,  "there  ain't  no  such  crittar."  Long 
before  an  assistant  becomes  so  perfect  he  has  worked  his  way 
into  a  better  position.  But  the  assistant  is  important  in  his  way. 
He  carries  the  heavy  pieces  and  the  reflector,  holds  the  reflector  at 
the  angle  which  the  cameraman  sets  it,  holds  up  the  slate  with  the 
number  on  it  to  photo  at  the  end  of  the  scene,  helps  steady  the 
camera  in  high  winds,  hands  the  plate  holders  for  stills  to  the 
operator,  sets  up  and  takes  down  the  cameras  and  makes  himself 
useful  in  many  ways. 

Do  not  hurry  with  your  work  of  threading-up  camera  or  get- 
ting set.  Be  sure  everything  is  correctly  and  carefully  done. 
Never  say  "ready"  until  you  are  really  sure  you  are. 

Upon  returning  from  "location"  it  is  advisable  to  take  the 
rolls  of  exposed  film  out  of  the  magazines,  can  them  and  see  that 
they  go  to  the  developing  room  at  once.  They  are  then  out  of 
your  hands  and  you  will  feel  better  satisfied  than  if  they  lay  in 



the  magazines  over  night.     If  anything  happens  to  the  film  then 
it  is  not  your  fault. 

When  leaving  your  dark  room  for  the  night  be  sure  the  ruby 
and  other  lights  are  out,  the  camera  and  magazines  on  the  table 
or  shelf— NEVER  ON  THE  FLOOR— the  door  locked  and  key 
in  your  pocket. 

Experience  in  photographic  work  is  the  best  foundation  for  a 
cameraman's  job.  The  ranks  of  the  cinematogrophers  of  the  pres- 
ent have  been  recruited  from  strange  places  in  many  instances. 
Most  of  the  best  men  have  worked  their  way  up  from  some  film 
factory  position — they  have  worked  in  dark  rooms,  they  have 
finished  stills,  but  at  the  same  time  they  were  ambitious.  Most 
of  them  had  a  camera  or  kodak  of  their  own  and  they  took  their 
little  cameras  out  on  Sundays  and  made  snapshots.  During  the 
evenings  of  the  week  they  developed  and  printed  them.  They 
got  books  on  photography  from  the  public  library  and  bought 
photographic  periodicals  and  they  read  and  studied  them.  While 
they  were  at  work  in  the  film  factory  they  learned  all  they  could 
from  their  fellow  workers.  They  earned  each  promotion  by 
hard  work  and  study,  and  at  last,  after  a  thorough  apprenticeship, 
they  arrived  at  the  position  of  cameraman.  But  if  they  became 
good  photographers  they  did  not  stop  when  they  had  learned 
to  thread  the  camera  and  turn  the  crank ;  there  were  lots  of  things 
to  be  learned  about  lighting  and  about  artistic  composition 
and  posing.  There  was  much  to  learn  about  lenses,  about  trick 
work  and  visions,  and  then  beside  all  this  and  just  as  important, 
too,  as  the  technical  knowledge  is  the  co-operation  and  co-ordina- 
tion with  the  work  of  the  director.  It  is  essential  to  the  best 
work  that  the  photographer  be  able  to  catch  and  instill  into  his 
picture  the  same  spirit  and  motive  which  actuates  the  director 
who  produces  it.  Unless  the  photographer  understands  and  ap- 
preciates what  his  director  is  endeavoring  to  do,  he  cannot  pro- 
duce the  best  work. 

From  the  ranks  of 'the  newspaper  photographers  have  come 
some  of  the  best  topical  news  cameramen.  Theirs  is  practically 
a  separate  branch  from  the  work  of  those  who  make  dramatic 
pictures,  and  while  numbers  of  them  have  gone  in  very  success- 
fully for  studio  work  on  dramatic  pictures  the  qualifications  which 
make  for  the  success  of  a  topical  film  weekly  photographer  are 


PREPARATION        FOR        THE        DAY'S        WORK 

mostly  different  from  those  of  the  photographer  who  works  with 
a  director  in  the  production  of  staged  stories. 

Many  of  the  men  who  are  now  turning  out  productions  have 
learned  as  camera  boys  or  assistants  to  cameramen  and  their 
success  has  depended  much  upon  the  preceptors  under  whom  they 
worked.  Most  of  them  realize  the  handicap  imposed  upon  them 
by  their  lack  of  laboratory  experience,  and  only  by  serious  study 
from  whatever  sources  available  to  them  have  they  been  able  to 
overcome  their  lack  of  training.  Unfortunately,  there  are  many 
such  at  work  taking  pictures  now  who  lack  this  training  so  neces- 
sary to  the  production  of  the  best  work. 

The  relations  between  the  cameraman  and  the  director  of  a 
picture  are  rarely  as  intimate  as  they  should  be.  The  production 
of  a  film  in  a  proper  and  fitting  manner  is  one  that  requires  the 
closest  co-operation  between  every  factor  of  the  working  forces 
and  the  cameraman  and  director  are  the  two  greatest  factors  in 
this  production.  When  they  do  not  understand  one  another; 
when  they  work  at  cross  purposes,  it  is  evident  that  the  produc- 
tion must  suffer. 

The  director  is  at  the  mercy  of  the  cameraman  for  the  proper 
interpretation  of  his  ideas  upon  the  screen.  Each  necessarily  im- 
poses all  of  his  own  limitations  upon  the  other  and  it  is  only 
through  a  thorough  understanding  and  the  closest  co-operation 
that  these  limitations  are  prevented  from  conflicting  with  the  per- 
fection of  their  work. 

There  are  many  cameramen  who  are  jealous  of  allowing  their 
director  to  learn  what  he  ought  to  know  about  photography  and 
the  limitations  of  the  camera  and  there  are  also  many  directors 
who  are  too  prone  to  regard  the  cameraman  as  a  mere  mechanical 
accessory,  possessing  little  or  no  brains.  When  these  conditions 
obtain  neither  can  respect  nor  have  any  great  consideration  for 
the  ideas  of  the  other,  but  when  the  director  realizes  that  his 
cameraman  is  a  master  of  his  craft,  understands  and  knows  what 
he  can  do  with  the  camera  and  when  the  cameraman  knows  and 
realizes  that  his  director  knows  his  business,  has  a  concrete  idea 
as  to  what  he  wishes  to  portray  upon  the  screen  and  knows  that 
what  he  wishes  to  portray  can  be  photographed  so  as  to  interpret 
his  idea  to  a  spectator,  then  the  cameraman  and  the  director  have 
reached  an  understanding  under  which  they  should  be  able  to 
produce  very  nearly  perfect  pictures, 



Both  cameraman  and  director  should  reaHze  that  not  only  are 
they  being  paid  a  salary  to  produce  the  best  of  which  they  are 
capable,  but  they  should  also  have  a  sense  of  the  dignity  of  the 
task  which  they  are  doing.  Even  the  production  of  a  rough-and- 
tumble  slap-stick  comedy  has  a  dignity  attached  to  its  production. 
"Anything  worth  doing  is  worth  doing  well,"  although  a  trite 
saying,  still  holds  a  world  of  meaning  and  though  well  worn  by 
long  usage,  is  a  motto  which  might  well  hang  above  every  direc- 
tor's desk  and  in  every  cameraman's  room. 

Too  many  cameramen  and  too  many  directors,  as  well,  fail  to 
understand  why  they  do  not  make  a  greater  success,  when  they 
are  satisfied  with  any  old  thing  and  perform  a  task  just  sufficiently 
well  to  enable  them  to  "get  by." 

I  have  met  many  directors  who  seem  to  think  the  best  training 
in  stage  craft  and  drama  can  be  obtained  from  all-night  poker 
parties  and  the  infiltration  of  booze.  I  know  cameramen  who 
have  kept  their  photographic  eye  in  practice  by  sighting  along 
the  billiard  cue  and  who  get  the  largest  part  of  technical  training 
from  the  comic  supplements  of  the  Sunday  newspapers.  Yet 
they  wonder  why  some  cameramen  are  called  "crank  turners." 

Perhaps  some  of  you  boys  think  this  is  rather  drastic  stuff, 
that  I  slam  it  in  too  hard  once  in  a  while,  but  mark  this — the  quiet 
fellows  who  are  drawing  down  the  real  figures  on  their  pay 
checks  on  Saturday  night  are  the  boys  who  put  brains  into  their 
business,  who  are  "Jerry  on  the  job"  and  "Johnnie  on  the  spot" 
when  it  comes  to  producing  the  goods.  What  they  don't  know 
they  learn  somehow.  They  don't  belong  to  the  clique  of  those 
who  know  too  much  to  learn  any  more.  They  were  not  too  proud 
to  exhibit  their  ignorance  when  it  came  to  a  question  of  some- 
thing they  didn't  know,  but  went  and  asked  someone  who  did 
know,  or  spent  the  necessary  time  to  dig  it  out  for  themselves 
from  some  text-book  where  they  could  find  what  they  needed. 

There  has  been  much  talk  recently  of  overcrowding  the  profes- 
sion of  cameramen  thereby  bringing  about  a  general  reduction 
in  salaries.  The  man  who  knows  his  business  does  not  have  to 
worry;  the  man  at  the  top  will  always  get  the  top-notch  salary. 
If  you  have  the  determination  and  stamina  to  learn  and  apply 
what  you  should  know,  you  will  have  little  occasion  to  worry 
about  any  reduction  in  salary.    One  of  the  best  indications  of  this 



is  the  fact  that  there  are  quite  a  number  of  cameramen  today 
who  are  drawing  larger  salaries  than  the  directors  for  whom 
they  take  pictures,  and  although  it  is  dangerous  to  prophecy,  I 
am  confident  enough  of  the  dignity  and  worth  of  the  profession 
which  bears  the  commonplace  name  of  ^'cameraman,'*  to  predict 
that  more  and  more  will  come  an  equalization  of  the  salaries  of 
cameramen  and  directors. 

Not  alone  to  the  director  belongs  the  distinction  of  creative 
ability  in  the  production  of  pictures.  With  the  raising  of  the 
standard  of  craftsmanship,  ingenuity  and  knowledge  required 
of  the  cameraman,  comes  greater  regard.  The  worth-while 
cameraman  is  able  to  endow  the  director's  ideas  with  artistic  and 
pictorial  worth. 


Chapter  VIII 


By  J.  I.  Crabtree 
(Research  Laboratory,  Eastman  Kodak  Co.,  Rochester,  N.  Y.) 

ALTHOUGH  the  majority  of  amateur  photographers  prefer 
to  purchase  photographic  chemicals  in  a  condition  ready 
for  use,  in  the  case  of  advanced  amateurs,  professional 
photographers  and  motion  picture  producers  who  use  chemicals 
on  a  large  scale,  it  is  customary  for  them  to  prepare  the  various 
photographic  solutions  from  the  component  chemicals. 

In  order  to  be  able  to  prepare  correctly  any  and  every  solution 
used  in  photography  a  knowledge  of  the  properties  of  the  chemi- 
cals used  and  of  the  chemical  reactions  involved  during  the  mix- 
ing is  essential,  though  by  adhering  strictly  to  printed  directions 
it  is  usually  possible  for  an  unskilled  worker  to  prepare  the  de- 
veloping and  fixing  solutions  as  generally  used.  However,  in- 
structions for  the  use  of  various  materials  differ.  For  example, 
in  the  case  of  some  developing  formulae  it  is  recommended  to 
dissolve  the  Elon  first,  while  according  to  others  the  sulphite 
should  be  dissolved  first.  Both  methods  may  be  right,  but  if  a 
systematized  method  of  mixing  is  followed,  and  especially  if  the 
photographer  has  a  knowledge  of  the  reactions  involved,  then  he 
can  proceed  to  mix  any  developing  solution  with  confidence,  and 
what  is  more,  he  will  be  able  to  locate  the  trouble  if  for  any 
reason  the  solution  does  not  work  correctly  after  mixing. 

It  is  the  purpose  of  the  author  to  describe  in  as  non-technical 
language  as  possible  the  systematized  method  of  preparing  solu- 
tions now  practiced  in  the  Research  Laboratory  of  the  Eastman 
Kodak  Company. 


A  solution  of  any  kind  is  obtained  by  dissolving  a  solid  or  a 
liquid  in  another  liquid  (or  solid).  The  substance  being  dis- 
solved is  called  the  solute  and  the  liquid  in  which  it  is  dissolved 
is  called  the  solvent.    The  extent  to  which  the  solute  is  soluble  in 



the  solvent  is  called  its  solubility  and  when  the  solvent  will  hold 
no  more  of  the  solute  it  is  said  to  be  saturated. 

The  degree  of  solubility  of  any  chemical  depends  on  the  nature 
of  the  solvent  and  on  the  temperature,  which  should  always  be 

If  a  saturated  solution  is  cooled  down  to  a  lower  temperature, 
crystals  usually  form  which  settle  out  until  the  saturation  point  is 
reached  at  that  particular  temperature,  though  in  the  case  of  a 
substance  like  hypo,  if  all  dust  is  excluded,  crystals  do  not  sepa- 
rate out  on  cooling,  and  a  so-called  super-saturated  solution  is  ob- 
tained. However,  if  a  small  crystal  of  hypo  is  added  to  the 
solution,  crystals  immediately  form  and  continue  to  grow  until 
the  saturation  point  is  reached.  The  best  method  of  preparing 
a  saturated  solution  therefore  is  to  dissolve  the  chemical  in  hot 
water,  cool  to  room  temperature  with  shaking,  allow  to  stand, 
and  filter. 

Meaning  of  "Water  To"' 

When  a  chemical  is  dissolved  in  water  the  volume  of  the  solu- 
tion is  usually  greater  than  that  of  the  water  used,  because  the 
particles  or  molecules  of  the  chemical  occupy  a  certain  space  when 
in  solution.  In  case  two  liquids  are  mixed,  the  final  volume  of 
the  liquid  is  not  necessarily  equal  to  the  sum  of  the  volumes  of 
the  liquid  is  not  necessarily  equal  to  the  sum  of  the  volumes  of 
fifty  volumes  of  alcohol  when  added  to  fifty  volumes  of  water  at 
70°  F.,  produce  ninety-seven  volumes  of  the  mixture  and  not  one 
hundred.  Moreover,  equal  weights  of  different  chemicals  do  not 
occupy  the  same  volume. 

In  photography  we  are  concerned  only  with  the  weight  or 
volume  of  each  chemical  in  a  fixed  volume  of  the  solution,  so 
that  when  mixing,  the  chemical  should  be  dissolved  in  an  amount 
of  water  appreciably  less  than  that  called  for  in  the  formula  and 
then  water  added  up  to  the  amount  stated. 

The  Metric  System  of  Weights  and  Measures 

In  photographic  practice,  solids  are  weighed  and  liquids  are 
measured  either  by  the  metric  or  the  avoirdupois  system. 

Although  a  large  majority  of  photographers  use  the  avoir- 
dupois system  of  weights  and  measures,  this  system  is  incon- 
venient and  complicated  as  compared  with  the  metric  system. 


MOTION         PICTURE         PH'OTO  G  R  A  P  H  Y 

The  metric  unit  of  length  is  the  meter  (which  means  measure). 
The  meter  is  divided  into  one  hundred  parts  called  centimeters, 
abbreviated  to  cms. 

The  unit  of  volume  is  the  cubic  centimeter,  written  cc,  or  ccs. 
in  the  plural,  looo  ccs.  being  equal  to  one  liter  or  i  L.  The  cubic 
centimeter  is  sometimes  termed  a  milliliter  or  ml.  (meaning  one 
thousandth  part  of  a  liter)  though  the  term  cc.  is  satisfactory  for 
photographic  purposes. 

The  unit  of  weight  is  the  gram  which  is  the  weight  of  i  cc.  of 
water  at  4°  C,  at  which  temperature  a  given  volume  of  water 
weighs  the  most.  The  gram  is  written  Gm.  for  short,  the  capital 
letter  G  being  used  to  differentiate  between  Gms.  (grams)  and 
grs.  (grains). 

For  compounding  photographic  formulae  only  Gms.,  ccs.,  and 
liters  are  used,  and  fractions  are  always  expressed  as  a  decimal 
just  as  in  the  case  of  the  U.  S.  currency  which  is  a  metric  cur- 
rency. The  beginner  should  therefore  think  of  grams  and  parts 
of  a  gram  as  if  they  were  dollars  and  cents.  Thus  5.35  Gms. 
corresponds  to  $5.35  or  5  35/100  dollars. 

The  Avoirdupois  System 

In  photography  the  following  table  is  used : 

Weight  Volume 

437  grains      =  i  ounce        60  minims  =  i  fluid  drachms 

8  drachms  =  i  ounce.         8  fluid  drachms  ==  i  fluid  ounce 
16  ounces     =  i  pound     480  minims  =  i  fluid  ounce 

16  ounces  =  i  pint 

128  ounces  =  i  gallon 

The  Conversion  of  Formulae 

Every  photographer  should  be  able  to  convert  a  formula  given 
in  avoirdupois  terms  into  metric  equivalents  without  reference 
to  a  table.     It  is  simply  necessary  to  remember  that — 

15  grains  =    i  Gm. 

I  ounce  =  30  Gms. 

I  fluid  ounce  =:  30  ccs. 
I  gallon         =    4  liters 

from  which  it  is  readily  deduced  that — 

2  pounds  (roughly)  =      i  kilogram 

I  ounce  "  =  450  grs. 

I  pint  "  =  550  CCS. 

I  cc  "         =    50  minims 

The  foregoing  conversion  table  is  not  strictly  correct,  for 
example  one  gram=  15,432  grs.,  i  oz.  =  28.35  Gms.  and  i  fluid 
oz.  =  29,43  CCS.  In  taking  i  Gm.  as  an  equal  to  15  grs.  we  are 
making  an  error  of  four  parts  in  154,  or  nearly  3%,  but  in 
photography  an  error  of  5%  in  most  cases  is  permissible.  Thus 
if  a  formula  called  for  453^2  grs.,  if  this  were  cut  to  an  even 
450,  the  difference  would  not  be  detectable  by  photographic  means, 
though  if  a  quantity  of  65/2  grains  were  cut  to  5  grs.,  then  the 
error  (20%)  would  be  serious. 

Uniformity  in  Formulae 

Formulae  should  always  be  given  in  both  metric  and  avoirdu- 
pois equivalents,  but  in  some  cases  the  proportions  are  given  for, 
say,  40  ozs.,  in  one  case  and  i  L.  in  the  other.  Now,  40 
ozs.  =  1,200  CCS.,  so  that  the  several  quantities  are  not  equivalent. 
This  leads  to  error  in  case  the  chemicals  are  weighed  out  with 
avoirdupois  weights  and  the  solution  made  up  to  strength  in  a 
liter  graduate,  though  if  these  quantities  are  given  for  32  ozs.  of 
solution  which  are  equivalent  to  960  ccs.,  or  roughly  i  L.,  no 
serious  trouble  will  arise  if  the  above  mistake  is  made. 

The  order  in  which  the  ingredients  are  given  in  the  formulae 
is  of  importance.  In  some  cases  water  is  placed  first,  in  other 
cases  last,  but  since  all  developers  are  mixed  with  water,  its  posi- 
tion should  be  last  in  the  formula.  The  ingredients  should  be 
given  in  the  order  in  which  they  are  dissolved,  which  is  as  fol- 
lows: (i)  preservative,  (2)  developing  agent,  (3)  accelerator,  (4) 
restrainer,  (5)  water  to. 

Percentage  Solutions 

In  photography  two  kinds  of  solutions  are  used  as  follows : 

(a)  A   solid   in   a   liquid. 

(b)  A  liquid  in  a  liquid. 



(a)  The  misunderstandings  which  have  arisen  from  time  to 
time  regarding  the  correct  method  of  preparing  solutions  of  a 
definite  percentage  strength  is  due  to  the  fact  that  there  are 
three  ways  of  doing  it.  For  example,  we  can  make  a  5%  solu- 
tion of  potassium  bromide  as  follows : 

(i)  Dissolve  5  Gms.  in  100  ccs.  of  water. 

(2)  Dissolve  5  Gms.  in  95  Gms.  of  water  making  100  Gms. 
of  solution. 

(3)  Dissolve  5  Gms.  in  a  liter  of  water  and  make  up  to  100  ccs. 
In  case  (l)  we  have  about  103  ccs.  of  solution  and  in  case  (2) 

about  98  ccs.  A  chemist  would  use  method  (2),  but  method 
(3)  is  used  when  preparing  photographic  solutions.  Method 
(i)  is  not  used  for  the  reason  given  above,  namely,  that  equal 
weights  of  different  chemicals  do  not  occupy  the  same  volume. 

The  percentage  strength  of  a  solution  therefore  merely  in- 
dicates how  much  of  the  chemical  is  dissolved  in  100  ccs.  of 
the  solution. 

To  prepare  a  7%  solution  of  potassium  bromide,  therefore, 
take  7  Gms.  of  the  salt,  dissolve  it  in  a  little  water,  and  add  water 
up  to  100  ccs.  If  we  now  measure  out  100  ccs.  of  the  solution 
we  have  measured  7  Gms.  of  the  solid. 

In  the  avoirdupois  system  a  10%  solution  of  solid  is  made  by 
taking  I  oz.  and  making  up  to  10  ozs.  with  water.  Converting 
these  figures  into  Gms.  and  ccs.  we  have  30  Gms.  in  300  ccs.,  or 
a  10%  solution. 

Strictly  speaking  this  is  not  correct  since  i  oz.  =  28.35  Gms., 
and  I  fluid  oz.  =  29.57  cc,  so  that  i  oz.  in  10  fluid  ozs.  is  equiv- 
alent to  28.35  Gms.  in  295.7  cc.  or  9.6  Gms.  In  100.  The  error 
involved,  however,  is  less  than  5%  and  for  ordinary  purposes  is 
therefore  negligible. 

If  a  photographic  solution  is  made  by  any  of  the  above 
methods,  i,  2,  or  3,  the  error  involved  is  less  than  5%  and  there- 
fore negligible  for  ordinary  photographic  purposes,  though  since 
the  correct  method  is  the  easiest,  it  should  be  followed. 

Although  somewhat  of  an  anomaly,  it  is  possible  to  prepare  a 
100%  solution  of  a  substance  like  hypo  by  dissolving  100  Gms. 
(which  do  not  occupy  a  space  of  100  ccs.)  and  dissolving  in  suffi- 
cient water  to  make  100  ccs.  of  solution. 

(b)  A  10%  solution  of  a  liquid  in  water  is  made  by  taking 
10  cc,  of  liquid  and  adding  water  up  to  100  cc. 



The  Meaning  of  "Parts'' 

It  is  often  recommended  to  dissolve,  say  lo  parts  of  a  solid 
in  100  parts  of  water.  Such  a  statement  is  meaningless  because 
a  solid  chemical  is  weighed  while  a  liquid  is  measured,  though  if 
the  metric  system  is  used  (since  i  cc.  of  water  weighs  i  Gm.) 
grams  and  ccs.  may  be  considered  synonymous  with  parts. 

In  the  case  of  liquids,  parts  should  be  taken  as  meaning  units 
of  volume,  and  in  the  case  of  solids  as  units  of  weight.  A  "part" 
may  therefore  mean  anything  from  a  gram  to  a  ton,  or  a  cc.  to 
a  gallon  so  long  as  the  other  quantities  are  reckoned  in  the  same 
units  of  weight  or  volume. 

Thus : 

For  use:  A  three  parts  A  300  ccs.  A  15  oz. 

may  mean  or 

B  one  part  B  100  ccs.  B     5  oz. 

If  the  avoirdupois  system  is  used  and  the  formula  contains 
both  solids  and  liquids,  if  ounces  (liquid)  and  ounces  (sohd) 
are  substituted  for  "parts,"  the  error  involved  falls  within  per- 
missible limits. 

Problem : 

Mix  one  gallon  of  solution  according  to  the  following  formula. 

Sodium  sulphite 10  parts 

Pyro I  parts 

Water  to 100  parts 

Now,  one  gallon  equals  4,000  ccs.  Therefore,  dissolve  400 
Gms.  of  sulphite  in  water,  add  40  Cms.  of  pyro,  and  make  up  to 
I  gallon. 


If  a  formula  calls  for,  say  5  drops  of  a  solution,  this  is  a 
very  uncertain  quantity  because  drops  of  liquid  vary  considerably 
in  size.  The  average  drop  from  the  usual  dropping  bottle  or 
burette  measures  about  i  minim  or  a  little  less  than  one-tenth 
part  of  a  cc,  so  that  5  drops  may  be  considered  as  H  cc.  or  5 

The  Hydrometer  Test 

Many  photographers  are  accustomed  to  making  up  their  stock 
solutions  of  hypo,  carbonate,  sulphite,  etc.,  by  means  of  the 
hydrometer.    This  method  has  the  advantage  that  in  case  the 



hypo  (say)  has  become  moist  and  contains  an  unknown  amount 
of  water,  a  definite  reading  on  the  hydrometer  will  give  a  solu- 
tion of  the  same  strength  as  if  perfectly  dry  chemicals  had  been 
used.  When  a  stock  solution  is  made  from  moist  chemicals 
by  weighing,  the  error  caused  by  the  presence  of  water  may  be 
as  high  as  25%  or  50%. 

The  hydrometer  method  has  the  disadvantage  that  the  adjust- 
ment of  a  solution  to  the  required  strength  takes  considerable 
time,  the  hydrometer  reading  does  not  convey  an  idea  as  to  the 
percentage  strength  of  the  solution,  while  the  hydrometer  read- 
ing varies  with  the  temperature.  For  instance,  if  a  stock  solu- 
tion is  made  with  hot  water  and  this  registers,  say,  45  on  the 
hydrometer,  on  cooling,  the  liquid  may  register  48  or  50.  It  is 
therefore  absolutely  necessary  either  to  make  all  readings  when 
the  solutions  have  cooled  to  room  temperature,  or  to  prepare  a 
table  giving  the  variation  of  density  of  each  solution  with  tem- 

Usefulness  of  Per  Cent  Solutions 

The  great  advantage  of  stating  the  strength  of  any  solution 
in  parts  per  hundred  is  that  a  definite  mental  picture  is  at  once 
created  of  its  relative  strength  while  by  means  of  a  number  of 
stock  solutions  it  is  possible  to  compound  certain  formulae  by 
simply  measuring  out  a  definite  volume  of  each  solution  thus 
dispensing  with  a  balance.  Supposing  we  have  a  10%  solution 
of  potassium  ferricyanide  and  of  potassium  bromide  already 
at  hand  and  it  is  desired  to  make  up  the  following  solution: 

Potassium  ferricyanide 6  Cms. 

Potassium  bromide 2.3  Gms. 

Water  to  1,000  ccs. 

it  is  only  necessary  to  measure  out  60  ccs.  of  the  ferricyanide 
solution,  23  ccs.  of  the  bromide  solution  and  add  water  up  to 
1,000  ccs.  and  the  solution  is  made. 

In  the  case  of  very  concentrated  solutions  it  is  not  always  pos- 
sible to  use  this  method,  though  in  view  of  the  time  saved  and 
the  accuracy  of  the  method  it  should  be  applied  whenever  possible. 
Suppose  a  formula  calls  for  o.i  Gms.,  it  is  impossible  to 
weigh  this  amount  accurately  on  the  usual  photographic  scale, 
but  by  measuring  out  i  cc.  of  a  10%  solution,  and  adding  this  to 
the  mixture,  the  problem  is  solved. 



Photographic  Arithimetic 

It  is  often  required  to  mix  up  a  quantity  of  solution  much 
greater  than  that  given  by  the  formula,  in  which  case  the  photog- 
rapher must  perform  a  very  simple  exercise  in  arithmetic  in  order 
to  secure  the  desired  result.  The  two  following  examples  in- 
dicate the  method  of  solution  of  such  simple  problems. 

A.  Mix  6  oz.  of  solution  according  to  the  following  formula : 

Potassium    ferricyanide 4  Gms. 

Hypo   10  Gms. 

Water  to 100  ccs. 

now  6  oz.  =  6  x  30=  180  ccs.  Therefore,  we  need  180/100  x 
4  =  7.2  Gms.  of  ferricyanide  and  180/100  x  10  =  18  Gms.  of 
hypo.     Dissolve  these  in  a  little  water  and  make  up  to  180  ccs. 

B.  How  would  you  mix  i  pint  of  a  7%  solution  of  sodium 
sulphite  ? 

To  make  100  ccs.  of  a  7%  solution  we  need  7  Gms.  There- 
fore, to  make  i  pint  (500  ccs.)  we  need  5  x  7=35  Gms.  To 
prepare  the  solution  therefore,  dissolve  35  Gms.  of  sulphite  in 
water  and  make  up  to  i  pint. 

Dilution  of  Liquids 

It  is  often  required  to  reduce  the  percentage  strength  of  a 
solution.  For  example:  How  would  you  mix  two  gallons  of 
2%^o  acetic  acid,  from  a  supply  of  glacial  acetic  acid? 

To  make  100  cc.  of  28%  acid  we  need  28  ccs.  of  glacial  acid. 

To  make  i  cc.  of  28%  acid,  we  need  28/100  ccs.  of  glacial  acid. 

To  make  8,000  ccs.  of  28%  acid  we  need  28  x  80=2,240  ccs. 
of  glacial  acid. 

Therefore  take  2,240  ccs.  of  glacial  acid  and  add  water  to  make 
2  gallons. 

To  dilute  a  solution  three  times  we  do  not  add  three  times 
the  amount  of  water  but  twice  the  amount  and  so  on.  For 
example :  One  volume  of  solution  plus  2  volumes  of  water  =  3 
volumes  of  solution,  which  is  three  times  as  weak  or  three  times 
as  dilute  as  the  original. 

Stock  Solutions 

A  stock  solution  is  a  concentrated  solution  to  which  water  is 
added  before  use,     In  the  case  of  simple  solutions  containing 



only  one  salt  such  as  potassium  bromide,  sodium  carbonate,  etc., 
a  io%  solution  is  most  convenient  because  by  multiplying  the 
volume  of  the  solution  in  ccs.  by  lo  we  get  the  number  of  grams 
present  in  the  solution.  Thus  75  ccs.  of  10%  potassium  bromide 
contain  7.5  Gms. 

The  limiting  strength  of  solution  which  it  is  possible  to  make 
in  any  particular  case  depends  on  the  solubility  of  the  chemical, 
and  as  the  solubility  diminishes  with  temperature  a  solution 
should  not  be  made  stronger  than  a  saturated  solution  at  40°  F., 
otherwise  in  cold  weather  the  substance  would  crystallize  out. 
(The  reader  is  referred  to  tables  of  solubilities  given  in  most 

A  stock  solution  of  sodium  sulphite  should  be  made  as  strong 
as  possible  (15%  of  the  desiccated  salt)  because  at  such  a 
strength  the  solution  oxidizes  very  slowly  and  will  therefore 
keep,  whereas  in  weaker  solution  it  combines  with  the  oxygen 
in  the  air  very  readily  and  is  then  useless  as  a  preservative. 


For  quantities  up  to  100  Gms.  a  double  pan  balance  should 
be  used  and  a  larger  one  for  quantities  up  to  1,000  Gms.  For 
still  larger  quantities  a  platform  scale  weighing  in  pounds  may  be 
used,  because  large  metric  scales  are  not  readily  procurable. 
For  preparing  small  amounts  of  sample  developers  a  small  chem- 
ical balance  weighing  in  hundredth  parts  of  a  gram  is  necessary. 

Mixing  Vessels 

For  small  quantities  of  solution  conical  glass  flasks  are  the 
most  suitable.  For  larger  quantities  use  enameled  buckets. 
Earthenware  crocks  are  usually  unsatisfactory  because  when  the 
glaze  cracks,  the  solutions  penetrate  into  the  pores  and  thus  con- 
taminate any  other  solutions  subsequently  mixed  in  them. 

A  wooden  stick  or  paddle  is  the  best  form  of  stirrer,  but  a 
separate  one  should  be  used  for  each  solution  so  as  to  eliminate 
the  possibility  of  contamination. 

The  paddle  may  also  be  used  to  measure  out  a  definite  volume 
of  solution  in  a  tank  or  crock  by  cutting  notches  in  the  paddle  to 
correspond  with  definite  volumes  when  the  paddle  is  held  ver- 
tically.    Such  markings  are  only  applicable,  however,  to  the  par- 


E3  WSi    '^ 

■^51  hH  laaiiM 


ticular  tank  or  crock  for  which  the  paddle  was  graduated,  so  that 
a  separate  paddle  should  be  used  for  each  tank  or  crock  unless 
they  are  of  the  same  shape  and  capacity. 

Chemicals  should  be  weighed  out  and  the  solutions  prepared  in 
a  separate  room,  and  care  should  be  taken  when  handling 
such  substances  as  hydroquinone,  resublimed  pyro,  potassium 
ferricyanide,  etc.,  not  to  shake  the  finer  particles  into  the  air, 
otherwise  they  will  enter  the  ventilating  system  and  settle  out 
on  benches,  negatives,  and  prints,  and  cause  no  end  of  trouble  in 
the  way  of  spots  and  stains. 


Weigh  out  chemicals  on  pieces  of  paper  and  after  transferring 
to  the  mixing  vessel  do  not  shake  the  paper  but  drop  it  into  the 
sink  and  allow  water  to  flow  over  it,  thus  dissolving  the  dust. 
Larger  quantities  are  most  conveniently  weighed  out  in  buckets. 


For  small  quantities,  a  glass  graduate  marked  off  in  ccs.  or 
ounces  should  be  used,  for  larger  quantities  use  a  bucket  pre- 
viously graduated,  or  mark  oif  the  inside  of  the  tank  or  crock 
used  for  mixing.  When  measuring  a  liquid  in  a  glass  graduate 
place  the  eye  on  a  level  with  the  graduation  mark  and  pour  in 
the  liquid  until  its  lower  surface  coincides  with  this  level.  Owing 
to  capillary  attraction  the  liquid  in  contact  with  the  walls  cf  the 
graduate  is  drawn  up  the  sides  so  that  on  viewing  sideways  it 
appears  as  if  the  liquid  has  two  surfaces.  All  readings  should 
be  made  from  the  lower  surface  and  at  room  temperature  because 
a  warm  liquid  contracts  on  cooling. 


The  rapidity  with  which  a  substance  dissolves  in  any  solvent 
depends  on  its  solubility  and  degree  of  fineness,  the  temperature 
of  the  solvent,  and  the  rate  of  stirring.  Since  a  chemical  is 
usually  more  soluble  in  hot  water  than  in  cold,  the  quickest  way 
of  mixing  a  solution  is  to  powder  it  and  dissolve  in  hot  water 
by  stirring.  In  the  case  of  a  few  substances,  like  common  salt, 
which  are  only  slightly  more  soluble  in  hot  than  in  cold  water,  the 
use  of  hot  water  is  of  no  advantage. 



Since  most  solutions  are  intended  for  use  at  ordinary  tempera- 
tures, if  hot  water  is  used  for  dissolving,  the  solution  must  be 
cooled  again  if  it  is  required  for  immediate  use.  Usually  the 
time  taken  to  do  this  is  less  than  the  extra  time  which  would  be 
taken  up  in  dissolving  the  chemical  in  cold  water.  When  mixing, 
therefore,  as  a  general  rule,  dissolve  the  chemical  in  as  small  an 
amount  of  hot  water  as  possible,  cool  off,  and  dilute  with  cold 

After  diluting  with  water,  thoroughly  shake  the  solution  if  in 
a  bottle,  or  stir  if  in  a  tank,  otherwise  the  water  added  will 
simply  float  on  top  of  the  heavier  solution. 

When  mixing  a  solution  in  a  tank,  never  add  the  dry  chemicals 
to  the  tank  but  always  make  sure  that  the  chemicals  are  dissolved 
by  mixing  in  separate  buckets  and  filtering  into  the  tank. 

If  the  water  supply  is  not  sufficiently  cold,  so  that  on  diluting 
the  hot  solution  the  final  liquid  is  not  at  the  required  temperature, 
the  hot  solution  should  be  cooled  by  means  of  ice  placed  in  a 
cloth  bag  to  filter  out  the  dirt. 

In  the  case  of  anhydrous  (dry)  salts  such  as  desiccated  sodium 
carbonate,  sodium  sulphite,  etc.,  always  add  the  chemical  to  the 
water  and  not  vice  versa,  otherwise  a  hard  cake  will  form  which  , 
will  dissolve  only  with  difficulty. 


The  purpose  of  filtering  is  to  remove  suspended  matter  such 
as  dirt,  caused  by  the  presence  of  dust  in  the  chemicals  used,  and 
also  any  residue  or  undissolved  particles  which  might  settle  on 
the  plates,  film  or  paper  during  development  Here  are  several 
methods  of  removing  such  particles: 

I.  Allow  the  solution  to  stand  and  draw  off  or  decant  the 
clear  supernatent  liquid.  This  method  is  particularly  useful 
when  the  suspended  matter  is  so  fine  that  it  will  pass  through  a 
coarse  filter. 

Since  coarse  particles  settle  quickly,  the  rate  of  settling  of  a 
semi-colloidal  sludge  can  usually  be  hastened  by  mixing  the  solu- 
tion in  hot  water,  because  the  heat  tends  to  coagulate  the  sus- 
pension and  causes  the  particles  to  cluster  together.  Thus  if 
crystals  of  sodium  sulphide,  which  are  brown  due  to  the  presence 
of  iron,  are  dissolved  in  hot  water  the  colloidal  iron  sulphide 



coagulates  and  settles  out  rapidly  leaving  a  perfectly  colorless 

2.  Filter  the  solution  through  fabric  or  filter  paper.  Filtering 
through  paper  is  usually  a  slow  process  and  the  continual  drop- 
ping of  the  solution  exposes  it  to  the  air  thus  causing  oxidation. 
It  is  usually  sufficient  to  filter  through  very  fine  cloth  or  muslin 
which  has  been  washed  thoroughly,  otherwise  the  sizing  matter  in 
the  fabric  will  be  washed  into  the  solution  and  settle  out  as  a 

Fig.    32 

3.  As  a  modification  of  method  2,  when  mixing  a  quantity  of 
solution  in  a  tank,  stretch  a  filter  bag  made  of  cloth  over  the 
tank,  place  the  chemicals  in  the  bag  (about  6  inches  deep)  and 
allow  hot  water  to  flow  into  it.  In  this  way  the  chemicals  are 
dissolved  and  the  solution  filtered  at  the  same  time.  A  separate 
bag  should  be  used  for  each  solution  so  as  to  eliminate  all  risk 
of  contamination. 

The  method  of  supporting  the  bag  is  shown  in  Fig.  ^2  the  bag 
being  stretched  over  the  wooden  frame  and  held  in  place  by 
means  of  four  iron  bars  passing  through  loops  along  the  edges 
of  the  bag.     For  mixing  hypo,  such  a  bag  is  indispensable. 




In  case  of  deep  tanks  such  as  are  used  for  developing  roll  film 
and  for  motion  picture  work,  the  wooden  frame  can  be  dispensed 
with  by  adopting  the  arrangement  shown  in  Fig.  jj.  The  cloth 
bag  about  6  inches  deep  is  supported  by  means  of  iron  bars  pass- 
ing through  seams  along  opposite  edges  of  the  bag,  and  in  turn 
the  bars  are  held  in  place  either  by  means  of  two  pieces  of  wood 
passing  over  the  ends  of  the  bars,  as  shown,  or  by  metal  stirrups 
fitted  to  the  sides  of  the  tank. 

Fig.   33 

It  is  important  that  the  bag  used  should  be  shallow  (6  to  9 
inches  deep),  otherwise  it  will  dip  into  the  solution  and  the 
chemicals  will  dissolve  very  slowly. 

4.  A  combination  of  methods  i  and  3  which  follows  is  the 
best  and  most  desirable : 

(a)  For  quantities  of  solution  up  to  5  gallons,  filter  through 
cloth  into  a  bottle  or  crock  fitted  with  a  side  tube  and  pinch  cock. 
In  this  way  the  fine  particles  settle  out  but  the  drainage  tube  is 
sufficiently  high  so  as  not  to  disturb  the  sediment.     (See  Fig.  S4-) 

(b)  For  motion  picture  work  the  best  arrangement  for  mixing 
is  to  place  the  chemical  room  immediately  above  the  developing 



room  and  to  mix  the  solutions  in  large  wooden  vats  or  enameled 
tanks  connected  with  lead  piping  to  the  developing  and  fixing 
tanks  in  the  dark  room  underneath.  The  solutions  can  then  be 
mixed  in  advance,  allowed  to  settle  and  be  tested,  so  that  only 
perfect  solutions  pass  into  the  tanks  located  in  the  dark  room. 

Removing   Scum 
When  mixing  a  chemical  solution,  if  method  4  above  is  not 

Fig.  34 

adopted,  and  especially  if  the  solutions  are  not  filtered,  a  scum 
usually  rises  to  the  surface  consisting  of  fibers,  dust,  etc.,  which 
should  be  skimmed  off  with  a  towel. 

When  a  fixing  bath  has  been  used  for  some  time  and  is  allowed 
to  stand  undisturbed  for  a  few  days,  any  sulphuretted  hydrogen 
gas  which  may  be  present  in  the  atmosphere  forms  a  metallic 
looking  scum  of  silver  sulphide  at  the  surface  of  the  liquid,  and 
on  immersing  the  film  this  scum  attaches  itself  to  the  gelatine 
and  prevents  the  action  of  the  developer.  Any  such  scum  should 
be  carefully  removed,  before  use,  with  a  sheet  of  blotting  paper. 


MOTION         PICTURE         PH'OTOGRAP  H  Y 

Measuring  Temperatures 

Temperatures  of  solutions  are  measured  either  by  the  Centi- 
grade or  Fahrenheit  thermometer.  On  the  Centigrade  scale 
water  freezes  at  zero  and  boils  at  ioo°,  and  on  the  Fahrenheit 
scale  the  corresponding  readings  are  32°  and  212°,  so  that  100°  C. 
are  equivalent  to  212°— 32°=i8o°  F.  or  1°  C.  is  equivalent 
to  9/5^  F. 

To  convert  degrees  Centigrade  to  Fahrenheit,  multiply  by  9/5 
and  add  32.  To  convert  degrees  Fahrenheit  to  Centigrade  sub- 
tract 32  and  divide  by  9/5. 

In  photography  the  Fahrenheit  thermometer  is  almost  univer- 
sally employed.  There  would  be  no  appreciable  advantage  adopt- 
ing the  Centigrade  scale,  since  the  precision  of  the  Fahrenheit 
scale  is  greater.  An  error  of  1°  in  reading  the  Centigrade  scale 
means  an  error  of  practically  2°  on  the  Fahrenheit  scale. 

How  TO  Mix  Developing  Solutions 

A  developer  usually  contains  four  solid  ingredients  as  follows: 

A.  The  developing  agent  (Elon,  hydroquinone,  pyro,  para- 
minophenol,  etc.). 

B.  The  alkali  (carbonates  and  hydroxides  of  lithium,  sodium, 
potassium  and  ammonium). 

C.  The  preservative  (sulphites,  bisulphites,  and  metabisul- 
phites  of  sodium  and  potassium). 

D.  The  restrainer  (bromides  and  iodides  of  sodium,  potassium 
and  ammonium). 

If  a  developing  agent  like  hydroquinone  is  dissolved  in  water, 
the  solution  will  either  not  develop  at  all  or  develop  very  slowly. 
On  standing  it  will  gradually  turn  brown  due  to  what  is  known 
as  oxidation  or  chemical  combination  of  the  hydroquinone  with 
the  oxygen  present  in  the  air  in  contact  with  the  surface  of  the 
liquid.  This  oxidation  product  is  of  the  nature  of  a  dye  and  will 
stain  fabrics  or  gelatine  just  like  a  dye  solution. 

On  adding  a  solution  of  an  alkali  such  as  sodium  carbonate,  the 
hydroquinone  at  once  becomes  a  developer.  At  the  same  time 
the  rate  of  oxidation  is  increased  to  such  an  extent  that  the  solu- 
tion very  rapidly  turns  dark  brown,  and  if  a  plate  is  developed 
in  this  solution  it  becomes  stained  and  fogged.  Tlie  subject  of 
^'Chemical  Fog"  has  been  fully  treated  by  the  author  in  a  separate 



article  (Amer.  Ann.  Phot.,  1919)  to  which  the  reader  is  referred. 

If  we  add  a  little  sodium  bisulphite  to  the  brown  colored  solu- 
tion mentioned  above,  the  brown  color  or  stain  is  bleached  out 
and  a  colorless  solution  is  obtained.  Therefore,  if  the  preserva- 
tive is  first  added  to  the  developer,  on  adding  the  accelerator  the 
solution  remains  perfectly  clear  because  the  sulphite  preserves 
or  protects  the  developing  agent  from  oxidation  by  the  air. 

As  a  rule  the  preservative  should  be  dissolved  first. 

An  apparent  exception  to  this  rule  should  be  made  when  dis- 
solving Elon  in  concentrated  solution.  This  developing  sub- 
stance is  insoluble  in  a  strong  solution  of  sodium  sulphite 
while  if  a  sulphite  solution  is  added  to  a  strong  solution  of  the 
developing  agent  a  white  precipitate  is  formed.  When  once  the 
Elon  is  dissolved,  however,  it  takes  a  fairly  high  concentration 
of  sulphite  to  bring  it  out  of  solution  again,  though  only  a  low 
concentration  is  required  to  prevent  the  Elon  from  dissolving. 

On  this  account  some  direction  sheets  recommend  that  the  Elon 
should  be  dissolved  first,  though  if  water  containing  dissolved 
air  is  used  the  Elon  will  oxidize  and  only  a  small  amount  of 
oxidation  product  is  necessar}'^  to  cause  chemical  fog.  Therefore, 
when  dissolving  Elon,  dissolve  a  portion  of  the  sulphite  sufficient 
to  prevent  immediate  oxidation  and  yet  not  enough  to  prevent 
the  Elon  from  dissolving  readily.  Then  dissolve  the  Elon  and 
finally  add  the  remainder  of  the  sulphite. 

The  alkali  (say  carbonate)  may  then  be  added: 

(a)  Dissolve  the  carbonate  separately  and  add  to  the  cooled 
Elon-sulphite  solution.  There  is  danger,  however,  of  the  Elon 
precipitating  out  before  the  carbonate  is  added. 

(b)  After  dissolving  a  portion  of  the  sulphite  and  adding  the 
Elon,  dissolve  the  remainder  of  the  sulphite  and  carbonate  to- 
gether, cool  and  add  to  the  Elon-sulphite  mixture. 

The  above  procedure  is  necessary  so  that  when  the  carbonate 
is  added  the  solutions  are  cool.  If  a  hot  carbonate  solution  is 
added  to  the  developing  agent,  even  in  the  presence  of  the  pre- 
servative, a  substance  is  formed  which  produces  chemical  fog. 

In  the  case  of  developers  containing  no  bromide,  used  for 
testing  the  quality  of  plates  and  for  developing  under-exposed 
negatives,  it  is  absoluitely  necessary  to  mix  the  developer  with 
cold  water  if  a  minimum  of  fog  is  desired. 

In  the  case  of  some  samples  of  paraminophenol  which  are  dis- 



colored  by  the  presence  of  oxidation  products,  these  may  be  par- 
tially removed  by  boiling  after  adding  to  the  sulphite  solution.  In 
this  way  the  oxidation  products  are  reduced  by  the  sulphite  to 
paraminophenol.  The  solution  should  be  cooled  again  before 
adding  the  carbonate.  If  pure  chemicals  are  used  such  a  pro- 
cedure is,  of  course,  entirely  unnecessary. 

Bromides  and  iodides  are  added  to  a  developer  to  compensate 
for  any  chemical  fog  produced  by  the  developer,  or  inherent  in 
the  emulsion.  It  is  immaterial  at  what  stage  during  mixing  the 
bromide  is  added. 

When  mixing  a  developer  the  following  rules  should  therefore 
be  followed: 

1.  Dissolve  the  preservative  first.  In  the  case  of  Elon  dis- 
solve only  a  portion  of  the  sulphite  first,  dissolve  the  Elon,  and 
then  add  the  remainder  of  the  sulphite. 

2.  Make  sure  that  one  chemical  is  dissolved  before  adding 
the  next.  If  the  alkali  is  added  before  the  crystals  of  the  de- 
veloping agent  are  dissolved,  each  crystal  becomes  oxidized  at 
the  surface  and  the  resulting  solution  will  give  fog. 

3.  Mix  the  developer  at  as  low  a  temperature  as  possible. 

4.  In  the  case  of  desiccated  chemicals  like  sodium  carbonate 
and  sodium  sulphite,  add  the  chemical  to  the  water  and  not  vice 

Two  practical  methods  of  mixing  are  possible,  as  follows : 
(a)  Dissolve  all  the  chemicals  in  one  bottle  or  vessel  by  adding 
the  solid  chemicals  to  the  water  in  the  correct  order  (in  the 
formula  the  ingredients  should  be  named  in  the  order  in  which 
they  are  dissolved).  For  example,  to  mix  the  following  formula 
proceed  as  follows : 

Sodium  sulphite 75  Gms. 

Elon  10  Gms. 

Hydroquinone    5  Gms. 

Sodium  Carbonate 50  Gms. 

Potassium  Bromide 1.5  Gms. 

Water  to i  L. 

Dissolve  about  ten  grams  of  the  sulphite  in  about  750  cc.  of 
warm  water  and  then  dissolve  the  Elon.  Now  dissolve  the  re- 
mainder of  the  sulphite  and  then  the  hydroquinone.  Finally  add 
the  carbonate  and  bromide  and  dilute  to  i,cx)0  cc. 



For  large  quantities  the  filter  bag  method  should  be  used,  the 
chemicals  being  placed  in  the  bag  and  dissolved  in  the  above  order. 

(b)  An  alternative  method  is  to  dissolve  the  preservative  and 
developing  agent  in  one  vessel  and  the  carbonate  and  bromide  in 
another,  cool  and  mix.  This  method  is  the  safest  and  best  for 
quantity  production. 

For  example,  to  mix  the  following  motion  picture  developer 
proceed  as  follows : 

Sodium  Sulphite 4  lbs. 

Hydroquinone   13  oz. 

Sodium  Carbonate   4  lbs. 

Potassium  Bromide 3  oz. 

Water  to 10  gal. 

Dissolve  the  sulphite  in  about  one  gallon  of  hot  water,  then  dis- 
solve the  hydroquinone  and  filter  into  the  tank.  Then  add  one 
gallon  of  cold  water  to  the  tank,  dissolve  the  sodium  carbonate 
and  bromide  in  one  gallon  of  hot  water  and  filter  this  into  the 
tank,  immediately  adding  cold  water  up  to  ten  gallons.  The 
object  of  adding  cold  water  to  the  tank  is  to  cool  off  the  solution 
before  the  carbonate  is  added. 

Mixing  Concentrated  Developers 

The  extent  to  which  a  developer  may  be  concentrated  is  deter- 
mined by  the  solubility  of  the  least  soluble  constituent,  because  a 
stock  solution  should  usually  withstand  cooling  to  40°  F.  without 
any  of  the  ingredients  crystallizing  out.  Usually,  the  hydro- 
quinone and  Elon  come  ont  of  solution  on  cooling,  but  by  adding 
alcohol  (grain,  wood,  or  denatured)  up  to  a  concentration  of 
10%,  the  crystallization  is  prevented,  since  the  developing  agents 
are  very  soluble  in  alcohol. 

The  addition  of  the  alcohol  does  not  prevent  the  other  ingredi- 
ents, such  as  sodium  sulphite,  from  crystallizing  out.  In  fact, 
the  alcohol  diminishes  their  solubility  and  therefore  increases  the 
tendency  to  come  out  of  solution. 

A  paraminophenol-carbonate  developer  is  difficult  to  prepare  in 
concentrated  form,  though  by  adding  a  little  caustic  soda  the 
solubility  of  the  paraminophenol  is  increased  and  a  stronger  solu- 
tion can  be  thus  prepared. 

When  preparing  concentrated  developers  it  is  important  to 



observe  carefully  the  rules  of  mixing.  To  obtain  a  colorless  de- 
veloper take  care  to  keep  the  temperature  of  the  solution  as  low 
as  possible. 

Two-Solution  Developers 

A  two-solution  developer  is  simply  a  one-solution  developer 
split  into  two  parts,  one  containing  the  carbonate  and  bromide, 
the  other  containing  the  developing  agent  and  preservatives  so 
that  the  developer  will  oxidize  less  readily  and  therefore  keep 
well.  The  reason  it  is  customary  to  keep  a  developer  like  pyro  in 
two  solutions,  is  because  pyro  oxidizes  much  more  readily  than 
Elon  or  paraminophenol  with  a  given  amount  of  preservative. 

For  purposes  of  mixing,  only  one  solution  developers  need  be 
considered  because  the  same  rules  regarding  mixing  apply  in  both 

Developing  Troubles 

In  order  to  explain  the  reason  for  any  particular  developer 
trouble  it  is  necessary  to  understand  thoroughly  what  takes  place 
when  the  ingredients  are  mixed  in  the  wrong  order,  or  if  any  in- 
gredient is  omitted  from  the  formula,  also  the  effect  of  chemical 
impurities.  It  is  impossible  here  to  indicate  every  possible 
trouble  but  the  more  important  ones  may  be  listed  as  follows : 

1.  The  developer  gives  fog  or  chemical  fog.  Fog  is  the  chief 
trouble  caused  by  faulty  mixing.  It  may  be  due  to  any  of  the 
following  reasons:  Violation  of  the  rules  of  mixing;  mixing  the 
solution  too  hot;  omission  of  the  bromide;  addition  of  too  much 
carbonate  or  too  little  sulphite ;  the  use  of  impure  chemicals ;  etc. 

2.  The  solution  is  colored.  As  a  general  rule  the  developer 
when  mixed  should  be  colorless.  If  colored,  the  developer  is 
liable  to  give  fog.  In  the  case  of  a  pyro  developer  mixed  with 
bisulphite  which  contains  iron,  the  iron  combines  with  the  pyro 
to  form  an  inky  substance  which  imparts  a  dirty  red  color  to  the 

If  a  pyro  developer  is  mixed  as  two  separate  solutions  A  and  B, 
the  pyro  solution  which  usually  contains  only  carbonate  and 
bromide,  should  be  perfectly  colorless,  though  if  carelessly  mixed 
in  dirty  vessels  it  may  be  colored  brown  by  the  presence  of  a 
little  pyro  A. 

3.  If  the  solution  does  not  develop,  then  either  the  developing 
agent  or  the  carbonate  was  omitted  during  mixing. 



How  TO  Mix  Fixing  Solutions 

Fixing  baths  may  be  divided  into  the  following  classes: 

1.  Plain  hypo  solutions. 

2.  Acid  hypo  solutions  consisting  of  hypo  with  the  addition  of 
sodium  bisulphite,  potassium  metabisulphite,  or  sodium  sulphite 
with  acid. 

3.  Acid  hardening  hypo  solutions. 

1.  Usually  no  difficulty  is  experienced  when  mixing  a  plain 
hypo  solution.  When  mixing  a  quantity  of  solution  in  a  tank  the 
filter  bag  method  should  be  used  and  the  hypo  dissolved  in  warm 
water  because  the  temperature  drops  considerably  while  the  hypo 
is  dissolving.  If  a  scum  forms  on  the  surface  of  the  solution 
while  standing,  it  should  be  removed  by  drawing  the  edge  of  a 
towel  across  the  surface. 

If  a  wooden  cover  is  used  for  the  tank,  fungi  often  develop  in 
a  hypo  solution  and  produce  acid  substances  which  tend  to  turn 
the  solution  milky.  In  such  a  case,  the  tank  should  be  thoroughly 
cleaned  and  the  cover  faced  with  sheet  lead. 

A  plain  fixing  bath,  however,  is  seldom  used  because  it  gradu- 
ally becomes  alkaline  from  an  accumulation  of  alkali  carried  over 
by  the  prints  and  plates  from  the  developer.  This  tends  to  soften 
the  gelatine,  while  the  image  continues  to  develop  in  the  fixing 
bath.  If  two  prints  stick  together,  less  development  takes  place 
at  the  point  of  contact  causing  uneven  development.  If  the  bath 
is  acid,  the  acid  kills  or  neutralizes  the  alkali  in  the  developer 
carried  over,  thus  preventing  unevenness. 

2.  In  order  to  mix  an  acid  fixing  bath  intelligently  it  is  neces- 
sary to  understand  a  little  about  its  chemistry. 

Hypo  can  be  made  by  boiling  together  sodium  sulphite  and 
flowers  of  sulphur  until  no  more  sulphur  is  dissolved.  If  acid 
is  added  to  a  hypo  solution  sulphur  is  again  liberated,  forming  a 
milky  solution  known  as  milk  of  sulphur.  If  sodium  sulphite  is 
present,  however,  any  sulphur  which  tends  to  come  out  of  solution 
combines  with  the  sulphite  to  form  more  hypo  and  the  solution 
therefore  remains  clear. 

This  sulphur  cannot  be  redissolved  by  adding  sodium  sulphite 
to  the  milky  solution  except  by  boiling.  On  standing  it  is  apt  to 
settle  on  prints  or  plates  as  a  scum  All  acid  fixing  baths  there- 
fore contain  either  sodium  bisulphite,  potassium  metabisulphite, 



or  a  mixture  of  sodium  sulphite  and  some  acid,  and  the  following 
directions  for  mixing  should  be  followed : 

(a)  Do  not  add  the  bisulphite  or  acid  sulphite  solutions  to  the 
warm  hypo  solution.  If  the  solutions  are  not  perfectly  cold  when 
mixed  the  hypo  will  turn  milky. 

Experience  has  shown  that  potassium  metabisulphite  has  less 
tendency  to  produce  milkiness  than  sodium  bisulphite,  though  for 
practical  purposes  the  difference  is  almost  negligible. 

Of  the  common  acids,  sulphuric,  hydrochloric,  acetic,  citric, 
etc.,  acetic,  citric,  and  tartaric  acids  have  less  tendency  to  produce 
milkiness  for  a  given  degree  of  acidity  than  sulphuric,  which  fact 
would  be  expected  from  theoretical  considerations. 

(b)  On  keeping,  an  acid  hypo  solution  gradually  becomes 
milky,  so  that  a  stock  solution  of  the  sodium  bisulphite,  etc., 
should  be  kept  and  added  to  the  plain  hypo  stock  solution  as  re- 
quired. For  general  purposes  50  cc.  of  a  50%  sodium  bisulphite 
solution  are  added  to  1,000  cc.  of  a  35%  hypo  solution.  If  any 
considerable  excess  over  this  amount  is  added,  the  hypo  rapidly 
turns  milky  owing  to  the  liberation  of  sulphur,  especially  if  the 
weather  is  warm. 

3.  Acid  hardening  baths  are  prepared  by  adding  to  hypo  an 
acid  hardening  solution  which  contains  the  following  Ingredients : 

(a J  An  acid  such  as  acetic,  citric,  tartaric,  lactic,  sulphuric, 
etc.,  which  stops  development. 

(b)  A  hardening  agent  such  as  alum,  chrome  alum  or  formalin. 

(c)  A  preservative  such  as  sodium  sulphite  or  sodium  bi- 

The  latter  acts  as  a  preservative  In  two  ways:  It  prevents  the 
formation  of  sulphur  by  the  action  of  the  acid  on  the  hypo,  and, 
also  prevents  the  developer  carried  over  into  the  fixing  bath  from 
oxidizing  and  turning  brown. 

How  TO  Mix  the  Acid  Hardener 

Prepare  the  acid  hardening  solution  as  a  separate  stock  solu- 
tion and  add  this  to  the  hypo  solution  as  required 

The  order  of  mixing  is  important. 

(a)  When  mixing  In  one  vessel,  first  dissolve  the  alum  In  warm 
water,  then  add  the  acid  and  add  the  sulphite  immediately ;  other- 
wise, if  the  acid  alum  solution  is  allowed  to  stand,  the  alum  will 



crystalize  out  again.  It  is  sometimes  recommended  to  reverse 
the  process,  namely,  dissolve  the  sulphite  first,  add  the  acid,  and 
then  the  alum,  but  unless  the  alum  is  finely  powdered  it  does  not 
readily  dissolve  unless  the  solution  is  warm.  In  this  case  sulphur 
dioxide  gas  is  given  off  from  the  acid  sulphite  solution. 

(b)  The  best  method  is  to  dissolve  the  alum  and  sulphite  in 
separate  solutions,  cool,  add  the  acid  to  the  sulphite  and  then 
add  the  alum  solution. 

If  the  order  of  mixing  is  reversed  and  the  alum  first  added  to 
the  sulphite,  a  white  sludge  of  aluminum  sulphite  is  formed 
which  dissolves  with  difficulty  when  the  acid  is  added.  If  after 
mixing  the  hardener  is  milky  and  a  sludge  settles  out,  there  is  a 
relative  insufficiency  of  acid.  That  is  the  acid  used  was  not  up 
to  strength,  or  too  much  alum  or  sulphite  was  added. 

With  all  other  hardening  baths  the  order  of  mixing  is  the  same. 

Fixing  Bath  Troubles 

I.     Milkiness  of  the  fixing  bath. 

Sometimes  a  fixing  bath  turns  milky  immediately  on  adding  the 
hardener  and  sometimes  after  being  in  use  for  some  time.  The 
milkiness  may  be  of  two  kinds : 

A.  If  the  precipitate  settles  very  slowly  on  standing,  the  milki- 
ness is  due  to  sulphur  caused  by  the  following  conditions : 

(a)  Too  much  acid  in  the  hardener, 

(b)  Too  little  sulphite  or  the  use  of  impure  sulphite  (in  which 
case  there  is  not  sufficient  present  to  protect  the  hypo  from  the 

(c)  High  temperature.  The  hardener  should  only  be  added 
to  the  hypo  solution  when  at  room  temperature.  If  the  tempera- 
ture of  the  acid  fixing  bath  is  over  85°  F.  it  will  not  remain  clear 
longer  than  a  few  days  even  when  mixed  correctly.  The  only 
remedy  is  to  throw  the  bath  away  and  mix  fresh  solution  as  re- 

B.  If  the  milkiness  disappears  on  standing  for  a  few  hours, 
and  a  gelatinous  sludge  of  aluminum  sulphite  settles  out,  this  is 
caused  by: 

(a)  Too  little  acid  in  the  hardener.  For  example,  supposing 
a  formula  calls  for  pure  glacial  (98%)  acetic  acid  and  2S%  acid 
is  used  by  mistake,  then  we  have  added  less  than  one-third  the 
required  amount. 



(b)  Too  little  hardener  in  the  fixing  bath.  When  fixing 
prints,  a  relatively  large  proportion  of  the  developer  is  carried 
over  to  the  fixing  bath.  This  soon  neutralizes  the  acid  and  per- 
mits the  formation  of  aluminum  sulphite.  A  fixing  bath  with  the 
correct  proportion  of  hardener,  when  exhausted,  still  contains 
alum  and  sulphite  but  no  acid,  and  these  combine  to  form  a  sludge 
of  aluminum  sulphite. 

It  is  extremely  important  therefore  to  use  only  acid  oi  known 
strength.  Avoid  trouble  by  using  neither  more  nor  less  acid  than 
is  called  for  in  the  formula. 

2.     The  bath  does  not  harden. 

A  frequent  cause  of  insufficient  hardening  is  the  use  of  in- 
ferior alum  which  does  not  contain  the  correct  proportion  of 
aluminum  sulphate.  An  exhausted  bath  which  is  alkaline  will 
also  harden  very  slowly.     Alum  hardens  best  in  acid  solution. 

Miscellaneous  Solutions 

The  number  of  miscellaneous  solutions  used  in  photography 
for  intensifying,  reducing,  toning,  etc.,  is  so  large  that  it  is  be- 
yond the  scope  of  this  book  to  deal  with  individual  cases.  The 
method  of  procedure  is  much  the  same  as  when  mixing  develop- 
ers, and  the  order  of  mixing  is  usually  stated  specifically. 

Substitution  of  Chemicals 

Occasion  arises  often  when  the  photographer  is  out  of  stock 
of  some  particular  chemical  and  he  is  tempted  to  substitute  one 
chemical  for  another.  In  this  chapter  it  will  be  shown  how  far 
substitution  is  possible  in  the  case  of  developing  and  fixing  baths. 
These  remarks  usually  apply  to  solutions  in  general. 

Substitutes  for  Potassium  Salts 

In  view  of  the  present  scarcity  of  potassium  salts  and  their 
greater  expense  as  compared  with  sodium  salts,  the  question 
arises  as  to  what  extent  they  can  be  replaced  by  salts  of  sodium 
or  ammonium. 

As  a  general  rule,  for  photographic  purposes,  a  potassium  salt 
can  be  replaced  by  a  sodium  salt  weight  for  weight,  the  error 
caused  by  the  difference  in  molecular  weight  of  the  two  salts 



being  usually  negligible.  There  are  many  exceptions,  however, 
where  there  is  a  difference  in  physical  properties  of  the  two  salts 
for  example,  potassium  carbonate  and  sodium  bichromate  are 
deliquescent  (i.e.,  they  attract  the  moisture  present  in  the  atmos- 
phere) while  sodium  carbonate  and  potassium  bichromate  are  not. 

SuBSTiTioN  IN  Developing  Formulae 

1.  The  developing  Agent. 

As  a  general  rule  it  is  not  possible  to  replace  one  developing 
agent  by  another  and  obtain  a  developer  with  identical  properties, 
since  each  developing  agent  has  its  own  characteristics  as  regards 
rate  of  development,  fog,  color  of  image  produced,  etc.  In  some 
cases,  however,  a  close  approximation  can  be  made.  For  example 
substitute  Elon  by  Kodelon  (or  paramidophenol)  providing  the 
developer  is  sufficiently  dilute  to  permit  of  sufficient  paramido- 
phenol being  dissolved.  This  applies  either  to  an  all  Elon  or  an 
Elon-hydroquinone  formula. 

If  in  an  Elon-hydroquinone  (or  E-H)  formula  paramidophenol 
is  substituted  for  the  Elon  and  the  activity  of  the  developer  is  in- 
creased by  the  addition  of  alkali,  the  effect  of  the  alkali  is  pro- 
portionately greater  on  the  hydroquinone  than  on  the  paramido- 
phenol so  that  a  rapid  hard  working  developer  is  obtained.  To 
avoid  this,  proportionally  more  paramidophenol  is  required  than 
if  Elon  is  used. 

2.  The  preservative. 

It  is  not  customary  to  substitute  sodium  bisulphite  for  potas- 
sium metabisulphite  weight  by  weight,  though  in  a  plain  fixing 
bath,  sodium  bisulphite  has  a  slightly  greater  tendency  to  pro- 
duce sulphurization  than  the  potassium  salt. 

The  question  is  often  asked  as  to  the  difference  in  action 
between  sodium  sulphite  and  sodium  bisulphite.  Sodium  bi- 
sulphite may  be  considered  as  a  compound  of  sodium  sulphite  and 
sulphurous  acid,  and  therefore  reacts  acid.  Sodium  sulphite  is 
alkaHne.  In  the  case  of  a  two-solution  pyro  formula  where  the 
pyro  A  solution  is  preserved  with  oxalic  acid  or  sodium  bisulphite, 
an  equal  weight  of  sodium  sulphite  would  not  preserve  as  well, 
since  pyro  oxidizes  much  more  readily  in  alkaline  than  in  acid 

In  the  case  of  a  one-solution  developer  containing,  say,  sodium 



sulphite,  sodium  bisulphite  and  sodium  carbonate,  the  bisulphite 
is  converted  to  sulphite  by  the  sodium  carbonate  according  to 
the  following  equation : 

Sodium  Bisulphite  +  Sodium  Carbonate  =  Sodium  Sulphite 
+  Sodium  Bicarbonate. 

So  that  a  corresponding  amount  of  sodium  sulphite  might  just 
as  well  have  been  added  in  the  first  place.  Sodium  bisulphite 
neutralizes  or  destroys  an  equivalent  amount  of  sodium  carbonate 
thus  reducing  the  proportion  of  alkali  and  therefore  exerting  an 
apparent  restraining  action.  The  developer  apparently  keeps 
longer  because  some  of  the  carbonate  has  been  destroyed. 

The  relative  amounts  of  different  salts  which  produce  the  same 
preserving  action  is  given  in  the  following  table : 

Sodium  sulphite  i.o    part 

Sodium  bisulphite 0,83  part 

Potassium  metabisulphite 0.88  part 

For  a  two-solution  developer  therefore  use  sodium  bisulphite. 
In  the  case  of  a  single  solution  developer,  containing  alkali,  use 
sodium  sulphite,  because  in  this  case  no  advantage  is  gained  by 
using  a  mixture  of  sulphite  and  bisulphite. 

3.     The  Alkali. 

The  common  alkalis  are  the  carbonates  and  hydroxides  of 
sodium,  potassium  or  ammonium.  Substances  like  acetone,  tri- 
basic  sodium  phosphate,  borax,  and  amines  are  occasionally  used 
but  will  not  be  considered  here. 

When  sodium  carbonate  is  dissolved  in  water  a  small  propor- 
tion of  it  reacts  with  the  water  forming  caustic  soda  and  sodium 
bicarbonate.  This  process  is  called  hydrolysis  though  only  a  small 
portion  of  the  carbonate  is  hydrolyzed  at  any  moment.  As  the 
caustic  soda  formed  is  used  up  in  development,  more  carbonate 
hydrolyzes  so  we  can  consider  that  carbonate  acts  as  a  reservoir 
of  caustic  alkali.  If,  in  the  first  place,  a  solution  of  caustic  soda 
was  used  of  the  same  alkalinity  as  the  carbonate  it  would  soon 
be  used  up.  The  use  of  carbonate  therefore  enables  us  to  use  a 
small  concentration  of  alkali  and  yet  keep  it  constant  during  de- 

It  is  rarely  possible  therefore  to  replace  caustic  alkalis  by  car- 
bonated alkalis  such  as  sodium  or  potassium  carbonate. 

Potassium  carbonate  is  slightly  more  active  than  sodium  car- 
bonate in  solution  because  it  hydrolyzes  to  a  greater  extent.     For 


(Courtesy   of  the   Universal  Film  Company) 



developing  motion  picture  film  on  a  reel  when  the  developer  may 
splash  on  the  floor,  potassium  carbonate  cannot  be  substituted  by 
sodium  carbonate.  Because  of  the  deliquescent  nature  of  potas- 
sium carbonate,  the  splashes  of  solution  remain  moist  thus  pre- 
venting the  formation  of  carbonate  dust  in  the  air. 

Caustic  soda  and  caustic  potash  may  be  replaced  weight  for 
weight  in  most  formulae. 

Ammonia  and  ammonium  carbonate  are  seldom  used  in  de- 
velopers on  account  of  their  odor  and  the  fact  that  they  tend  to 
cause  dichroic  fog. 

Desiccated  and  Crystal  Sodas 

Sodium  carbonate  and  sodium  sulphite  are  often  supplied  in 
two  forms:  Crystals  and  desiccated  or  dry,  which  is  sometimes 
called  anhydrous  because  it  does  not  contain  water  of  crystaliza- 

Desiccated  sodas  possess  the  advantage  that  they  occupy  less 
than  half  the  bulk  of  the  crystals,  while  desiccated  sodium  sul- 
phite is  much  less  liable  to  oxidation  by  the  air  than  the  crystalline 

The  sodas  should  be  substituted  as  follows: 

One  part  by  weight  of  sodium  carbonate  (desiccated)  for  three 
parts  by  weight  of  the  crystals. 

One  part  by  weight  of  sodium  sulphite  (desiccated)  for  two 
parts  by  weight  of  the  crystals. 

4.     The  Restrainer. 

Potassium  bromide  may  be  substituted  by  an  equal  weight  of 
sodium  bromide.  Ammonium  bromide  should  not  be  used  in  a 
developer  because  the  alkali  liberates  ammonia  gas  and  this  too 
tends  to  produce  dichroic  fog. 

Substitution  in  the  Fixing  Bath 

Sulphites  and  Bisulphites. 

The  same  remarks  apply  as  to  preservatives  in  the  developer. 


An  alum  is  a  compound  or  double  salt  of  aluminum  sulphate  or 
chromium  sulphate  with  either  sodium,  potassium  or  ammonium 
sulphate.  The  hardening  action  is  produced  onl)^  by  the  alum- 
inum or  chromium  sulphate,  so  that  equivalent  weights  of  alum- 
inum sulphate  and  of  sodium,  potassium,  or  ammonium  alum 
should  exert  the  same  hardening  action. 



The  following  conclusions  are  the  result  of  a  series  of  practical 
tests  made  by  the  author. 

(a)  Equivalent  amounts  of  potash  alum  and  aluminum  sul- 
phate exert  the  same  hardening  action,  two  parts  by  weight  of 
aluminum  sulphate,  being  equivalent  to  three  parts  by  weight  of 
potash  alum.  Commercially  pure  aluminum  sulphate  is  satis- 
factory if  this  does  not  contain  an  excess  of  iron.  If  the  sample 
is  acid,  the  solution  should  be  neutralized  with  ammonia.  When 
mixing  the  usual  liquid  hardener  formula  with  commercial  alum- 
inum sulphate,  a  slight  milky  suspension  is  formed  which  should 
be  allowed  to  settle  and  be  filtered  off. 

(b)  There  is  no  appreciable  difference  between  sodium,  potas- 
sium and  ammonium  alum  in  their  hardening  action  when  sub- 
stituted weight  for  weight  in  the  usual  formulae.  In  practice,  if 
any  difference  in  hardening  action  occurs,  it  is  due  to  the  use  of 
impure  alums.  If  the  impurities  are  harmless,  an  increased 
amount  of  the  alum  should  be  used  so  that  the  content  of  alum- 
inum sulphate  is  the  same  as  that  in  the  potash  alum  called  for 
by  the  particular  formula. 

When  using  ammonium  alum,  if  the  fixing  bath  becomes  alka- 
line by  virtue  of  a  neutralization  of  the  acid  by  the  developer 
carried  over,  ammonia  will  be  liberated  causing  dichroic  fog  and 
stain.  No  trouble  will  be  experienced,  however,  if  care  is  taken 
to  keep  the  bath  acid. 

Pure  chrome  alum  may  also  be  substituted  for  potash  alum,  as 
above,  though  it  has  a  slightly  greater  tendency  to  precipitate 
sulphur  than  potash  alum.  It  has  this  advantage,  however.  It 
does  not  form  a  basic  sulphite  as  rapidly  as  potash  alum,  so  that 
a  chrome  alum  fixing  bath  remains  clear  even  when  appreciably 


The  most  commonly  used  acids  are  acetic,  citric,  tartaric,  and 
sometimes  lactic.  Strong  acids  like  sulphuric  are  seldom  used 
because  of  the  great  tendency  to  liberate  sulphur.  Weaker  acids, 
like  the  above,  bear  the  same  relation  to  a  strong  acid  as  a 
carbonated  alkali  to  a  caustic  alkali,  that  is  they  act  as  a  reservoir 
of  acid.  Thus  only  a  small  proportion  of  the  acid  is  available 
for  reaction  in  solution  at  any  one  time. 

Acetic  acid  is  usually  supplied  in  two  strengths,  glacial  (98%) 
and  28%  acid.     One  volume  of  glacial  acid  is  equivalent  to  three 
and  a  half  volumes  of  28%  acid. 



Citric  and  tartaric  may  be  substituted  weight  for  weight.  When 
used  in  place  of  acetic,  substitute  in  the  ratio  of  one  gram  of 
citric  for  every  3  ccs.  of  28%  acetic  acid. 

These  acids  are  not  quite  as  satisfactory  as  acetic  because,  for 
a  given  degree  of  acidity  as  measured  by  the  amount  of  alkaline 
developer  which  can  be  added  to  the  fixing  bath  before  the  bath 
becomes  neutral,  citric  and  tartaric  acids  have  a  greater  tendency 
to  precipitate  sulphur  from  the  hypo  than  acetic  acid. 

Purity  of  Chemicals 
The  Water  Supply 

Water  is  the  most  important  chemical  used  in  photography. 
It  is  most  important  to  know  to  what  extent  the  impurities  present 
may  be  harmful  to  the  various  operations  and  how  these  im- 
purities may  be  removed. 

Excluding  distilled  water,  rain  water,  and  water  from  melted 
ice  or  snow,  the  following  impurities  may  be  present : 

1.  EHssolved  salts  such  as  bicarbonates,  chlorides,  and  sul- 
phates of  calcium,  magnesium,  sodium  and  potassium.  In  case 
calcium  salts  are  present  and  a  developing  formula  is  used  con- 
taining sodium  bisulphite  or  potassium  metabisulphite,  fine  needle- 
shaped  crystals  of  calcium  sulphite  are  apt  to  separate  out  as  a 
sludge  in  the  developer  on  standing.  The  sludge  is  harmless  if 
allowed  to  settle,  though  the  developer  is  robbed  of  the  amount  of 
sulphite  required  to  form  the  sludge.  If  the  developer  is  agitated, 
the  sludge  will  cause  trouble  by  settling  out  on  the  emulsions  of 
plates,  films,  etc.  Other  salts  have  usually  little  effect  on  a  de- 
veloper although  chlorides  and  bromides  exert  a  restraining 

Dissolved  salts  often  cause  trouble  by  crystallizing  on  the  film 
after  drying.  Although  not  always  visible  as  crystals  to  the  eye, 
they  detract  from  the  transparency  of  the  film. 

2.  Suspended  matter  in  the  form  of  dirt  and  iron  rust,  if  not 
filtered  or  allowed  to  settle  will  cause  spots. 

3.  Slime,  consisting  of  animal  or  vegetable  colloidal  matter 
and  which  is  not  removed  by  filtering.  If  slimy  water  is  used  for 
mixing  solutions,  the  colloidal  matter  gradually  coagulates  and 
settles  out  in  the  solution  as  a  sludge. 

4.  Dissolved  gases  such  as  air,  sulphuretted  hydrogen,  etc. 



Water  dissolves  about  2%  of  air  at  70°  F.  When  a  developing 
agent,  like  hydroquinone,  is  dissolved  without  the  addition  of  sul- 
phite, the  oxygen  present  in  the  water  combines  with  the  develop- 
ing agent  forming  an  oxide  which  will  cause  chemical  fog. 

Sulphuretted  hydrogen  gas  present  in  sulphur  water  will  also 
cause  bad  chemical  fog.  The  gas  may  be  removed  by  boiling  or 
by  precipitation  with  lead  acetate. 

Purification  of  Water 

Water  may  be  purified  as  follows: 

1.  By  distillation:  Distilled  water  should  be  used  whenever 
possible  for  mixing  solutions. 

2.  By  boiling:  This  coagulates  the  colloidal  matter  and 
changes  certain  lime  salts  to  the  insoluble  condition  which  then 
settles  out.  Dissolved  gases  such  as  air,  sulphuretted  hydrogen, 
etc.,  are  removed.  Therefore,  unless  the  water  contains  an  ex- 
cessive amount  of  dissolved  salts,  it  is  usually  sufficient  to  boil 
it  and  allow  it  to  settle. 

3.  By  chemical  treatment:  If  large  quantities  of  water  are 
required,  chemical  methods  of  purification  must  be  employed, 
though  it  is  only  possible  to  remove  lime  salts,  slime  and  col- 
loidal matter  in  this  way. 

Excessive  amounts  of  dissolved  lime  salts  are  very  objection- 
able. After  washing,  if  drops  of  water  remain  on  the  plates  or 
film,  when  the  water  evaporates,  the  dissolved  salts  in  the  water 
become  visible  as  a  white  scum. 

The  following  methods  of  chemical  purification  may  be 
adopted : 

(a)  Add  alum  to  the  water  in  the  proportion  of  one  gram  to 
four  liters.  This  coagulates  the  slime  which  carries  down  any 
suspended  particles,  and  the  solution  rapidly  clears.  This  method 
does  not  remove  dissolved  salts,  while  the  small  amount  of  alum 
introduced  into  the  water  has  no  harmful  effect  on  the  developer. 

(b)  Add  a  solution  of  sodium  oxalate  until  no  further  precipi- 
tate forms.  This  method  removes  the  calcium  and  magnesium 
salts  and  coagulates  the  slime,  though  sodium  and  potassium  salts 
are  left  in  solution. 

(c)  Most  of  the  commercial  methods  of  water  softening  may 
be  employed  though  such  methods  do  not  remove  sodium  and 
potassium  salts. 



The  "Decalso"  process  of  water  softening  is  one  which  can  be 
recommended.  The  water  is  passed  through  a  tank  containing 
sodium  aluminum  siHcate  which  is  a  Zeolite,  and  possesses  the 
power  of  exchanging  its  sodium  for  the  calcium  and  magnesium 
present  in  the  water.  When  the  Zeolite  thus  loaded  with  calcium 
and  magnesium  is  washed  in  a  strong  solution  of  common  salt 
(sodium  chloride)  it  exchanges  the  calcium  and  magnesium  again 
for  sodium  and  is  thus  regenerated,  and  in  condition  for  further 
softening.  Full  particulars  may  be  obtained  from  the  American 
Water  Softening  Company,  loii  Chestnut  Street,  Philadelphia, 

Impurities  in  Developing  and  Fixing  Chemicals 

It  is  beyond  our  scope  to  indicate  all  the  possible  impurities 
which  may  be  present  in  photographic  chemicals.  For  a  more 
detailed  account  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  paper  by  H.  T. 
Clarke  on  "The  Examination  of  Organic  Developing  Agents'* 
(Phot.  J.  Amer.,  Nov.,  1918,  p.  481),  which  contains  a  number 
of  analysis  of  developers  recently  placed  on  the  market  under 
fancy  names  and  containing  such  substances  as  starch,  sugar, 
salt,  borax,  etc. 

We  are  concerned  only  with  the  impurities  which  are  not  in- 
tentionally added  as  adulterants,  usually  present  in  chemicals. 

Impurities  may  have  access  to  photographic  chemicals  in  three 
ways:  (a)  during  manufacture,  (b)  during  storage,  (c)  during 
mixing  and  storage  of  the  solution. 

(a)  If  chemicals  of  repute  are  purchased,  the  photographer 
need  not  worry  about  impurities. 

If  the  Elon,  hydroquinone  or  pyro  is  colored,  the  presence  of 
fogging  agent  should  be  suspected,  although  some  colored  sam- 
ples do  not  give  any  more  fog  than  colorless  ones. 

Many  metallic  compounds  such  as  salts  of  copper  and  tin, 
metallic  sulphides,  etc.,  exert  a  powerful  fogging  action  even 
when  present  only  in  minute  quantities  and  should  be  avoided. 
The  following  table  indicates  the  nature  and  effect  of  the  more 
common  impurities  present  in  the  chemicals  used  for  developing 
and  fixing  baths : 




Chief  Impurity 

Effect  of  Impurities 

Pyro,        hydroqui- 
none,  etc. 

Oxidation  products 
and    adulterants 

Chemical  fog 

Adulterants  weaken  the  effect 
of  the  developer 

Sodium    sulphite 

Sodium'   sulphate 

Keeping  properties  of  the  de- 
veloper are  impaired 

Sodium    bisulphite 

Iron    and    sodium 

Iron  gives  a  dirty  red  solution 
with  pyro 

Caustic  soda 

Sodium    carbonate 

Decreases       the       accelerating 


Sodium  sulphite 

Sodium       sulphate 
and     ammonium 

Ammonium       sul- 
phate   and     sul- 
phuric acid 

Diminishes  the  fixing  power 

Diminishes   the   hardening   ac- 

Chrome  alum 

Excess  of  acid  tends  to  cause 
sulphurization   of   the   fixing 

Acetic  acid 


Deficiency  of  acid  causes  milki- 
ness  of  the  acid  fixing  bath 
due    to   the    precipitation    of 
aluminum  sulphite 

(b)  For  impurities  introduced  during  storage  see  "Storage  of 

(c)  If  during  mixing  the  water  contains  dissolved  air  and  the 
developing  agent  is  dissolved  before  the  sulphite,  it  becomes 
oxidized  and  the  oxidation  product  formed  causes  fog.  (See 
"Mixing  of  Developers,"  "Storage  of  Solutions"  and  article  on 
"Chemical  Fog.") 

Storage  of  Chemicals 

Chemicals  should  be  stored  m  well  corked  or  well  stoppered 
jars  in  a  cool,  dry  place.  Mbst  chemicals  are  affected  by  air 
which  contains  oxygen,  carbon  dioxide  gas,  and  moisture. 

(a)  Oxygen  readily  attacKS  such  substances  as  sodium  sulphite, 
especially  in  the  presence  of  moisture,  converting  it  into  sodium 
sulphate,  which  is  useless  as  a  preservative.  With  crystallized 
sodium  sulphite,  the  sodium  sulphate  forms  on  the  outside  of  the 
crystals  as  a  powder;  this  may  be  washed  off  and  the  crystals 
dried.  It  is  necessary  to  make  chemical  tests  to  detect  sodium 
sulphate  in  desiccated  sulphite. 



Other  substances  which  combine  with  oxygen,  and  are  there- 
fore said  to  be  "oxidized,"  are  sodium  bisulphite  and  potassium 
metabisulphite  and  all  developing  agents  such  as  pyro,  hydro- 
quinone,  etc.,  which  turn  more  or  less  brown,  the  extent  of  the 
color  roughly  indicating  the  degree  of  oxidation. 

(b)  Carbon  dioxide  gas  combines  with  substances  like  caustic 
soda  and  caustic  potash  converting  them  into  the  corresponding 
carbonated  alkalis  which  are  less  reactive.  If  caustic  soda  is 
kept  in  a  stoppered  bottle  the  stopper  usually  becomes  cemented 
fast  by  the  sodium  carbonate  formed,  so  that  it  should  be  kept  in 
a  waxed  corked  bottle.  Owing  to  the  solvent  action  of  the 
caustic  alkalis  on  glass  the  inside  of  the  glass  bottle  containing 
caustic  or  strongly  carbonated  solutions  becomes  frosted,  though 
the  amount  of  glass  thus  dissolved  aw^ay  will  usually  do  no  harm. 

(c)  Certain  chemicals  have  a  strong  attraction  or  affinity  for 
the  moisture  present  in  the  atmosphere  and  gradually  dissolve 
forming  a  solution  in  the  water  thus  absorbed.  This  phenomenon 
is  termed  "deliquescence"  and  the  chemicals  are  said  to  "deli- 
quesce." Familiar  examples  are  ammonium  thiocyanate,  potas- 
sium carbonate,  caustic  soda,  caustic  potash,  sodium  sulphide, 
uranium  nitrate,  sodium  bichromate,  etc.,  which  should  be  stored 
in  corked  bottles  and  the  neck  should  be  dipped  in  melted  paraffin 

As  mentioned  above,  it  is  difficult  to  prepare  a  solution  of  defi- 
nite percentage  strength  from  a  chemical  which  has  deliquesced, 
though  it  is  usually  sufficient  to  drain  ofiF  the  crystals,  or  to  use 
a  hydrometer,  referring  to  a  table  giving  the  hydrometer  readings 
in  terms  of  percentage  strength. 

(d)  While  some  chemicals  absorb  moisture  as  above,  others 
give  up  their  water  of  crystallization  to  the  atmosphere  and  there- 
fore lose  their  crystalline  form  and  fall  to  a  powder  and  are  then 
said  to  have  "efflorescence,"  the  phenomenon  being  termed  "ef- 
florenscence."  Some  crystals  do  not  contain  water  and  there- 
fore cannot  effloresce. 

A  very  dry  atmosphere  is  suitable  therefore  for  storing  del- 
iquescent salts  but  not  for  efflorescent  salts.  The  only  way  to 
store  chemicals  Is  to  Isolate  them  from  the  air  by  suitably  sealing. 

How  TO  Store  Solutions 
Stock  solutions  and  developers  should  be  stored  either  in  large 



bottles,  earthenware  crocks,  wooden  vats,  or  in  tanks  of  resistive 
material  so  arranged  that  the  liquid  may  be  drawn  off  at  the  side 
and  near  the  bottom. 

Large  glass  bottles  and  crocks  should  be  fitted  with  a  right- 
angled  glass  or  lead  tube  passing  through  a  rubber  stopper  wired 
to  the  bottle,  the  tube  being  opened  and  closed  by  means  of  a 
pinch  cock  clamping  a  short  length  of  rubber  tubing. 

In  case  a  solution  such  as  pyro  has  to  be  stored  for  a  long 
time  and  withdrawn  at  intervals,  an  absorption  bottle  containing 
alkaline  pyro  may  be  fitted  at  the  intake,  which  absorbs  oxygen 
from  the  air  as  it  enters  the  bottle  after  withdrawing  part  of  the 

It  is  often  recommended  to  pour  a  layer  of  refined  material  oil 
on  the  surface  of  a  solution  to  protect  it  from  the  air,  though 
this  is  very  messy  when  the  bottle  has  to  be  refilled. 

A  battery  O'f  stock  solution  bottles  is  shown  in  Fig.  24  the 
bottles  being  arranged  on  lead  covered  shelves  under  which  a 
large  trough  is  placed,  or,  the  floor  may  be  so  arranged  as  to 
form  a  sink  so  that  in  case  of  accidental  breakage  no  serious 
damage  is  done.  This  precaution  is  of  special  importance  in  the 
case  of  hypo  solutions  which  might  otherwise  flood  an  entire 
building  and  inoculate  the  various  rooms  with  hypo  dust  causing 
an  epidemic  of  spots. 


Chapter  IX 

AFTER  the  picture  has  been  taken,  the  cameraman  delivers 
the  film  to  the  negative  developing  department,  where  it 
is  developed  and  fixed  in  a  manner  very  similar  to  that 
adopted  in  developing  still  pictures.  Before  proceeding  with  the 
development  of  the  entire  film,  when  the  exposure  and  light  con- 
ditions are  unknown,  a  short  piece  is  cut  off  and  developed  in- 
dependently, so  that  the  proper  treatment  may  be  determined 
without  endangering  the  entire  reel. 

The  exposed  film  is  wrapped  spirally  around  a  light  rectangular 
frame  or  rack,  for  convenience  in  handling,  and  is  then  dipped 
into  a  tank  containing  the  developing  solution.  This  arrange- 
ment enables  the  operator  to  agitate  the  film  in  the  solution  and 
examine  it  without  danger  of  injury  to  the  delicate  sensitized 
surface.  After  the  negative  has  been  developed  to  the  re- 
quired density  it  is  placed  in  the  fixing  bath  of  sodium  hypo- 
sulphite where  it  remains  until  all  the  remaining  active  silver 
salts  in  the  emulsion  are  dissolved  out  leaving  an  image  of  re- 
duced metallic  silver  which  can  no  longer  be  affected  by  the  light. 

Fixing  having  been  completed,  the  film  is  thoroughly  washed 
in  clean  water  to  remove  the  last  traces  of  hypo.  The  film  is 
next  dried  upon  large  revolving  wooden  drums,  usually  driven 
by  power.  The  motion  of  the  drums  throws  off  any  small  drops 
of  water  that  may  adhere  to  the  back  of  the  film  and  keeps  a  con- 
stant stream  of  warm  air  moving  over  the  emulsion  side. 

In  some  laboratories  before  drying,  the  film  is  given  a  final 
treatment  in  dilute  solution  of  glycerine  and  water.  A  small 
percentage  of  the  glycerine  remains  with  the  film  even  after  it 
has  dried  and  owing  to  the  moisture  absorbing  properties  of  the 
glycerine  enough  moisture  is  retained  to  keep  the  film  in  a  soft 
and  pliable  condition.  When  the  glycerine  has  been  lost  after  a 
considerable  service,  by  evaporation  or  other  cause,  the  film  be- 
comes brittle  and  must  be  given  another  treatment  in  the  glycerine 
bath.  This  is  a  precaution  that  Is  not  needed  so  much  today  as 
modern  film  is  much  more  pliable  than  that  used  a  few  years  ago 
when  the  glycerine  bath  was  a  necessity. 



Before  the  introduction  of  tank  development  the  drum  system 
was  used  but  is  now  practically  discarded.  For  convenience  in 
developing  long  films  they  were  often  wound  around  large  drums 
similar  to  the  drying  drums.  After  the  film  was  wound  on  the 
drum  it  was  suspended  over  the  developing  tank  in  such  a  way 
that  the  lower  edge  of  the  drum  and  the  film  dipped  into  the 
solution.  The  drum  was  then  revolved  until  the  negative  was 
developed  to  the  proper  density,  and  then  was  transferred  to  the 
fixing  and  washing  baths. 

Machine  development  is  to  some  extent  now  superseding  the 
tank  method.  In  machine  development  the  film  is  led  by  means 
of  sprockets  and  pulleys  successively  through  the  developer,  the 
short-stop,  the  wash  water,  and  into  a  drying  chamber  and  it 
comes  out  finished  and  dried  upon  a  take-up  spindle.  By  this 
method  all  the  different  steps  in  development  are  proceeding  at 
once  upon  different  portions  of  the  same  roll  of  film.  The 
Pathe  and  Gaumont  companies  in  this  country  and  Europe,  and 
some  companies  in  England,  have  successfully  used  machine  de- 
velopment for  a  number  of  years.  Several  companies  finishing 
or  "processing"  motion  picture  film  by  machine  development  are 
now  in  operation  in  the  United  States. 

The  beginner,  when  he  handles  for  the  first  time  a  coil  of  sen- 
sitized film  measuring  i^  inches  in  width  and  perhaps  200  feet 
in  length,  might  hesitate  to  attempt  its  development.  He  might 
prefer  to  dispatch  it  to  a  firm  prepared  to  carry  out  this  work 
for  a  light  charge,  confident  that  with  the  facilities  at  their  com- 
mand, and  with  their  accumulated  experience,  they  would  be 
able  to  bring  out  his  work  to  the  best  advantage. 

As  a  matter  of  fact  it  is  by  no  means  so  difficult  as  it  appears 
at  first  and  the  rudiments  of  the  process  may  be  grasped  readily 
by  a  person  of  average  intelligence.  Success,  as  in  other  handi- 
crafts, can  be  achieved  only  with  practice. 

Cinematography,  being  a  peculiar  and  special  branch  of  the 
photographic  art,  demanding  the  use  of  new  and  unfamiliar  tools 
has  been  responsible  for  the  perfection  of  particular  devices  and 
methods  to  assist  and  facilitate  development.  In  the  early  days 
the  worker  had  to  worry  through  the  task  and  was  compelled  to 
undertake  many  doubtful  experiments..  Today  the  beginner  is 
able  to  profit  from  the  mistakes  of  the  pioneers  and  has  at  his 
disposal  all  the  appliances  and  processes  which  have  proved  their 



worth.  After  one  or  two  trials  the  worker  will  realize  that  the 
development  of  a  200-foot  length  of  celluloid  ribbon  is  no  more 
difficult  than  the  development  of  an  ordinary  kodak  spool. 

One  thing  the  beginner  will  do  well  to  bear  in  mind.  He  should 
adopt  some  particular  brand  of  film  and  cling  to  it  after  he  has 
become  acquainted  with  its  emulsion,  speed,  composition  and 
peculiar  characteristics.  There  are  three  or  four  different  makes 
upon  the  market  but  it  is  preferable  to  select  a  film  which  is 
easily  obtainable  at  any  time  and  in  any  part  of  the  world.  It  is 
strongly  urged  that  the  beginner  select  the  Elastman  stock  for 
this  if  for  no  other  reason.  The  Eastman  organization  has  its 
tentacles  spread  throughout  the  world.  It  has  thousands  of 
agencies  in  immediate  touch  with  the  different  national  companies. 
The  result  is  that  this  film  can  be  purchased  without  difficulty  in 
nearly  all  parts  of  the  globe.  If  a  local  dealer  does  not  stock 
it,  he  can  procure  it  to  order  within  a  day  or  two.  Moreover  the 
film  will  be  new  and  in  perfect  condition. 

There  are  many  other  reasons  why  it  is  advisable  to  select  and 
to  adhere  to  this  stock,  which  although  of  a  technical  character 
are  of  much  importance  to  the  user.  It  must  be  borne  in  mind 
that  the  technique  and  chemistry  of  cinematography  are  still  in 
their  infancy  and  the  technical  staff  retained  for  the  preparation 
of  the  various  ingredients  employed  in  the  sensitizing  of  the  film 
are  striving  constantly  to  improve  and  to  increase  the  speed  or 
sensitiveness  of  the  emulsion.  The  result  is  that  the  worker  who 
uses  Eastman  film  keeps  pace  with  developments.  The  makers 
of  this  ribbon  were  the  first  to  discover  a  base  and  emulsion 
suited  to  moving  picture  work.  This  was  achieved  only  after 
the  erpesditure  of  enormous  sums  of  money,  after  htmdreds  of 
fruitless  experiments  and  with  the  co-operation  of  the  highest 
technical  and  chemical  skill.  Under  these  circumstances  the  limi- 
tations of  the  base  and  of  the  emulsion  became  thoroughly 
understood,  so  that  the  film  is  certain  to  maintain  the  highest 
quality.  On  the  other  hand,  those  firms  who  have  embarked 
upon  the  manufacture  of  this  commodity  only  within  recent 
years,  have  still  to  face  and  to  overcome  many  pitfalls  which 
the  older  concern  discovered  and  surmounted  years  ago.  So  the 
film  marketed  by  younger  organizations  Is  apt  to  vary  In  quality. 

Before  the  beginner  attempts  development  he  must  make  sure 
that  his  dark  room  and  accessories  are  adequate.     To  seek  suc- 



cess  with  makeshifts  in  the  first  instance  is  to  court  failure. 
Many  of  the  utensils  employed  in  the  dark  room  can  be  fashioned 
by  any  handy  man.  They  may  lack  finish  but  so  long  as  they  per- 
form their  work  properly,  nothing  more  is  necessary. 

The  following  small  outfit  which  has  a  capacity  of  little  more 
than  50  feet  of  film  will  go  into  a  space  about  32  by  32  inches  by 
8  inches  thick,  including  a  dozen  racks.  Figure  J5  shows  the 
construction  of  the  arms  of  the  rack  which  are  made  of  some 
hard  close-grained  wood  like  maple,  the  pins  are  made  of  what  is 
called  dowel-pin  stock,  small  rods  of  hardwood  used  by  cabinet- 
makers to  pin  the  edges  of  boards  together  in  fine  cabinet  work. 







000     0000     000<00 



Fig.    35 

They  may  be  obtained  from  almost  any  lumber  yard  or  mill.  The 
ones  used  in  the  rack  described  were  3/16  inch  in  diameter  and 
protrude  two  inches  from  the  rack  arm.  Two  rack  arms  crossed 
make  a  rack  on  which  a  little  more  than  50  feet  of  film  may  be 
wound  spirally,  beginning  at  the  center.  They  are  fastened  to- 
gether with  two  screws  so  that  they  may  be  readily  taken  apart 
for  greater  convenience  in  transporting. 

By  a  little  calculation,  if  one  wished  a  rack  of  larger  capacity, 
a  75  or  1 00- foot  rack  may  be  constructed  in  the  same  manner. 
A  rack  of  100  feet  capacity  is  about  the  limit  of  this  form  of 
developing  apparatus,  as  anything  larger  becomes  too  cumber- 
some and  the  swelling  action  of  the  developer  causes  the  film  to 
loosen  and  gives  trouble,  as  the  film  seems  bound  to  stick  together. 
Still  racks  of  larger  capacity  have  been  made  with  four  cross 
arms  instead  of  two.  This  only  reduces  the  trouble  to  a  slight 
extent,  so  that  it  is  not  advisable  even  in  the  hundred-foot  racks, 
unless  the  film  is  stretched  very  tightly,  for  one  is  apt  to  exper- 







ience  trouble  from  slack  strands  adhering  and  stopping  the  action 
of  the  developer  where  they  stick  together. 

If  the  maker  is  an  amateur  metal  worker,  he  may  make  an 
apparatus  quite  a  bit  more  compact  by  constructing  it  of  square 
brass  rod  stock,  with  smaller  brass  pins,  which  on  account  of  their 
size  may  be  set  closer  together  than  the  wooden  dowels. 

A  developing  tray  21  inches  square  inside  measurement  and 
4  inches  deep  will  accommodate  the  diagonal  cross  arms  of  the 
27-inch  rack.  The  trays  may  be  made  of  wood,  but  by  getting 
a  sheet  metal  worker  to  construct  the  trays  of   sheet  iron,   a 

Fig.    36 

much  lighter  and  more  compact  nest  of  trays  may  be  made.  A 
set  of  three  trays  is  necessary,  one  for  the  developer,  one  for 
the  Hypo  and  one  for  a  washing  tray.  Each  of  these  in  succes- 
sion is  just  enough  larger  than  the  one  preceding  so  that  they  will 
nest  together  for  packing. 

For  those  who  wish  to  construct  their  own  trays  of  wood 
Figure  36  shows  a  wooden  developing  tray  which  may  be  con- 
structed of  any  sort  of  wood  which  may  be  at  hand.  It  is  not 
advisable  to  try  to  make  this  tray  water-tight  since  the  action  of 
the  water  and  developing  fluids  will  inevitably  warp  it  so  that 
it  would  leak  too  badly  to  use.  Wooden  trays  are  easily  rendered 
water-proof  by  lining  with  rubber  cloth  or  in  the  case  of  hypo 
and  washing  trays,  with  ordinary  table  oil  cloth.  Oil  cloth  cannot 
be  used  in  a  developing  tray  unless  it  is  covered  with  a  good  coat 
of  Probus  paint,  as  the  alkali  in  the  developer  dissolves  the  water- 
proof coating  on  the  oil  cloth. 




Figure  57  shows  a  square  of  rubber  cloth  cut  for  lining  the  de- 
veloping tray.  Use  surgeon's  white  rubber  sheeting,  which  may 
be  obtained  from  any  drug  store.  This  rubber  cloth  is  impervious 
to  the  action  of  the  developer  and  by  turning  the  folded  comer 

























Fig.   87 

as  shown  in  Figure  38,  a  smooth  water-proof  joint  can  easily  be 
made.  Place  the  cloth  inside  the  tray  with  the  rubber  surface 
up,  spread  it  smoothly  inside  and  turn  the  edges  over  the  edge 
of  the  tray,  a  two-inch  overlap  being  provided  for  in  the  diagram. 
Fasten  lightly  with  tacks  until  the  cloth  is  smoothly  arranged, 
cutting  down  the  corners  just  far  enough  to  meet  the  top  of  the 
tray  and  then  fasten  permanently  by  tacking  half-round  beading 



along  the  top  edge  of  the  tray,  after  which  the  small  amount  of 
cloth  protruding  may  be  trimmed  off,  leaving  a  neat  cloth-lined 
tray  which  is  water-  and  solution-proof.  The  cut  shows  a  rack 
on  an  empty  tray  ready  for  winding  on  the  film. 

Metal  trays  should  be  painted  thoroughly  inside  with  a  coating 
of  Probus  paint,  which  is  a  paint  impervious  to  the  action  of 
either  acids  or  alkalies  and  which  may  be  obtained  from  any 
dealer  in  photographic  supplies.  Sheet-iron  is  better  than  gal- 
vanized iron  or  tin  as  the  coating  of  tin  or  zinc  is  liable  to  peel 
off  after  short  use  and  expose  the  metal  underneath  to  the  action 
of  the  solutions. 

Fig.   38 

If  a  developer  is  one  not  easily  oxidized,  such  as  Metol-Hydro- 
chonon,  it  may  be  used  a  good  number  of  times  by  keeping  it  in 
an  air-tight  glass  carboy.  Films  may  be  dried  upon  the  racks 
after  washing  but  as  the  pins  cause  a  kinking  of  the  film  it  is  bet- 
ter to  construct  some  sort  of  a  drying  drum  upon  which  the  film 
may  be  wound  for  drying  and  washing. 

One  of  the  most  compact  outfits  for  the  development  of  motion 
pictures  is  the  Spiral  Reel  invented  and  manufactured  by  R.  P. 
Stineman  of  Los  Angeles,  California.  It  consists  of  a  metal 
spiral  with  a  thread  or  groove  which  holds  the  convolutions  of 
film  in  a  loose  roll,  parts  of  which  are  far  enough  apart  to  allow 
the  developing  solutions  to  act  upon  the  sensitive  surface  and 
yet  not  close  enough  for  any  of  the  layers  of  film  to  stick  together. 
Two  hundred  feet  of  film  can  be  wound  upon  a  spiral  twenty- 
three  inches  in  diameter  and  completely  immersed  in  two  gallons 
of  developer, 



These  outfits  are  made  in  three  sizes  having  respective  capac- 
ities of  50,  100  and  200  feet  and  consisting  of  three  round  tanks 
or  trays  nesting  within  one  another  and  having  one  or  more  spiral 
wheels  for  holding  the  film  to  be  developed  together  with  a  spindle 
upon  which  the  wheel  may  be  revolved  and  a  wire  screen  turn 
table  upon  which  the  film  is  placed  for  winding  upon  the  drying 
drum  or  upon  drying  racks.     For  use : 

Place  reel  on  stationary  winding  pin  at  convenient  angle  to 
film  box  so  that  film  will  slide  smoothly  into  reel.  Fasten  end 
of  film  in  slot  in  center  of  reel  then  revolve  reel  with  left  hand, 
using  the  right  hand  against  outer  edge  of  film  to  guide  film  into 
reel.  When  wound,  fasten  other  end  of  film  to  reel  with  metal 
clip.  Film  should  be  firmly  wound  and  securely  attached  with 
the  clip. 

Immerse  reel  in  developer  and  move  rapidly  up  and  down 
several  times  to  prevent  air-bells.  When  using  Pyro  repeat  this 
movement  several  times  during  development. 

When  development  is  complete,  rinse,  fix  and  wash  film  while 
still  on  reel.  Water  and  Pyro  should  not  exceed  three  inches  in 

When  thoroughly  washed,  lift  reel  out  of  water  and  drain  for  a 
few  seconds.  Release  ends  of  film  and  place  reel  face  down  on 
screen  in  about  four  inches  of  water  by  grasping  reel  through 
finger-holds  on  reverse  side.  Agitate  slightly  and  raise  reel,  leav- 
ing the  film  on  the  screen.  Lift  screen  out  of  the  water,  place 
on  stand  with  revolving  top  and  wind  film  on  drum  to  dry.  Do 
not  touch  face  of  film  at  any  time — always  lift  tlie  reel  by  handle 
in  center. 

Don't  try  to  put  film  in  reel  when  reel  is  wet. 

Don't  try  to  take  film  from  reel  except  by  turning  reel  upside 
down  in  water. 

Don't  try  to  dry  the  film  in  the  reel. 

It  is  not  necessary  to  use  the  screen  with  50-foot  film  lengths — 
film  may  be  rolled  on  core  held  by  fingers. 


The  two  greatest  problems  of  both  the  still  and  motion  photog- 
rapher are  correct  exposure  and  correct  development.  These  two 
things  are  shrouded  in  mystery  even  to  many  professionals — 



they  may  have  learned  by  rule  of  thumb  how  to  obtain  good  pic- 
tures but  to  save  their  lives  they  could  not  give  the  reasons  for 
what  they  do.  Also  there  are  many  false  or  erroneous  ideas  prev- 
alent about  exposure  and  development.  One  of  the  most  per- 
nicious of  these  false  ideas  is  that  an  under-exposed  negative  can 
be  ''brought  up"  by  special  methods  of  development.  Another  is 
that  different  times  of  exposure  require  different  methods  of  de- 
velopment. The  truth  is  that  the  best  development  for  under-, 
correct,  and  over-exposure  is  the  same  in  each  case. 

The  man  who  sets  out  to  get  a  good  negative  every  time  will 
find  that  he  has  much  to  learn  about  development,  and  perhaps 
quite  as  much  to  unlearn.  It  has  always  been  regarded  as  the 
critical  stage  in  the  making  of  the  negative,  an  intermediate  state 
where  wonderful  things  could  be  done  by  those  who  knew  how — 
**an  art,"  as  Bothamley  said,  "not  reducible  to  a  matter  of  figures." 
Hence  the  usual  way  of  mastering  development  was  to  get  this  or 
that  famous  worker's  formulae  and  method,  and  on  that  empirical 
foundation  build  one's  own  methods  by  experience.  But,  as  Poor 
Richard  told  us  long  ago :  Experience  keeps  a  dear  school.  We 
are  beginning  to  be  wiser.  The  investigations  of  Hurtcr  and 
Driffield  plainly  show  that  "the  production  of  the  photograph  is 
governed  by  natural  laws,  and  a  definite  effect  must  result  from 
a  definite  cause.  The  same  cause,  under  the  same  conditions, 
always  produces  the  same  effect.  Only  by  clearly  grasping  and 
working  in  harmony  with  these  laws  can  we  really  become  masters 
of  technical  photography."  Our  first  step,  then  is  to  seek  that 
scientific  knowledge  which  is  a  knowledge  of  things  in  their 
causes :  to  know,  for  instance,  the  law  governing  light-action. 

Let  us  begin.  When  we  make  a  photograph,  our  purpose  is 
simple :  to  secure  a  record  of  some  object  of  interest.  The  posi- 
tive, then  is  the  real  end  of  all  our  photography.  The  negative 
is  chiefly  valuable  or  interesting  as  a  means  to  the  end,  an  inter- 
mediate step  toward  the  positive — nothing  more.  Unless  we  get 
in  the  positive  a  record  which  truthfully  describes  the  object 
photographed  as  the  eye  saw  it,  all  our  negative-making  is  in 

Many  photographs  are  untruthful  in  their  rendering  of  tone, 
misrepresenting  the  light  and  shade  of  the  subject  as  seen  by  the 
eye.  The  reason  why  so  many  of  our  photographs  fail  to  satisfy 
is  here  discovered ;  they  do  not  give  us  the  natural  gradations  of 



light  and  shade  which  please  or  interest  us  in  the  subject,  and 
which  are  essential  to  the  illusion  of  Hfe  and  actuality.  Our  ap- 
preciation of  truth  in  light  and  shade  is  not  perfectly  developed 
and  we  are  not  quick  to  recognize  errors  of  this  sort.  Neverthe- 
less, the  technically  good  photograph  of  an  object  or  scene  in 
nature,  which  gives  us  the  natural  variety  of  light  and  shade  in 
the  subject,  is  invariably  recognized  with  praise;  while  the  bad 
pictures  are  simply  passed  by  as  "poor  photography."  For  cor- 
rectness of  delineation  in  photography  we  are  dependent  on  the 
lens  and  its  right  use.  For  the  truthful  representation  of  light 
and  shade,  we  depend  on  the  sensitive  film  and  our  use  of  its 
capacity  to  record  the  whole  range  of  tones  in  the  subject  from 
highest  light  to  deepest  dark.  In  this  discussion  we  leave  delinea- 
tion and  the  lens  out  of  the  question  being  wholly  concerned  with 
the  other  side  of  the  problem:  how  to  secure  in  the  negative  a 
faithful  record  of  the  light  and  shade  effects  of  our  subjects. 

The  consideration  of  light  and  shade,  as  exhibited  in  the  objects 
we  photograph,  may  seem  for  the  moment  to  be  somewhat  remote 
from  development  of  the  negative.  It  is  certainly  the  last  thing 
thought  of  by  the  average  photographer,  and,  even  then,  is  usually 
considered  as  belonging  to  the  pictorial  rather  than  to  the  tech- 
nical side  of  photography.  As  will  be  seen,  however,  it  has  a 
vital  influence  for  good  or  evil  in  negative-making,  and  there  can 
be  little  real  success  in  technique  until  we  grasp  its  practical  im- 
portance and  learn,  like  the  professional  photographer,  to  regard 
our  subjects  unconsciously  as  arrangements  of  light  and  shade. 

To  get  at  the  significance  of  this  point  of  view,  let  us  consider 
the  light  and  shade  effects  of  any  easily  imagined  subject  simply 
as  so  many  light-intensities — ^points  reflecting  light  in  varying 
degree  at  different  parts  of  the  subject,  according  to  its  illumina- 
tion. If  we  mentally  arrange  these  light-intensities  in  order  ac- 
cording to  their  relative  brightness  or  visual  luminosity,  remem- 
bering that  in  all  pleasing  transitions  from  light  to  dark  the  light 
decreases  in  geometric  rather  than  arithmetic  progression,  we 
shall  get,  let  us  suppose,  a  scale  ranging  as  follows :  64,  32,  16,  8, 
4,  2,  I,  which  expresses  a  geometric  series.  On  this  imaginary 
scale  the  light  reflected  from  the  deepest  shadow  in  the  subject 
will  be  represented  as  i,  and  the  highest  light  in  the  subject  as  64. 
Obviously,  if  the  photograph  is  to  give  us  a  truthful  record  of 
the  subject,  it  must  include  a  range  of  tones  from  light  to  dark 



in  which  each  tone  is  truly  proportional  to  the  light-intensity  (or 
light  reflected  by  that  part  of  the  subject)  which  it  represents. 
In  other  words,  the  truthful  representation  of  the  light  and  shade 
of  the  subject  demands  that  the  tones  or  luminosity  contrasts  in 
the  positive  shall  range  from  light  to  dark  in  geometrical  progres- 
sion, i.e.,  as  64,  32,  16,  8,  4,  2,  i. 

For  example :  let  us  suppose  that  we  are  photographing  three 
houses — a  white  one,  a  gray  one  and  a  black  one — and  that  their 
light-intensity  values  (or  relative  visual  luminosities)  are,  re- 
spectively, 5  for  the  black  house,  20  for  the  gray  one,  and  80  for 
the  white  one.  Here  the  progression  of  light-intensities  is  geo- 
metric, viz.,  as  I  4  :i6.  The  truthful  representation  of  tone  in 
such  a  case  demands  that  the  relationship  between  the  three 
houses  in  the  positive  shall  be  proportional  to  the  relative  lumin- 
osity of  the  three  houses  as  seen  by  the  eye — i.e.,  as  i  4: 16. 

This  applies  in  every  instance.  Whenever  we  see  a  photograph 
wherein  the  tones  are  true  to  nature,  we  may  be  sure  that 
this  relationship  of  proportionality  exits.  On  the  other  hand, 
when  we  fail  to  secure  this  vital  relationship  between  the  light- 
intensities  of  the  subject  and  the  tones  in  the  positive,  our  photo- 
graphs are  necessarily  untruthful  in  their  representation  of  light 
and  shade.  As  the  gradations  of  tone  in  the  photograph  result 
from  the  opacities  in  the  negative,  it  is  plain  that  a  similar  pro- 
portionality between  light-intensities  and  opacities  must  pre-exist 
in  the  negative.  Here  we  have  the  key  to  the  truthful  represen- 
tation of  light  and  shade  in  photgraphy.  With  this  in  mind  we 
can  go  a  step  further. 

When  we  expose  a  film  in  the  camera,  the  light-intensities  at 
all  parts  of  the  subject  begin  at  once  to  work  a  change  in  the 
sensitive  film.  The  amount  of  work  done  (or  light  action)  is, 
of  course,  determined  by  the  intensity  of  the  light  at  the  same 
part  of  the  subject.  Thus,  keeping  aside  for  the  moment  all 
thought  of  the  form  of  the  thing  photographed,  the  result  of  ex- 
posure is  to  impress  on  the  sensitive  film  a  latent  range  of  grada- 
tions, distributed  throughout  the  film  and  forming  the  latent 
picture  image.  On  development,  this  latent  range  of  gradations 
becomes  a  visible  range  of  gradations,  consisting  of  metallic  silver 
deposited  in  the  film  by  the  reducing  action  of  the  developer. 
This  is  the  negative. 

Here  we  come  to  the  parting  of  the  ways.  Acxording  to  the  old- 



school  theories,  success  in  negative-making  depended  chiefly  on 
skill  in  development — always  presupposing  an  exposure  sufficient 
to  give  a  developable  image.  The  perfect  negative  was,  of  course 
the  result  of  correct  exposure  and  normal  development.  But 
the  amount  of  control  possible  in  development — by  choice  among 
developing  agents,  changes  in  the  constituents  of  the  developer, 
or  modifications  in  the  method  of  development — was  generally 
supposed  to  be  so  large  that,  within  wide  limits,  accuracy  in  ex- 
posure was  a  minor  factor.  Hence  the  widespread  belief  that  a 
reasonably  good  negative  could  be  had  even  though  the  exposure 
was  much  under  or  over  the  time  correct  for  the  subject.  Hence 
the  popularity  of  this  or  that  developing  agent  or  formula  for 
which  great  claims  were  made  as  possessing  peculiar  capacities. 
The  only  indispensable  condition  of  success  was  that  one  had  to 
know  how  to  choose  the  particular  developer,  how  to  work  the 
changes  required  by  variations  in  exposure,  how  to  adjust,  modify 
or  control  the  rights  and  wrongs  of  exposure  by  skilful  "tinker- 
ing" in  development.  Out  of  this  system  came  all  those  innumer- 
able formulae  which  bewilder  the  readers  of  photographic  liter- 

The  beginner  has  little  or  no  chance  at  such  "tinkering"  for 
success  depends  wholly  on  repeated  trial  and  error.  Hence  the 
significant  legend  over  the  door  of  the  dealer  in  photographic 
supplies :  "We  do  developing  and  printing  for  amateurs."  What- 
ever the  virtues  and  conveniences  of  the  typical  old-school  method 
— ^the  tentative  method  of  development — and  despite  its  appeal  to 
the  vanity  of  "private  judgment,"  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  it 
is  based  on  an  imperfect  understanding  of  the  functions  of  ex- 
posure and  development. 

The  fallacies  of  these  earlier  systems  and  their  lack  of  a  ra- 
tional basis  is  clearly  demonstrated  by  the  researches  of  Messrs. 
Hurter  and  Driffield.  The  system  is  not  one  which  can  be  com- 
pressed into  an  intelligible  paragraph,  but,  inasmuch  as  it  forms 
basis  of  rational  methods  of  development,  it  receives  considera- 
tion here. 

Briefly,  then,  that  portion  of  the  Hurter  and  Driffield  system 
which  concerns  us  is  their  investigation  of  the  law  governing  the 
action  of  light  on  the  sensitive  plate,  and  its  bearing  on  the  func- 
tions of  exposure  and  development.  This  investigation  was 
undertaken  by   Messrs.    Hurter  and   Driffield,   as   amateurs  in 



potography,  to  answer  the  question  which  lies  at  the  heart  of  all 
negative-making:  What  is  the  law  in  obedience  to  which  some 
photographs  are  true  to  nature  and  others  are  false  ?  As  a  result 
of  their  researches,  extending  over  years  of  work,  they  came 
to  the  conclusion  that  the  truthful  representation  of  light  and 
shade  in  photography  demanded  a  technically  perfect  negative. 

This  they  define  as  one  in  which  the  opacities  of  its  gradations 
are  proportional  to  the  light  reflected  by  those  parts  of  the  sub- 
ject which  they  represent  This  all-important  relationship  be- 
tween the  opacities  in  the  negative  and  the  light-intensities  in  the 
subject  depends  upon  the  existence  of  a  somewhat  different  loga- 
rithmic relationship  between  the  light-intensity  and  the  amount 
of  silver  deposited  in  development.  The  establishment  of  this  re- 
lationship is,  in  turn,  dependent  on  correct  exposure.  It 
should  be  clearly  understood,  however,  that  the  term  "correct 
exposure,"  as  here  used,  does  not  imply  that  there  is  necessarily 
one  exposure,  and  one  only,  which  will  give  us  this  perfect  nega- 
tive. As  we  shall  see  later,  most  of  the  films  used  in  photography 
offer  considerable  latitude  in  this  respect,  so  that  the  necessity 
of  accuracy  in  exposure  does  not  confront  us  with  unsur- 
mountable  difficulties. 

It  is  important  to  note  that,  in  speaking  of  the  gradations  in 
the  negative,  Hurter  and  Driffield  separate  the  qualities  of  density 
and  opacity  as  two  distinctly  different  properties.  These  are 
often  confused  and  spoken  of  as  being  identical,  but  this  is  a 
mistaken  notion.  By  the  density  of  the  gradations  in  the  nega- 
tive is  meant  the  relative  quantity  of  silver  deposited  per  unit 
area  in  development.  By  the  opacity  of  the  gradations  is 
meant  the  optical  property  of  the  deposit  to  impede  the  passage 
through  it  of  light.  "Transparency"  is,  of  course,  the  inverse  of 
opacity,  and  is  measured  by  that  fraction  of  the  original  light 
which  the  deposit  transmits.  These  qualities  belonging  to  the 
gradations  of  the  negative,  as  we  have  read,  have  relationship 
w^th  each  other  and  to  the  light-intensities  which  produce  them. 

At  first  sight  all  this  may  seem  extremely  technical  and  per- 
plexing, but  let  use  see  how  the  system  was  worked  out  and 
many  things  will  be  made  plain  as  we  go  along. 

In  beginning  their  investigations,  Messrs.  Hurter  and  Driffield 
took  a  thickly  coated,  slow  plate  and,  using  a  constant  source  of 
light,  made  a  series  of  exposures  in  geometrical  progression — 



i.e.,  I,  2,  4,  8,  l6,  32,  64  and  so  on  doubling  each  exposure  as 
Ihcy  proceeded.  This  course  enabled  them  to  trace  very  rapidly 
the  action  of  light  through  a  large  range  of  exposures  on  a  single 
plate.     On  development,  this  gave  a  negative  in  which  the  sue- 





























o    I    ^   »i   t  lb  3x  ^c   UP  TO  s%^,^'^^ 


Fi«.   39 

cessive  exposures  were  represented  by  a  series  of  gradations. 
They  then  measured  the  densities  of  the  gradations  in  their  test 
negative,  by  means  of  a  specially  devised  photometer.  In  this  way 
they  ascertained  the  actual  weight  of  silver  deposited  correspond- 
ing to  each  successive  exposure. 

The  density  values  thus  obtained  were  plotted  by  points  on  a 
chart  represented  in  Fig,  jp.    These  points  were  then  joined  and 



resulted  in  a  peculiar  curve  which  they  styled  the  "Characteristic 
Curve"  of  the  plate,  because  it  differs  with  each  different  brand 
of  plates  tested  and  also  affords  much  information  concerning 
the  speed,  capacity  as  regards  the  range  of  gradation,  and  the 
general  character  of  the  plate.  It  will  be  noted  that  the  vertical 
scale  in  Fig.  jp  indicates  density  or  amount  of  silver  deposited ; 
while  the  horizontal  scale  indicates  exposure  or  light-density. 
It  will  further  be  noted  that  the  horizontal  scale  progresses  in 
geometric  series,  each  successive  exposure  (equi-distant  on  the 
scale)  being  double  the  preceding  exposure;  and  the  vertical  scale 
progresses  arithmetically — i.e.,  as  i,  2,  3. 

An  examination  of  the  characteristic  curve  shows  that  it 
consists  of  four  distinct  branches,  gradually  merging  from  one 
into  the  other.  It  commences  with  a  strongly  bent  portion  which 
then  merges  into  a  straight  line ;  this  gradually  assumes  a  curva- 
ture in  the  opposite  direction,  until  it  reaches  a  maximum  density, 
when  the  curve  takes  a  downward  course.  The  four  distinct 
branches  of  this  curve  correspond  with  the  phenomena  of  under-, 
correct  and  over-exposure,  and  of  reversal,  with  which  the  prac- 
tical photographer  is  familiar  in  his  everyday  work. 

These  distinctive  periods  in  the  action  of  the  light  upon  the 
sensitive  plate  are  due  to  the  fact  that  the  work  done  by  the  light, 
at  any  moment  of  the  exposure,  is  proportional  to  the  amount  of 
energy  received  at  that  moment  by  the  unaltered  silver  bromide ; 
and  1*^  the  silver  bromide  is  gradually  altered,  the  amount  of  un- 
alterJ  ^  silver  bromide  grows  gradually  less  and  less.  But  for  this 
fact,  the  density  of  the  gradations  in  the  negative  would  be, 
throughout  the  entire  range  of  exposures,  proportional  to  the 
light-intensities,  and  truth  in  photography  would  be  an  impos- 
sibility. What  we  require  is  proportionality  between  the  opac- 
ities and  the  light-intensities,  and  this  exists  only  when  the  re- 
lationship between  the  densities  and  the  light  intensities  is  loga- 
rithmic. As  we  shall  see,  this  relationship  results  from  a  correct 

The  significance  of  this  growth  of  density  in  development  and 
the  relationship  between  density  and  light-intensity  or  exposure 
will  perhaps  be  plainer  if  we  represent  it  by  a  series  of  steps 
forming  a  peculiarly  constructed  staircase,  as  in  Fig.  40,  instead 
of  the  curve  seen  in  Fig.  jp.  In  this  staircase  we  observe  that 
three  distinctly  different  conditions  exist  which  represent  the 




three  periods  of  under-,  correct  and  over-exposure  respectively. 
The  period  of  reversal  may  be  neglected  as  of  little  interest  in 
everyday  photography. 

Having  regard  to  the  "rise"  of  the  individual  steps  in  this 
staircase  as  indicating  increase  in  density,  we  note  that,  com- 



I     f*    H    I    Ji  92'    to 

A  B 


Fig.   40 

mencing  at  A  and  proceeding  as  far  as  B,  the  steps  are  marked 
by  a  gradually  increasing  rise,  but  that  at  the  very  beginning  of 
this  period  this  rise  is  proportional  to  the  exposure  or  light- 
intensity.  Keeping  in  view  the  definition  of  a  perfect  negative 
as  given  before,  it  will  be  seen  that  we  have  here  a  false  relation- 
ship. Proportionality  exists  between  exposure  and  density,  in- 
stead of  between  exposure  and  opacity.  A  negative,  the  grada- 
tions of  which  fall  within  this  period,  will  represent  the  shadows 
and  most  of  the  half-tones  of  the  subject  by  bare  glass;  while 



the  high-lights  will  be  marked  by  relatively  extreme  density — in 
other  words,  the  negative  will  be  under-exposed. 

Next  we  note  that  from  the  point  B,  and  extending  to  C,  the 
steps  in  the  staircase  are  all  of  equal  rise;  that  is  to  say,  each 
doubling  of  the  exposure  is  represented  by  an  equal  increment 
of  density  in  the  negative.  Thus  the  density  grows  arithmet- 
ically while  the  exposure  progresses  geometrically.  As  the 
mathematician  calls  each  term  of  an  arithmetic  series  the  loga- 
rithm of  the  corresponding  term  of  a  geometric  series,  it  will  be 
apparent  that  any  exposure  which  falls  within  this  period  gives 
us  that  logarithmic  relationship  between  densities  and  light-in- 
tensities which  is  essential  to  the  truthful  representation  of  light 
and  shade.  The  following  ratios  will  serve  as  an  example  of 
this  relationship. 

Light-intensities  (exposure)  1:4:16  (geometric  progression) 

Silver  deposited   (density)  0:0.6:1.2  (arithmetic  progression) 

Opacity  i  '.4:16  (geometric  progression) 
Thus  we  see  that  the  photographic  plate  is  capable  of  giving  a 
range  of  opacities  truly  proportional  to  the  light-intensities  of 
our  subjects,  but  only  on  condition  that  all  its  gradations  fall 
within  that  portion  of  the  staircase  (Fig.  40)  in  which  the  steps 
are  of  equal  rise ;  or,  in  the  case  of  the  "characteristic  curve," 
within  that  portion  represented  by  a  straight  line. 

Referring  again  to  the  staircase,  the  period  of  over-exposure 
begins  at  C  and  continues  till  the  highest  step  is  reached,  when 
the  period  of  reversal  sets  in.  In  this  period,  the  growth  of 
density  is  marked  by  a  gradually  decreasing  rise  in  the  steps, 
which  finally  becomes  imperceptible.  A  negative,  the  gradations 
of  which  fall  within  this  period,  would  be  as  false  in  its  represen- 
tation of  light  and  shade,  but  in  an  opposite  direction,  as  if  its 
gradations  fell  within  the  period  of  under-exposure.  The  char- 
acteristic of  under-exposure  is  too  great  contrast  between  the 
tones ;  in  the  period  of  over-exposure  the  contrasts  are  too  small. 
The  tendency  of  the  gradations  in  cases  of  over-exposure  is  (as 
we  see  in  the  steps)  to  approach  one  uniform  density;  hence  the 
flatness  and  lack  of  contrast  in  over-exposed  negatives,  in  which 
the  high-lights  and  half-tones  are  represented  by  almost  similar 
opacities.  Obviously,  if  the  negative  is  to  yield  a  positive  true 
to  nature,  it  must  include  no  steps  in  the  under-  and  over-ex- 
posure portions  of  the  staircase,  but  its  densities  must  fall  within 


MOTION         PicfURE         PHOTO  G  R  A  P  H  Y 

the  straight  portion  of  the  "characteristic  curve."  This  is  se- 
cured by  a  correct  exposure. 

Having  by  means  of  a  correct  exposure  estabUshed  a  true 
relationship  between  the  latent  gradations  of  the  negative  and 
the  light-intensities,  the  function  of  development  is  to  reduce  the 
latent  image  to  metallic  silver.  The  average  photographer  would 
describe  the  process  by  saying  that,  as  development  proceeds, 
the  negative  becomes  denser.  Something  more  than  this  is  in- 
volved, however,  as  the  duration  of  development  materially  in- 
fluences the  result. 

By  conclusive  experiment,  Hurter  and  Driffield  have  demon- 
strated that,  although  the  total  amount  of  density  increases  as 
development  is  prolonged,  the  relationship  between  the  densities, 
as  established  by  exposure,  remains  identical  and  unchanged, 
whether  the  development  be  long  or  short.  In  other  words,  the 
density  ratios  are  constant  and  independent  of  the  time  occupied 
by  development.  Thus,  if  we  give  three  plates  or  films  identical 
(correct)  exposures  and  develop  them  respectively  for  two,  four 
and  six  minutes,  the  total  density  throughout  the  gradations  of 
the  three  plates  or  films  will  increase  correspondingly  with  the 
time  of  development,  but  the  relationship  between  the  densities 
in  each  negative  will  remain  unchanged.  This  lead  to  their  recog- 
nition of  the  law  of  "Constant  Density  Ratios,'*  which,  once 
grasped,  does  away  with  the  old-time  misconceptions  regarding 
the  possibilities  of  control  or  modifications  in  development,  either 
by  changes  in  the  developing  solution,  choice  of  developing  agent 
or  method. 

But,  though  the  density  ratios  are  constant,  the  opacities  which 
appeal  to  the  eye  do  alter,  both  in  amount  and  ratio,  as  the  time 
of  development  Is  prolonged.  Hence  the  range  of  light-Inten- 
sities transmitted  by  the  correctly  exposed  negative  developed  for 
four  minutes  will  be  far  greater  than  the  range  transmitted  by 
another  correctly  exposed  negative  developed  for  two  minutes. 
The  alteration  in  opacity  ratios  Is  not,  however,  variable  or  con- 
trollable at  the  will  of  the  photographer,  but  they  alter  according 
to  fixed  laws;  just  as,  by  the  same  laws,  we  have  seen  that  the 
density  ratios  are  Invariable.  * 

From  these  explanations  the  reader  will  perceive  that  density 
forms  the  connecting  link  between  exposure  and  opacity.  In 
order  to  make  the  relationship  between  density  and  opacity,  and 



again,  between  transparency  and  opacity,  as  clear  as  possible,  we 
insert  here  a  table  prepared  by  Mr.  Julius  Martin,  to  illustrate 
this  triple  relationship. 

The  relation  of  density  to  opacity  is  numerically  shown  by  the 
figures  in  column  2  of  the  table.  Incidentally,  a  study  of  columns 
I  and  2  will  serve  to  illustrate  the  wide  variation  between  density 
and  opacity,  and  the  growth  of  opacity  as  compared  with  the 
growth  of  density  during  development.  The  general  belief  that 
density  and  opacity  are  one  and  the  same  thing  is  here  seen  to 
be  based  upon  a  misconception.  The  relation  of  transparency  to 
opacity  from  the  corresponding  values  of  density  and  opacity  in 
columns  i  and  2  is  seen  in  column  3  of  the  table. 


Showing  the  comparative  values  of  density,  opacity,  and  trans- 
parency, according  to  the  Hurter  and  DriflField  System  of  Speed 
Determination  by  Julius  Martin. 























































































1 0000. 


















1 00000. 









3 1 63  TO. 











The  practical  conclusions  to  be  drawn  from  this  discussion  of 
the  somewhat  involved  relationships  between  light-intensities, 
densities  and  opacities  may  be  summarized  as  follows : 

1.  The  truthful  representation  of  light  and  shade  in  the  photo- 
graph demands  that  the  opacities  in  the  negative  shall  be  pro- 
portional to  the  light  intensities  in  the  subject. 

2.  This  truthful  relationship  between  the  opacities  and  the 
light-intensities  depends  on  the  existence  of  a  truthful  (loga- 
rithmic) relationship  between  the  densities  of  the  negative  and 
the  light-intensities  which  can  be  established  only  by  giving  the 
film  or  plate  a  correct  exposure. 

3.  It  is  the  function  of  exposure  to  determine  the  relation- 
ship which  shall  exist  between  the  densities  and  the  light-in- 
tensities they  represent.  As  established  by  exposure,  and  whether 
true  or  false,  this  relationship  is  unalterable  by  any  modification 
in  the  developer  or  in  development.  If  the  exposure  is  correct, 
the  densities  will  bear  a  truthful  (logarithmic)  relationship  to 
the  light-intensities  and  the  opacities  will  yield  a  visible  image 
(the  positive)  true  to  nature  in  its  gradations.     If,  on  the  other 



hand,  the  exposure  is  incorrect,  the  relationship  established  be- 
tween densities  and  light-intensities  will  be  false,  and  no  modifica- 
tions of  the  developer  or  changes  in  development  can  give  opac 
ities  capable  of  yielding  a  positive  true  to  nature  in  its  gradations- . 
Hence  correct  exposure  is  imperative  as  a  fundamental  condi- 
tion for  the  production  of  a  photograph  true  to  nature. 

4.  It  is  the  function  of  development  to  reduce  the  latent  image 
(given  by  exposure)  to  metallic  silver,  and  to  determine,  by  its 
duration,  the  extreme  range  of  opacities  which  the  positive  will 

.  In  other  words,  success  in  negative-making  plainly  depends  on 
exposure  and  not  on  any  special  skill  in  development.  It  is 
worth  a  great  deal  to  know  this,  and  to  know  further  that  our 
belief  is  based  on  scientific  fact.  Obviously,  this  knowledge  im- 
mensely simplifies  all  photography,  making  plain  what  we  must 
work  for  and  how  to  attain  our  end  most  simply  and  most  surely. 

Our  first  concern,  then,  must  be  to  learn  how  to  give  our  film 
a  correct  exposure  every  time.  Having  accomplished  this,  the 
only  difiiculty  presented  in  development  is  to  know  when  to  stop, 
i.e.,  when  the  opacities  exactly  represent  the  ratio  of  the  light- 
intensities  in  the  subject.  The  necessity  of  a  correct  exposure, 
as  already  hinted  at,  need  not  unduly  disturb  the  reader.  For 
every  plate  or  film  there  is  a  range  of  exposures  during  which 
the  relation  between  the  densities  and  the  light-intensities  is  so 
nearly  logarithmic  that  we  may  neglect  the  difference  between 
truth  and  its  approximation.  The  more  richly  coated  the  film, 
the  wider  is  this  range,  and  the  more  extended  is  the  scale  of 
gradations  (or  light-intensites)  which  the  film  can  render  truth- 
fully. Thus  this  range  expresses  what  we  call  the  latitude  of  the 
film  as  far  as  exposure  is  concerned,  i.e.,  the  limits  of  exposure 
within  which  the  negative  w^ill  give  a  truthful  record  of  the  light 
and  shade  of  the  subject.  This  capacity  of  the  film  is  obtained 
from  the  characteristic  curve  of  the  film  and  comprises  the 
straight  portion  of  the  curve  (see  Fig.  ^p)  or  the  period  of  correct 
exposure  (see  Fig.  40).  Its  extent  varies  with  different  brands 
of  film;  usually  it  is  dependent  on  the  amount  of  silver  haloid  in 
the  film  and  is  greater  in  slow  than  in  fast  films.  Obviously,  too, 
the  latitude  of  exposure,  in  any  film,  is  influenced  by  the  range 
of  light-intensities  in  the  subject,  and  also  by  the  degree  of  truth 
with  which  the  contrasts  of  the  subject  are  to  be  presented  in  the 



In  Fig.  41,  we  have  the  characteristic  curve  of  a  film  the  range 
of  which  may  be  taken  as  i  to  60.  Any  exposure  which  will 
include  the  range  of  light-intensities  in  the  subject  within  these 
limits  will  be  a  correct  exposure.  As  the  total  density  of  the 
negative  increases  with  the  exposure,  however,  the  photographer 
will  always  aim  at  an  exposure  which  will  cause  the  gradations 

jjOBSMttop*     m 


j^-^— "-"^^  .  ■  f.',. .  I  j*  I ;  I ,  I  |-nTT. 
01      2   3  -• «  7   I       t  a  4.  A  7  ib 

^  _   y     y    ff> 

^  r»i4i>uijs 

-     20  50  a»3o  too 

Fig.   41 

I   r  I  ii'iiM 

of  his  negative  to  begin  at  the  lowest  portion  of  the  straight  line 
representing  the  correct  period.  The  best  possible  negative  is, 
of  course,  one  which  combines  truthful  representation  of  the  sub- 
ject with  minimum  density ;  but,  owing  to  the  practical  difficulty 
of  attaining  absolute  accuracy  in  exposure  with  widely  different 
conditions,  we  can  well  content  ourselves  if  we  so  manage  that 
we  get  the  gradations  of  the  negative  anywhere  within  the  limits 
of  the  period  of  correct  representation.  This  can  usually  be 
done  with  the  aid  of  an  exposure  meter  or  reliable  set  of  tables. 
It  should  always  be  remembered,  however,  that  these  give  the 
shortest  possible  exposures  under  given  conditions,  so  that  expo- 
sures slightly  in  excess  of  the  figures  in  the  tables  or  indicated  by 
the  meter  used  will  be  advisable. 

The  range  of  light-intensities  reflected  by  different  classes  of 



subjects  is  a  matter  about  which  many  photographers  are  poorly 
informed.  Messrs.  Hurter  and  Driffield  give  the  range  of  a 
subject  including  white  cardboard  in  sunlight  and  black  velvet  in 
shade  as  1 130.  The  latitude  of  the  film  shown  in  Fig.  41  for  such 
a  range  would  be  1 13,  that  is  the  exposure  could  vary  from  1 13. 
In  interior  photography  the  range  will  be  less,  allowing  a  cor- 
respondingly greater  latitude  in  exposure.  In  portraiture  the 
range  of  light-intensities  is  usually  very  limited,  say  i  :io,  giving 
a  still  greater  latitude  in  exposure  without  loss  of  truth  in  rep- 
resentation. Dealing  with  this  Mr.  F.  Dundas  Todd,  a  portrait 
photographer,  has  made  a  series  of  practically  identical  positives 
from  negatives  including  exposures  varying  as  i  :i6.  This  may 
be  taken  as  an  exceptional  instance,  a  safe  range  with  the  aver- 
age plate  or  film  being  1 14  or  1 15. 

This  must  conclude  our  glance  at  the  Hurter  and  Driffield 
system  and  its  bearing  on  exposure  and  development.  All  men- 
tion of  their  advocacy  of  a  numerical  system  for  the  expression 
of  development  factors  and  their  methods  of  determining  the 
speed  and  other  qualities  of  plates  or  films  must  be  omitted,  to 
give  room  for  the  practical  application  of  the  principles  herein 
discussed.  The  interested  student  will  doubtless  refer  to  the  de- 
tailed information  in  more  extended  treatises  on  development 
which  will  be  found  listed  in  the  chapter  on  bibliography. 

With  this  knowledge  of  the  Hurter  and  Driffield  system  and  its 
basis,  we  can  now  begin  to  apply  it  in  practical  work.  Since  ex- 
posure is,  as  we  have  shown,  the  prime  factor  in  negative-making, 
which  determines  once  and  for  all  its  truth  or  falsity  as  a  record 
of  the  subject  photographed,  it  is  plain  that  development  is  enor- 
mously simplified,  being  in  fact  merely  a  process  which  reduces 
the  latent  image  to  metallic  silver,  the  truth  or  falsity  of  the 
record  being  determined  by  the  exposure.  In  the  following 
method  of  development  worked  out  by  Professor  W.  H.  Wallace, 
development  is  reduced  to  its  simplest  terms.  It  gives  us  all  that 
we  can  obtain  by  any  other  method,  and  at  the  same  time  gives 
us  perfect  control  over  the  total  range  of  opacities  to  be  included 
in  the  negative. 

This  method  is  based  on  the  principles  of  time  and  temperature 
development  indicated  in  the  Hurter  and  Driffield  system,  and 
also  resembles  somewhat  the  well-known  system  devised  by  ^lr. 
Alfred  Watkins,  the  "time  of  appearance"  being  omitted  from 



consideration.  It  gives  without  unnecessary  detail,  and  in  the 
fewest  possible  words,  a  method  and  formulae  which  will  enable 
the  beginner  as  well  as  the  expert  worker  to  get  the  utmost  from 
his  exposures  with  the  least  possible  trouble  or  chance  of  failure. 

It  should  be  noted  that  as  no  two  brands  of  emulsion  will 
work  at  just  the  same  speed  with  any  given  developer,  a  trial 
or  two  may  be  necessary  to  get  just  the  right  degree  of  contrast 
with  the  film  used.  In  this  it  is  only  necessary  to  remember 
that  the  range  of  opacities  (or  contrasts)  is  determined  solely 
by  the  duration  of  development :  the  higher  the  factor,  the  greater 
the  opacity  or  contrast.  Once  the  correct  contrast  factor  for  a 
normal  subject  has  been  ascertained,  it  will  not  be  necessary  to 
change  the  factor  except  for  some  special  purpose  or  for  a  dif- 
ferent class  of  subject,  according  to  the  preference  of  the  in- 
dividual worker.  Obviously  changes  in  temperature,  the  only 
condition  at  all  difficult  to  control  in  this  system,  may  to  a  certain 
extent  be  compensated  for  by  slight  variations  in  the  length  of 

For  the  preparation  of  the  developer  the  student  is  referred 
to  the  chapter  on  How  to  Prepare  Photographic  Solutions,  and 
for  development  formulae,  to  the  appendix. 

As  the  developing  formulae  given  elsewhere  in  this  book  are 
not  calculated  with  reference  to  this  table  it  will  be  necessary 
to  do  one  of  two  things  in  order  to  use  the  table.  The  simplest 
method  is  to  test  the  developer  with  strips  cut  from  a  roll  cor- 
rectly exposed,  and,  using  a  small  sample  of  concentrated  solu- 
tion at  70°  Fahrenheit  determine  the  proportion  of  water  to  add 
to  make  an  average  negative  in  three  and  one-half  minutes  de- 
velopment time. 

When  the  proportion  of  water  necessary  is  found — ^though  it 
may  be  more  or  less  in  quantity  than  that  given  in  the  formula — 
this  becomes  the  standard  for  use  with  the  table. 

The  other  method  is  to  change  the  table  instead  of  the  de- 
veloper. To  change  the  table  for  your  favorite  developer  make 
a  test  at  70°  and  note  the  development  time.  Suppose  it  is  seven 
minutes  instead  of  three  and  one-half.  Then  make  a  new  table 
in  which  all  the  time  values  are  multiplied  by  two  (seven  divided 
by  three  and  one-half  equals  two).  In  a  similar  manner  the 
multiplying  factor  for  any  other  developer  may  be  found  by 
dividing  the  development  time  by  three  and  one-half. 



The  tanks  and  solutions  used  for  developing  should  be  kept 
in  the  same  room  where  the  work  is  to  be  done,  so  that  they  will 
all  be  at  approximately  the  same  temperature.  Naturally,  in  this 
system  uniformity  in  results  depends  largely  on  this  factor  of 
uniform  temperature.  It  is  also  necessary  to  observe  reason- 
able accuracy  in  making  up  the  developing  solutions.  If  the 
thermometer  in  the  dark  room  hangs  clear  of  its  support,  and 
there  has  been  no  recent  *  severe  change,  the  atmospheric  tem- 
perature may  be  relied  upon,  otherwise  the  solutions  should  be 
tested  just  before  beginning  work. 

Keep  the  solutions  moving  gently  during  development.  The 
method  of  using  the  tables  is  as  follows :  Having  prepared  the 
developer  and  taken  care  to  have  the  various  solutions  at  ap- 
proximately the  same  temperature,  the  temperature  is  first  noted. 
Now  find  this  degree  of  temperature  in  the  first  column  at  the 
left-hand  side  of  the  table  and  at  the  intersection  of  the  horizon- 
tal line  with  the  vertical  line  leading  to  the  contrast  factor  de- 
sired, will  be  found  in  minutes  and  seconds  the  length  of  time 
to  develop  at  this  temperature.  To  illustrate:  Suppose  we  are 
using  the  factor  of  6  as  giving  us  the  desired  range  of  contrasts, 
and  that  the  temperature  is  73°  Fahr.  At  the  intersection  of 
the  lines  73  and  6  will  be  found  the  figures  2  and  55,  indicating 
the  time  of  development  as  2  minutes  and  55  seconds.  Simi- 
larly, if  the  temperature  is  6S°  Fahr.  and  the  factor  5  gives  us 
the  required  range  of  contrasts,  at  the  intersection  of  the  two 
lines  68  and  5  will  be  found  the  figures  3  and  10,  indicating  that 
the  time  of  development  should  be  3  minutes  and  10  seconds. 
This  is  all  we  need  to  know.  The  film  rack  is  immersed  in  the 
developing  solution,  agitated  from  time  to  time  and  at  the  end 
of  the  indicated  time  is  taken  out  of  the  developer,  rinsed  in 
the  short  stop  and  placed  in  the  fixing  solution. 

With  regard  to  the  choice  of  the  contrast  factor  among  those 
given  at  the  head  of  the  table,  this  must  be  determined  by  the 
personal  preference  of  the  individual  as  to  the  general  character 
of  the  negative  desired.  Naturally  this  preference  will  be  con- 
siderably influenced  by  the  amount  of  contrast  in  the  subject, 
this  depending  on  the  character  of  the  subject  and  its  illumina- 
tion. In  a  normal  subject  such  as  a  sunlit  landscape,  softness 
will  be  gained  by  choosing  a  low  contrast  factor,  and  crispness 
with  a  decided  relief  can  be  secured  by  the  choice  of  a  somewhat 




higher  factor.  In  portraiture,  where  the  range  of  contrasts  is 
often  small  and  softness  is  generally  desirable,  a  low  contrast 
factor  is  usually  necessary.  Contrariwise,  in  photographs  of 
carvings  in  bas-relief,  where  the  contrasts  in  the  subject  usually 
require  emphasis,  a  somewhat  higher  contrast  factor  should  be 

Time  and  Temperature  Table  for  Use  with  the  Wallace  Method 
of  Development,  the  Time  Being  Given  in  Minutes  and 































9  Min. 













45  Sec. 














8  Min. 













55  Sec. 














8  Min. 













15  Sec, 














7  Min. 













35  Sec. 














6  Min. 













55  Sec. 














6  Min. 













15  Sec. 














5  Min. 













50  Sec. 














5  Min. 













25  Sec. 

Temperature  should  be  kept  as  near  70°  as  possible. 

As  rack  follows  rack  in  the  bath  it  gradually  loses  its  strength 
so  that  after  a  certain  number  of  racks  have  passed  through  the 
solution  the  next  higher  contrast  number  must  be  used  to  attain 
the  same  results  as  with  the  fresher  bath.  On  account  of  the 
variation  in  the  capacity  of  film  developing  tanks  the  number  of 
racks  which  can  be  put  through  before  increasing  the  develop- 
ment time  can  be  determined  only  by  experience.  This  of 
course  should  be  plainly  noted  on  the  table  which  should  be 



placed  close  to  a  red  light  in  the  dark  room  where  it  can  be  seen 


Developer  standing  in  the  tanks  unused  over  considerable 
periods  of  time  also  deteriorates  and  allowance  must  be  made 
for  time  deterioration  the  same  as  for  amount  of  film  developed. 

Difficulties  Commonly   Met  With   in   Negative  Film 


EXPOSURE,  With  negative  film  the  latitude  of  exposure  is 
considerable.  That  is  to  say,  if  f-ii  were  normal  exposure,  the 
film  would  stand  an  exposure  of  f-8  or  f-i6  without  being  too 
much  over-  or  under-exposed. 

Light  varies  in  intensity  from  hour  to  hour  during  the  day  and 
from  month  to  month  during  the  year.  In  winter,  exposure  dur- 
ing the  middle  of  the  day  should  be  from  two  to  four  times  longer 
than  at  the  same  hour  of  the  day  in  midsummer.  Exposures 
made  near  sunset  at  any  season  of  the  year  would  be  from  live 
to  ten  times  longer  than  at  noon  of  the  same  day. 

Correct  exposure  gives  a  well  balanced  image  in  which  the 
detail  of  the  shadows  is  fully  brought  out  before  the  high  lights 
are  over  developed. 

Over-exposure  produces  lack  of  contrast.  If  development  is 
carried  too  far,  negatives  will  have  too  much  density  and  shadows 
and  half-tones  will  be  clogged.  Such  negatives  will  be  dense 
printers  and  the  resulting  prints  will  lack  brilliancy. 

In  an  under-exposed  film  there  is  no  detail  in  the  shadows  and 
if  development  is  carried  too  far,  high  lights  will  become  chalky, 
resulting  in  a  black  and  white  print  having  no  graduation  or 
middle  tones. 

The  best  remedy  for  too  much  over-  or  under-exposure  is  to 
make  new  negatives,  timing  same  correctly.  Where  this  is  not 
possible,  intensification  or  reduction  will  help  to  a  certain  extent, 
but  the  best  results  cannot  be  expected  unless  exposures  are  ap- 
proximately correct. 

Where  there  is  any  doubt  as  regards  safety  of  developing  light, 
same  can  be  tested  easily.  Take  a  piece  of  film,  cover  half  of 
it,  expose  to  the  developing  light  for  two  minutes  and  develop. 
If  the  exposed  half  is  perfectly  clear  and  shows  no  fog,  the  dark 
room  light  may  be  considered  safe.  If,  however,  exposed  sec- 
tion develops  fog,  the  dark  room  light  should  be  covered  with  one 
or  two  thicknesses  of  post  office  paper  or  orange  glass. 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOT  O  G  R  A  P  H  Y 

FOG.  Fog  is  sometimes  caused  by  oil,  dust  or  a  hazy  atmos- 
pheric deposit  on  the  lens.  This  would  give  a  flat  hazy  image, 
which  on  forced  development  would  produce  fog. 

A  uniform  blackening  of  the  film  when  developed,  is  due  to 
fog.  There  are  various  kinds  of  fog  and  many  different  ways 
in  which  it  may  be  produced.  If  film  is  exposed  to  an  unsuit- 
able dark  room  light  during  process  of  development,  or  when 
loading  into  magazines  or  winding  on  the  racks,  it  will  become 
fogged.  Actinic  light  in  the  dark  room  is  a  most  frequent  cause 
of  trouble  and  photographers  sometimes  blame  the  film  when  the 
difficulty  is  due  to  dark  room  not  being  light-tight,  or  developing 
light  not  being  safe.  Too  much  alkali  or  too  warm  developer 
will  cause  fog  also.  A  leaky  camera  or  magazine  frequently 
cause  fog. 

The  reversal  of  values  whereby  a  negative  is  changed  to  a 
partial  positive  is  not  very  generally  understood.  The  most  fre- 
quent cause  for  reversal  of  the  photographic  image  is  the  expo- 
sure of  the  film  to  an  unsafe  dark  room  light  during  the  process 
of  development.  The  amount  of  reversal  varies  with  the  relation 
between  the  preliminary  and  subsequent  development  and  length 
of  exposure  to  actinic  light  after  development  has  begun.  Re- 
versal occurs  only  when  negative  is  fogged  after  being  partially 
developed.  Fog  previous  to  development  merely  blackens  the 
film  all  over. 

Other  causes  for  reversal  are  extreme  over-exposure  or  a 
trace  of  Hypo  in  the  developer.  These  latter  causes  are,  how- 
ever, infrequent.  Reversal  due  to  an  unsafe  dark  room  light  is 
quite  common  and  photographers  not  understanding  the  true 
cause,  are  usually  inclined  to  blame  the  film. 

HALATION  occurs  when  strong  lights  are  brought  opposite 
dense  shadows.  It  is  frequently  seen  in  the  case  of  white  draper- 
ies on  a  dark  background.  It  occurs  also  when  dark  objects  are 
photographed  against  a  bright  sky.  When  photographing  in- 
teriors, halation  shows  as  a  spreading  of  the  light  from  the  win- 
dows. Another  cause  is  reflection  of  light  from  the  lens  by  some 
bright  metal  part  of  the  mechanism  or  of  the  lens  mount.  All 
the  interior  metal  parts  of  the  camera,  especially  those  near  the 
lens  and  the  aperture  plate,  should  have  a  dull  black  finish. 

THIN  AND  WEAK  NEGATIVES  lacking  density  may  be 
due  to  under-exposure,  developer  used  at  too  low  a  temperature, 



or  on  account  of  developer  not  acting  with  sufficient  energy. 
Thin,  flat  negatives  are  due  also  to  insufficient  development.  Too 
much  diffusion  of  light  on  the  subject  will  produce  flat  negatives 

The  remedy  would  be  to  light  with  more  contrast,  giving  more 
roundness  and  relief,  give  correct  exposure  and  keep  temperature 
of  developer  and  dark  room  at  the  proper  point.  If,  after  having 
taken  every  precaution,  negatives  are  still  weak  and  lacking  in 
brilliancy,  it  is  possible  that  better  negatives  can  be  obtained  by 
increasing  the  proportion  of  carbonate  of  soda  in  the  developer. 
Impure  sodas  are  responsible  for  many  thin  negatives. 

FRILLING  AND  SOFTENING  of  the  film  is  due  to  using 
developer  or  other  solutions  at  too  high  a  temperature.  This 
causes  the  emulsion  to  soften  and  sometimes  to  lift  from  the 
support.  Violent  changes  in  temperature  in  the  various  solu- 
tions are  liable  to  cause  frilling.  Frilling  is,  however,  most 
frequently  encountered  in  the  summer  time  or  in  warm  climates. 
The  use  of  ice  to  keep  the  temperature  at  the  proper  point  is 
recommended.  Use  fresh  Hypo  or  an  Acid  Hypo  Bath.  Do  not 
wash  for  too  long  a  time  and  when  drying,  place  negatives  where 
there  is  a  free  circulation  of  air,  so  as  to  dry  rapidly. 

Negatives  dried  in  warm,  close  atmosphere  will  increase  in 
density  and  clog  up  the  half-tones.  The  best  way  to  dry  nega- 
tives is  before  an  electric  fan,  but  under  no  circumstances  should 
drying  be  hastened  by  the  application  of  heat.  Drying  negatives 
in  too  warm  a  place  will  melt  the  emulsion,  causing  same  to  run, 
giving  a  grotesque  appearance  to  the  image. 

GRANULAR  IDENTATIONS  in  the  emulsion  are  due  to 
slow  drying.  If  negatives  are  dried  too  slowly  the  gelatine  will 
swell  and  separate,  causing  transparent  blotches  and  spots  apd 
a  pitted  appearance  all  over  the  surface  of  the  film. 

MOTTLED  AND  WRINKLED  FILM  is  another  kind  of 
frilling.  This  is  due  to  prolonged  development,  causing  film  to 
become  soft,  and  then  washing  in  water  that  is  too  warm. 
Wrinkling  or  reticulation  of  the  film  is  most  frequently  due  to 
its  being  left  for  a  long  time  in  solutions  of  too  high  a  tempera- 

A  very  common  cause  of  blisters  is  not  thoroughly  rinsing 
film  after  removing  from  the  developer  and  before  placing  in  the 
Acid  Fixing  Bath.     The  developer  being  alkaline,  transferring 



the  film  to  an  Acid  Fixing  Bath  without  sufficiently  washing 
same,  causes  effervescence,  and  the  gas  forming  under  the  emul- 
sion, lifts  the  film  and  produces  innumerable  small  blisters  all 
over  the  surface  of  the  film.  The  remedy  would  be  to  remove 
the  alkali  by  rinsing  before  placing  it  in  the  fixing  bath. 

Negatives  may  be  stained  from  a  variety  of  causes.  Brown 
or  yellow  stains,  causing  film  to  become  discolored  either  entire 
or  in  sections,  are  usually  due  to  imperfect  fixing  or  incomplete 
washing  after  fixing.  The  use  of  decomposed  Hypo  or  oxidized 
Pyro  Developer  will  cause  stains  also. 

YELLOW  EDGE  OR  DISCOLORATION  is  frequently  due 
to  insufficient  fixing  and  sometimes  to  insufficient  washing. 

The  subject  of  spots  is  an  endless  one,  and  when  this  difficulty 
occurs  it  is  usually  necessary  to  consider  each  case  individually. 
Some  of  the  most  frequent  causes  for  spots  are,  however,  as 
follows : 

TRANSPARENT  SPOTS  may  be  due  to  an  oily  substance 
on  the  surface  of  the  film  which  would  repel  the  developer  and 
prevent  its  action. 

ROUND  TRANSPARENT  SPOTS  with  sharply  defined 
edges  are  due  to  air  bells  in  the  developer  which  adhere  to  the 
surface  of  the  film.  This  may  occur  either  in  tank  or  drum  de- 

SMALL  SEMI-TRANSPARENT  SPOTS  occurring  in  tank 
development  are  usually  due  to  effervescence  in  the  water  on 
account  of  high  pressure.  This  causes  minute  air  bells  to  adhere 
to  the  surface  of  the  film  during  the  preliminary  stages  of  de- 
velopment, giving  what  some  consider  a  mildewed  appearance, 
but  if  spots  are  examined  under  a  microscope,  it  can  readily  be 
seen  that  same  are  due  to  minute  air  bells,  as  above  stated.  The 
remedy  would  be  to  draw  off  sufficient  water  for  developing  bath, 
allowing  same  to  stand  long  enough  for  the  air  to  escape.  The 
racks  should  be  moved  up  and  down  during  development  to  dis- 
lodge any  bubbles  that  may  form,  and  the  top  of  the  rack  gone 
over  with  a  large  camel's  hair  brush  saturated  with  developer. 

produced  by  scum  on  the  surface  of  the  developer.  This  occurs 
when  using  developer  which  has  been  allowed  to  stand  and  be- 
come oxidized.  Irregular  transparent  spots  are  sometimes  due 
to  film  having  been  injured  on  account  of  rough  handling.     In 



this  case  the  emulsion  will  be  found  broken  and  dug  through  to 
the  celluloid. 

due  to  the  decomposition  of  the  film,  the  result  of  slow  drying 
in  a  close,  heated  atmosphere. 

Opaque  SPOTS  WITH  TRANSPARENT  TAILS  are  due  to 
dust  on  the  plate  and  fogging  caused  by  light  shining  in  from  a 
leak  in  the  camera  or  magazine.  Particles  of  dust  resting  on 
the  film,  if  shiny  or  semi-luminous,  have  the  effect  of  reflecting 
and  concentrating  the  light  on  that  portion  of  plate  which  is  im- 
mediately in  front  of  or  beneath  the  particles,  and  then  casting 
a  shadow  just  behind  the  grains  of  dust.  This  produces  the 
effect  of  opaque  spots  with  transparent  tails  receding  from  them. 

PIT  MARKS,  causing  small  transparent  spots,  may  be  due 
to  sulphurous  precipitation  from  the  fixing  bath.  If  there  was 
an  excess  of  alum  used  when  making  up  fixing  bath,  and  solu- 
tion was  not  filtered  or  decanted  off,  precipitate  would  adhere  to 
the  surface  of  the  emulsion  and  cause  irregularity  of  surface  if 
film  were  softened  during  subsequent  washing. 

PURPLISH  OPAQUE  SPOTS  may  be  due  to  decomposed 
pyro  or  other  chemical  impurities  in  the  wash  water,  or  from  dirty 
trays  or  tanks.  Purplish  black  spots  are  due  to  particles  of  iron 
from  the  supply  pipes  settling  on  the  surface  of  the  negative. 
The  remedy  would  be  to  filter  the  water,  be  sure  that  trays  are 
clean  and  that  no  chemical  impurity  comes  in  contact  with  the 
surface  of  the  film. 

FINGER  OR  THUMB  MARKS  on  the  celluloid  side  of  the 
film  against  which  the  emulsion  side  of  the  next  convolution  of 
film  in  the  roll  comes  in  contact,  would  cause  spots,  particularly 
if  there  was  perspiration  or  a  chemical  impurity,  such  as  Hypo, 
on  the  hands.  These  impurities  would  offset  on  the  sensitized 
side  coating  and  cause  irregular  masses  of  spots. 

pearing on  film  have  been  found  to  be  due  to  colonies  of  bacteria. 
This  has  occurred  when  negatives  were  left  in  a  damp,  fetid 
atmosphere  when  placed  on  the  rack  to  dry. 

OPAQUE  STREAKS  may  be  produced  by  rubbing  or  other 
physical  action  on  the  film  before  developing.  Opaque  streaks 
are  sometimes  caused  by  tightening  or  "cinching  up"  a  roll  of 
film.     If  there  were  any  particles  of  dust  or  organic  matter  rest- 



ing  between  the  surfaces,  "cinching  up"  together  would  produce 
an  opaque  marking. 

SEMI-TRANSPARENT  STREAKS  with  sharply  defined 
edges  are  due  to  not  pouring  developer  over  the  entire  surface  of 
the  film  when  developing  in  the  tray. 

TRANSPARENT  MOTTLING  is  due  to  negative  having  par- 
tially stuck  to  the  celluloid  side  of  another  turn  of  film  during 
washing,  and  when  pulling  apart  caused  the  emulsion  to  par- 
tially lift. 

been  caused  in  the  dark  room  when  allowing  water  to  run  from 
the  faucet.  The  surface  of  the  film  became  spattered  either  with 
clear  water  or  by  impurities  from  the  bottom  of  the  sink,  and 
was  afterward  dried  while  awaiting  development.  This  causes 
spots  varying  in  size,  character  and  intensity. 

Numerous  parallel  vertical  lines  are  produced  by  using  decom- 
posed pyro  developer  and  acid  in  an  old  fixing  bath,  cutting  the 
pyro  stains  out  in  streaks  when  precipitating.  The  remedy  would 
be  to  use  fresh  developer  and  a  new  acid  hypo  bath. 


{Photograph  by   the  Signal  Corps  .^c      :1  of  Photography,   U.   S.  A.) 

Chapter  X 

HAVING  described  the  methods  of  making  the  negative 
record  picture  in  the  motion  picture  camera,  we  come 
now  to  the  processes  involved  in  making  the  positive 
print.  Many  persons,  who  have  not  given  any  thought  to  the 
matter,  have  an  idea  that  the  film  which  comes  from  the  camera 
is  the  same  film  which  is  run  through  the  projection  machine. 
If  one  stops  to  think  for  a  moment,  however,  he  will  readily  see 
that  the  developed  film  from  the  camera  is  a  negative,  and  while 
it  is  possible  to  run  it  through  a  projection  machine  for  examina- 
tion, it  has  a  peculiar  appearance  on  the  screen,  showing  light 
objects  as  black  and  black  objects  as  white. 

In  order  to  show  the  proper  relation  of  light  values,  it  is  neces- 
sary to  make  a  print  from  this  negative  just  as  it  is  necessary  to 
make  a  paper  print  or  positive  from  a  kodak  negative.  It  is 
generally  desirable  also  to  make  a  number  of  duplicate  copies 
from  a  single  negative,  so  that  the  same  picture  may  be  shown  at 
the  same  time  in  various  places. 

There  are  methods  of  making  a  positive  direct  in  the  camera, 
but  these  methods  are  only  practical  in  certain  isolated  instances, 
which  will  be  described  more  fully  in  another  portion  of  this 

Printing  from  a  motion  picture,  negative  is  not  as  simple  a 
process  as  printing  from  a  still  picture  negative,  since  the  exact 
relation  of  distance  of  one  picture  to  another  must  be  preserved 
throughout  the  many  feet  of  film.  Most  cameramen  will  not 
have  the  time  or  the  Inclination  to  make  prints  from  their  own 
films,  but  it  is  very  desirable  that  the  camera  operator  be  con- 
versant with  all  of  the  processes  of  finishing. 

Since  motion  pictures  are  shown  in  a  projection  machine  by 
means  of  light  projected  through  the  picture,  it  is  necessary  that 
the  prints  be  made  upon  transparent  film  instead  of  upon  paper 
as  is  the  ordinary  print.  To  make  these  prints  as  accurately  as 
is  required,  a  printing  machine  is  necessary.  There  are  quite  a 
number  of  different  machines  for  this  purpose,  all  of  which  are 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTOG  R  A  P  H  Y 

constructed  on  the  same  general  principle.     They  may,  however, 
be  classified  under  the  two  general  heads: 

Step  printers  and  Continuous  printers. 

The  mechanism  of  the  step  printer  is  essentially  the  same  as 
the  mechanism  of  the  camera,  except  that  instead  of  the  lens,  it 
has  a  light-proof  box  containing  a  printing  light  for  impressing 
the  negative  image  upon  the  positive,  the  negative  and  positive 
film  being  fed  through  the  gate  at  the  same  time.  The  negative 
and  positive  films  are  placed  in  rolls  upon  spools  or  spindles 
above  the  gate  and  are  fed  down  by  means  of  a  tooth  sprocket 
which  engages  the  perforations.  The  negative  film  is  placed 
nearer  the  light  with  the  emulsion  side  away  from  the  light  and 
the  positive  film  with  the  emulsion  toward  the  light,  so  that  the 
two  emulsion  surfaces  come  in  contact  face  to  face.  A  loop  is 
left  between  the  gate  and  the  feed  sprocket  as  in  the  camera — 
the  positive  film  having  a  slightly  larger  loop  than  the  negative 
so  as  not  to  interfere  with  it  as  the  films  are  drawn  down  in 
contact.  A  pair  of  pins  or  claws  draw  the  two  films  down  to 
go  into  the  gate  and  pass  the  aperture  through  which  the  print- 
ing light  shines.  As  in  the  camera,  a  shutter  cuts  off  the  print- 
ing light  during  the  time  that  the  film  is  being  drawn  down  and 
then  opens  and  permits  the  printing  light  to  impress  the  negative 
image  upon  the  sensitive  positive  film. 

There  are  several  reasons  for  this.  We  are  not  always  able 
to  control  the  amount  of  light  which  we  need  for  taking  a  pic- 
ture, but  in  the  printing  machine  we  have  a  light  which  wc  can 
make  any  desired  strength. 

We  can  impress  the  image  from  the  negative  upon  the  positive 
emulsion  easily  and  quickly  without  having  it  nearly  so  sensitive 
as  the  negative  stock  so  can  use  much  stronger  red  light  in  our 
printing  and  positive  developing  room.  Therefore  positive  stock 
is  handled  with  much  greater  ease  and  certainty  and  by  employees 
of  less  skill  and  training  than  is  required  for  negative.  The  less 
sensitive  positive  stock  is  also  much  less  liable  to  fog  and  gives 
a  much  clearer  and  more  transparent  print  than  would  be  pos- 
sible upon  the  more  sensitive  negative  emulsion. 

A  printing  machine  is  run  much  slower  than  a  camera.  The 
printing  rate  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  rate  with  which  the 
positive  film  is  run  through  the  projection  machine,  so  gives  time 
to  conduct  the  operation  of  printing  carefully  and  with  due  re- 



gard  for  the  preservation  of  the  precious  negative  film  which 
may  have  cost  large  sums  to  produce. 

The  operation  of  printing  machines  is  conducted  in  a  photo- 
graphic dark  room  where  many  of  these  machines  may  be  in 
operation  at  the  same  time.  The  pressure  plate  over  the  print- 
ing aperture  is  generally  made  of  ruby  glass,  so  that  the  opera- 
tion of  printing  may  be  inspected  while  it  is  going  on  without 
allowing  any  of  the  actinic  light  from  the  printing  lamp  to  pene- 
trate into  the  dark  room.  In  most  cameras,  the  pressure  plate 
on  the  gate  is  held  in  continuous  tension  against  the  film  by  means 
of  springs,  but  this  cannot  be  done  in  a  printing  machine,  as  the 
continuous  friction  of  the  pressure  plate  upon  the  negative,  after 
it  had  been  run  for  a  number  of  prints  would  surely  scratch  and 
scar  the  negative,  and  these  imperfections  would  in  turn  be 
printed  upon  the  positive  film.  For  this  reason,  a  mechanism  is 
provided  in  the  printing  machine  for  releasing  the  tension  upon 
the  pressure  plate  while  the  film  is  being  drawn  down,  but  which 
allows  the  pressure  plate  to  come  back  into  contact  during  the 
time  of  the  printing;  that  is,  during  the  time  that  the  film  is  at 
rest.  This  is  done  to  insure  perfect  contact  between  the  negative 
and  positive  film,  otherwise,  if  they  were  not  in  perfect  contact, 
the  light  from  the  printing  lamp  after  passing  through  the  nega- 
tive would  be  diffused  before  it  reached  the  positive  and  would 
not  produce  a  perfectly  sharp  clear  picture  upon  the  positive 

The  two  films  after  passing  through  the  printing  gate,  again 
form  two  loops  and  pass  over  the  teeth  of  the  take-up  sprocket, 
and  are  wound  upon  two  separate  take-up  rollers.  The  negative 
film  is  re-wound  for  passing  again  through  the  printer  and  the 
printed  positive  is  sent  to  the  positive  developing  room  for  de- 

As  the  tension  of  the  take-up  on  the  negative  film  has  a  ten- 
dency to  produce  wear  and  abrasion,  especially  when  dust  or 
dirt  settle  upon  the  film,  it  is  a  common  practice  in  some  labora- 
tories to  dispense  with  the  negative  take-up  and  feed  the  nega- 
tive film  as  it  comes  from  the  printer  into  a  cloth-lined  box  or 
bag,  from  which  it  is  carefully  re-wound  by  hand.  In  other 
places,  both  take-ups  are  dispensed  with  and  the  positive  film  is 
also  run  into  a  separate  receptacle  before  being  wound  up  for 
transmission  to  the  positive  developing  room. 



Step  printers  are  commonly  operated  at  a  speed  of  from  three 
to  four  frames  per  second,  which  is  as  fast  as  is  consistent  with 
high-grade  work.  The  steadiest  positives  are  produced  by  step 
printers  as  the  claws  draw  the  film  down  exactly  the  same  dis- 
tance each  time.  Step  printers  are  especially  valuable  where 
some  slight  difference  exists  between  the  perforations  upon  the 
positive  and  the  negative  film,  since  any  slight  difference  is  being 
constantly  compensated  for  between  the  printing  of  each  frame. 

Take  a  concrete  example : 

vVe  might  have  a  piece  of  negative  film  which  had  so  shrunk 
during  the  process  of  development  that  there  were  sixty-five  per- 
forations per  lineal  foot,  whereas  the  undeveloped  positive  which 
might  have  been  perforated  upon  the  same  machine  contains 
sixty-four  perforations  to  the  foot.  The  claws  of  the  printing 
machine  would  still  enter  every  fourth  perforation  of  both  the 
positive  and  negative,  and  as  each  frame  was  printed  the  positive 
film  would  be  drawn  down  one-sixty-fifth  of  the  distance  between 
two  perforations  further  than  the  negative  film.  In  other  words, 
64  feet  of  negative  film  would  be  printed  upon  65  feet  of  positive 
film  and  yet  each  piece  of  film  would  have  the  same  number  of 
pictures  and  the  same  number  of  perforations,  and  the  pictures 
upon  both  films  would  be  equi-distant  from  one  another,  and 
each  frame  would  have  been  in  perfect  contact  while  being 

Continuous  printers  do  not  have  pins  or  claws  to  pull  the  film 
down  one  picture  at  a  time,  but  the  two  films  are  fed  past  a  slit 
at  a  steady  even  speed  by  means  of  a  sprocket.  It  can  readily  be 
understood  that  unless  the  negative  and  positive  in  a  continuous 
printer  have  exactly  the  same  number  of  perforations  per  foot 
that  there  will  be  a  small  but  constant  shift  between  the  surfaces 
of  the  two  films  causing  a  slight  blurr  in  the  film. 

As  negatives  are  of  different  densities  and  printing  machines 
run  at  a  uniform  speed,  it  is  necessary  to  have  some  means  of 
changing  the  strength  of  the  light  to  correspond  with  the  density 
of  the  negative  and  give  an  even  positive  print.  There  are  dif- 
ferent methods  of  accomplishing  this  in  different  printing  ma- 

The  methods  are  as  follows : 

The  first  is  by  varying  the  distance  of  the  light  from  the 
printing  aperture,  which  is  accomplished  from  outside  the  lamp 
house  by  some  mechanical  device. 



The  second  is  by  varying  the  strength  of  the  electric  current 
supplying  the  printing  lamp.  This  is  done  by  a  rheostat,  or 
variable  resistance  placed  in  series  of  the  lamp  circuit. 

A  third  way  is  by  varying  the  arc  of  exposure  opening  in  the 

A  fourth  is  by  means  of  a  condensing  lens  placed  between  the 
lamp  and  the  printing  aperture  and  moving  the  lens  system  in- 
stead of  the  lamp.  This  permits  of  a  smaller  lamp  house  than 
the  first  method  of  moving  a  lamp,  as  a  very  small  movement  of 
the  condensing  lens  will  produce  the  same  amount  of  change  as 
moving  the  lamp  for  a  considerable  distance. 

A  fifth  way  is  one  which  can  only  be  used  in  the  continuous 
printer.  It  is  varying  the  width  of  the  slot  past  which  the  film 
passes  as  it  is  printed. 

When  a  new  negative  comes  in  to  be  printed,  it  is  necessary 
to  find  just  what  strength  of  light  is  needed  to  print  each  scene. 
In  large  laboratories,  this  work  is  in  charge  of  a  man  called  a 
timer.  Some  of  these  timers  become  so  expert  through  long  ex- 
perience that  by  mere  inspection  of  a  negative,  looking  at  it 
toward  a  light  covered  with  a  ground  glass,  they  can  tell  exactly 
how  to  set  the  printing  lamp  to  produce  a  good  positive.  Some 
of  them  have  a  test  chart  which  consists  of  negatives  of  all  dif- 
ferent densities  mounted  upon  a  sheet  of  ground  or  opal  glass, 
and  comparing  these  known  samples  with  the  negative  brought  in, 
can  ascertain  the  correct  printing  time.  "Correct  printing  time" 
is  the  term  used,  although  it  is  not  accurate  as  all  of  the  machines 
in  a  factory  run  at  the  same  speed  or  time.  What  it  really  means 
is  the  strength  of  the  printing  light. 

None  of  these  methods,  however,  can  be  absolutely  accurate. 
An  almost  imperceptible  change  in  the  color  of  the  negative  de- 
posit will  need  quite  a  different  printing  light  from  that  of  another 
negative  of  the  same  apparent  density,  but  of  slightly  different 

These  methods,  however,  work  very  well  in  places  which  do 
all  of  their  own  developing  where  the  negatives  are  apt  to  be  of 
uniform  color. 

In  commercial  laboratories,  negatives  are  developed  under 
many  different  conditions  with  many  different  formulae  and  with 
deposits  of  different  colors.  A  brownish  pyro-developed  nega- 
tive, or  one  developed  in  an  old  developer  which  has  left  a  slight 



brownish  or  yellowish  stain,  requires  a  considerably  stronger  light 
than  a  blue-black  negative  developed  say — in  a  fresh  metol  hydro- 
quinonine  bath. 

If  the  timer  is  in  doubt  as  to  the  exact  strength  of  light  to  use, 
he  prints  a  test  film  about  a  foot  long,  using  a  range  of  lights 
from  stronger  to  weaker  than  the  one  he  judges  will  be  correct. 
He  then  develops  this  test  strip  and  determines  from  it  the  exact 
strength  of  light  to  use.  Most  printers  are  now  equipped  with 
what  is  called  an  automatic  light  change ;  that  is,  a  mechanical  or 
electrical  device  for  automatically  changing  the  light  for  each 

The  automatic  light  change  is  actuated  by  an  electrical  con- 
tact on  the  machine  which  bears  upon  the  edge  of  the  negative 
film.  By  means  of  a  special  punch,  a  very  slight  nick  or  indenta- 
tion is  made  in  the  edge  of  the  negative  film  where  a  light  change 
occurs.  A  small  wheel  connected  with  a  delicate  electric  switch 
bears  upon  the  edge  of  the  film.  As  long  as  the  negative  film  has 
no  indentation  upon  its  edge  the  light  strength  remains  the  same. 
When  a  light  change  is  to  occur,  the  small  wheel  depresses  itself 
into  the  indentation  by  means  of  a  spring  and  closes  the  electric 
circuit  causing  the  light  shift  to  advance  one  step.  At  each  step 
the  light  will  be  shifted  according  to  a  hole  punched  in  a  control 
card.  Each  of  these  control  cards  has  enough  steps  to  shift  the 
light  for  all  of  the  different  scenes  which  might  occur  in  a  two 
hundred  foot  roll  of  negative. 

As  the  developing  racks  hold  approximately  two  hundred  feet 
of  film,  negatives' to  be  printed  are  joined  as  nearly  as  possible 
to  produce  rolls  of  about  two  hundred  feet.  These  control  cards 
are  punched  by  the  timer  or  head  printer  so  that  each  successive 
scene  will  be  printed  by  the  proper  strength  light. 

On  each  roll  of  negative  to  be  printed,  a  piece  of  leader  is 
cemented,  marked  in  india  ink  with  the  numbers  or  other  identi- 
fication marks  showing  what  is  contained  in  the  roll,  also  marks 
showing  the  frame  line,  so  that  the  printing  may  be  started  in 
correct  register. 

Negatives  taken  with  different  cameras  often  have  different 
frame  lines,  that  is,  the  line  separating  the  frame  in  one  film  oc- 
curs in  a  different  relation  to  the  perforation  on  the  edge,  than 
it  does  in  others.  Printing  machines  are  equipped  with  a  fram- 
ing device ;  that  is,  the  distance  between  the  claws  and  the  print- 


ing  frame  may  be  altered  so  that  each  frame  comes  in  exact 
register  with  the  printing  aperture.  This  framing  must  be  done 
in  all  step  printers,  otherwise  the  line  between  the  printed  frames 
would  come  across  the  picture  in  the  frame.  The  identification 
marks  upon  the  negative  leader  are  thus  printed  upon  the  ends 
of  the  positive  film  and  remain  there  for  its  identification  until 
it  is  ready  to  be  assembled  into  a  reel.  The  control  card  for  each 
negative  roll  is  marked  with  the  same  identification  number  as 
that  on  the  negative  roll  and  is  filed  away  with  it,  or  in  a  card- 
index  drawer  where  it  can  be  found  readily  when  more  prints  are 
to  be  made  from  that  negative.  As  seventy-five  to  one  hundred 
duplicate  prints  are  frequently  made  from  an  original  negative 
and  reprints  may  be  called  for  at  any  time,  it  will  be  seen  that 
such  a  system  is  very  important  and  necessary. 

Of  the  two  types  of  printing  machines  just  referred  to  the  ones 
most  used  in  this  country  are  the  Duplex,  a  step  printer,  and  the 
Bell  and  Howell,  a  continuous  printer.  Since  they  are  repre- 
sentative of  designs  of  these  types  and  most  commonly  met  with 
in  film  laboratories,  brief  directions  for  their  use  are  appended 
to  the  chapter. 


The  threading  is  simple.  The  positive  stock  is  placed  on  the 
front  disc  and  the  negative  on  the  rear  disc.  The  ends  of  both 
films  are  led  under  a  roller  above  the  feed  sprocket  then  over 
the  feed  sprocket  and  under  the  tension  roller  which  maintains 
the  film  in  position  on  the  sprocket.  A  four-inch  loop  is  left  in 
the  negative  strip  and  a  five-inch  loop  in  the  positive  strip,  the 
latter  being  nearer  the  operator.  The  difference  in  loop  size  is 
to  prevent  scratching  from  friction  of  one  surface  upon  the  other. 

The  films  next  pass  through  the  tension  box  which  is  a  continua- 
tion of  the  aperture  plate  and  is  located  just  above  the  gate.  A 
spring  contact  attached  to  the  track  at  one  side  of  the  tension 
box  bears  against  the  edge  of  the  negative  as  it  passes  this  point 
and  serves  to  operate  the  light-changing  mechanism  by  making 
contact  through  notches  cut  into  the  film  near  points  where 
changes  of  scene  occur.  The  wndth  of  the  film  track  in  the  ten- 
sion box  is  adjustable,  thus  making  it  possible  to  operate  the 
light-changing  device  even  though  the  n^ative  be  considerably 



After  passing  through  the  aperture  plate  another  pair  of  loops 
are  formed,  this  time  the  positive  being  four  inches  and  the  nega- 
tive five  inches.  The  films  after  being  passed  under  the  tension 
rollers  adjacent  to  each  sprocket  are  run  over  the  sprockets  and 
then  attached  to  the  take-up  spindles. 

A  highly  perfected  type  of  "automatic"  now  accomplishes  the 
work  of  altering  the  printing  light  to  suit  the  densities  of  the 
various  scenes  of  the  negatives  being  printed. 

The  light-changing  movement  consists  of  an  accurate  escape- 
ment which  is  operated  by  an  electro-magnet  very  accurately 
wound  so  as  to  operate  the  escapement  instantaneously  when  a 
contact  is  made  at  the  breaker-box.  The  intensity  of  the  printing 
light  is  controlled  by  a  light  bar  which  is  so  operated  that  it 
comes  successively  into  contact  with  a  series  of  plugs  on  the 
front  of  the  automatic  corresponding  to  the  various  scenes  on 
the  negative  strip.  E^ch  of  these  contacts  puts  the  requisite 
amount  of  resistance  in  series  with  the  printer  light,  and  it  is 
thus  that  the  printing  intensities  are  governed.  This  automatic 
has  a  capacity  of  i8  different  light  intensities  and  will  also  change 
the  light  for  i8  successive  scenes  at  one  sitting. 

When  the  proper  printing  intensities  have  been  ascertained 
for  each  scene  of  a  given  roll  of  negative,  a  card  is  punched  with 
a  series  of  holes  corresponding  to  these  light  values.  The  card 
is  then  mounted  on  the  front  face  of  the  automatic  and  plugs  are 
inserted  through  the  holes  in  the  card,  which  is  only  used  as  a 
guide  to  the  insertion  of  the  bronze  plugs,  and  may  be  removed 
before  printing  is  commenced. 

With  the  older  types,  the  light-bar  was  in  contact  all  the  way 
across  the  front  of  the  contact  panel,  but  with  the  present  model 
only  one  of  the  contact  buttons  on  the  inner  side  of  the  light-bar 
is  in  contact  with  one  contact  plug  at  any  time.  This  allows  the 
bar  to  drop  so  easily,  when  the  automatic  is  operated,  that  a 
greater  pressure  can  be  supplied  to  its  buttons,  which  assures 
excellent  contact  between  them  and  the  plugs  through  which  the 
light  changes  are  accomplished,  and  also  eliminates  any  possibility 
of  arcing  when  the  light-bar  drops  from  one  position  to  the  next. 
Electric  current  is  supplied  to  the  magnet  which  operates  the 
escapement  and  light-bar  of  the  automatic  by  the  starting  clutch 
of  the  printer,  and  is  cut  off,  when  the  printer  is  stopped,  through 
the  medium  of  a  switch  which  operates  in  unison  with  the  clutch 



handle.  If  the  machine  is  run  without  a  negative  film  in  place, 
the  breaker-box  will  supply  a  continuous  current  to  the  magnet 
which  might  cause  it  to  burn  out,  but  this  is  avoided  by  discon- 
necting the  flexible  wire  cord  and  plug  through  which  the  current 
reaches  the  automatic.  The  current  is  cut  off  from  the  printing 
lamps  when  the  light-bar  is  opened  for  the  insertion  of  the  card 
and  the  contact  plugs,  while  the  current  is  in  turn  cut  off  from 
the  light-bar  by  opening  the  switch  shown  at  the  bottom  of  each 
automatic.  If  the  current  is  left  flowing  through  the  light-bar 
a  shock  can  be  sustained  if  the  hands  of  the  operator  come  into 
contact  with  it  when  arranging  the  contact  plugs.  In  former 
models  the  light-bar  was  exclusively  shifted  by  electricity^  through 
the  medium  of  the  contact  in  the  breaker-box  above  the  machine 
gate,  but  the  perfected  escapement  of  the  new  automatic  ter- 
minates in  a  handle  at  the  top  by  which  the  light-bar  can  be 
raised  or  lowered  by  hand  to  any  desired  position. 

A  film-notching  device  supplied  with  the  printer  is  used  to  cut 
notches  in  the  edge  of  the  film  at  any  point  where  a  change  in 
the  printing  light  is  required.  This  notching  device  is  provided 
with  a  gauge  which  indicates  the  exact  point  at  which  the  film 
should  be  notched,  in  order  that  the  change  of  light  shall  occur 
exactly  at  the  dividing  line  between  scenes,  and  the  rapidity  with 
which  the  new  automatic  operates,  insures  freedom  from  long 
sections  of  improper  density  following  changes  of  scene  in  the 
finished  prints. 


The  essential  factors  necessary  to  the  effectual  realization  of 
the  continuous  printing  are : 

First — Ability  to  maintain  correct  registration  on  the  unde- 
veloped positive  stock,  regardless  of  age  or  amount  of  shrinkage 
of  the  negative. 

Second — ^A  movement  that  will  facilitate  the  continuous  pas- 
sage of  the  films  over  the  light  aperture  without  undue  friction 
or  abrasion. 

Third — The  flexibility  of  the  volume  of  light  used  for  printing 
scenes  of  different  density  and  the  rapidity  of  the  changes  from 
one  intensity  to  another. 

Fourth — The  speed  of  operation  or  the  actual  capacity  per 
working  day,  which  is  the  most  striking  feature  of  this  machine 
in  comparison  with  other  types. 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTOGR  A  P  H  Y 

Referring  to  the  first  problem  relative  to  correct  registration 
of  the  films  regardless  of  shrinkage  due  to  development:  In 
order  to  bring  the  sprocket  holes  of  the  negative  and  positive 
stock  in  proper  alignment  and  to  offset  the  difference  in  length  of 
the  developed  and  undeveloped  films  it  was  necessary  to  construct 
the  path  followed  by  the  two  films  past  the  exposing  aperture  to 
conform  to  the  arc  of  a  circle  whose  diameter  is  such  that  when 
the  positive  and  negative  are  in  position  upon  it,  with  the  unde- 
veloped or  positive  on  the  outside,  the  shorter  length  of  the 
shrunken  negative  is  counter-balanced  by  the  decreased  length 
of  its  arc  over  that  of  the  positive.  The  perforations  are  there- 
fore made  to  coincide  and  all  creepage  due  to  longitudinal  shrink- 
age is  overcome. 

Now  to  take  up  the  matter  of  lateral  shrinkage  or  the  shrink- 
age in  width  of  the  negative.  It  is  obvious  that  guide  rails  along 
the  film  path  are  absolutely  useless  as  the  width  of  the  positive 
film  keeps  these  rails  from  bringing  pressure  to  bear  on  both 
margins  of  the  negative  and  hold  it  parallel  with  the  positive 
stock.  Therefore,  some  means  had  to  be  devised  to  bring  about 
this  condition  without  contact  with  the  moving  film  other  than 
through  the  medium  of  the  driving  sprocket  teeth.  With  this 
end  in  view  a  sprocket  was  designed  whose  teeth  on  one  side  are 
built  to  conform  with  the  standard  perforation  hole,  being  less 
than  two  thousandths  of  an  inch  smaller  in  widtji  so  as  to  com- 
pletely occupy  the  opening,  while  the  teeth  that  engage  with  the 
other  margin  of  the  film  are  slightly  smaller  in  width  in  order  to 
compensate  for  lateral  shrinkage.  Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  when 
two  films  are  superimposed  on  this  sprocket  the  perforations  of 
the  positive  are  held  directly  over  and  made  to  coincide  with 
those  of  the  negative,  side  movement  being  eliminated  by  the 
absolute  filling  of  the  sprocket  holes  along  one  margin  of  the  en- 
tire length  of  the  films  by  the  sprocket  teeth. 

In  taking  up  the  second  clause  relative  to  a  film  movement 
permitting  a  constant  pressure  to  hold  the  films  in  proper  con- 
tact at  the  instant  of  exposure,  it  is  obvious  that  any  device  with 
such  a  small  area  bearing  on  the  continuous  moving  film,  and 
of  a  sufficient  tension  to  insure  perfect  contact,  would  produce 
the  much  loved  enemy  of  the  producer,  namely  scratches.  There- 
fore, some  means  had  to  be  evolved  to  overcome  this  difficulty, 
and  the  only  available  solution  was  to  recess  the  aperture  shuttle 



segment  a  point  of  contact  with  film  and  also  to  use,  virtually,  a 
cushion  of  compressed  air,  which  was  previously  strained  through 
silk  mesh  to  remove  dust  particles. 

By  use  in  the  light  chamber,  of  a  constant  pressure  of  air 
whose  only  means  of  exit  is  through  the  exposing  aperture  and 
against  the  negative  holding  it  in  perfect  contact  with  the  posi- 
tive, the  question  of  scratches  was  entirely  eliminated. 

By  careful  consideration  of  the  third  problem  mentioned  rela- 
tive to  the  varying  strengths  of  light  needed  for  consecutive 
scenes  of  different  densities,  it  was  found  impractical  to  use  an 
electrical  resistance  to  diminish  or  increase  the  volume  of  light, 
owing  to  the  fact  that  a  slight  decrease  in  the  current  supplied 
to  the  lamp  greatly  changes  the  quality  of  the  light  rays  ema- 
nated, namely,  from  one  of  a  pure  white  on  full  voltage  to  one 
consisting  mostly  of  yellow  rays  on  inserting  a  resistance.  It 
is  seen  that  very  little  latitude  is  available  by  using  this  method 
of  changing  and  one  of  a  mechanical  nature  had  to  be  adopted 
instead  of  electrically  controlled.  Practical  results  were  ob- 
tained by  maintaining  a  constant  radiation  from  the  lamp  and 
by  increasing  or  decreasing  the  actual  width  of  the  exposing 
aperture  similar  to  a  focal  plane  shutter,  which  is  the  equivalent 
to  varying  the  length  of  the  exposure  rather  than  the  intensity 
of  the  light  used. 

In  the  printer  in  question,  one  side  of  the  light  aperture  is 
composed  of  a  revolving  segment  whose  movement  is  calibrated 
into  twenty-two  points  and  controlled  by  an  index  hand  and  dial 
mounted  on  the  front  of  the  machine.  By  placing  the  hand  on 
point  No.  I,  the  aperture  is  set  for  the  smallest  opening  or  an 
exposure  by  a  strip  of  light  yi  inch  wide  reaching  across  the  film. 
Each  consecutive  point  from  No.  i  up,  gives  a  ten  per  cent  in- 
crease in  exposure  over  the  preceding  one,  consequently  the  wide 
latitude  available  for  negatives  of  varying  densities  that  this  ar- 
rangement permits  is  very  apparent.  After  setting  the  index 
hand  at  the  desired  light  intensity  (previously  ascertained  by  con- 
sulting the  original  test  pieces  made  of  each  scene),  the  actual 
change  of  aperture  opening  is  automatically  affected  by  means  of 
a  radial  notch  in  the  margin  of  the  film  between  scenes  allowing 
an  electrical  circuit  to  be  completed  which  in  turn  shifts  the 
movable  element  of  the  aperture  to  the  desired  position. 

The  light  changes  are  accompanied  by  an  audible  signal  in- 



corporated  in  the  mechanism,  thus  permitting  the  operator  to 
properly  follow  the  various  scene  changes  listed  on  a  card  and 
placed  on  the  machine  for  this  purpose. 

The  advantage  covered  by  the  fourth  clause  referring  to  speed 
of  operations,  is  maintained  by  constructing  and  adjusting  the 
different  controls  that  each  can  properly  perform  its  duty  at  a 
rate  of  speed  of  approximately  one  foot  per  second  of  printed 
positive  film  or  for  an  average  eight-hour  day  with  due  allowance 
for  changes,  rethreading  and  other  adjustments,  twenty-two 
thousand  feet,  which  is  the  normal  rate  of  speed  and  in  no  way 

The  operation  of  the  machine  is  controlled  by  a  combination 
switch  handle  and  valve  whose  movement  is  limited  to  ^  of  a 
revolution  and  in  making  development  tests  it  is  easy  to  start  and 
stop  the  machine  quickly  enough  to  allow  of  only  a  few  images  to 
be  printed  of  each  scene. 

The  air  compressor  is  supplied  in  two  sizes,  the  smaller  being 
built  to  accommodate  from-  one  to  three  machines  and  the  larger 
from  one  to  twelve  machines.  The  compressors  supply  a  con- 
stant stream  of  air  which  is  filtered  through  a  silk  bag  mounted 
on  a  metal  frame  and  attached  directly  to  the  intake  pipe.  The 
machines  now  being  furnished  require  no  auxiliary  electrical 
equipment,  all  local  circuits  being  operated  from  one  source  of 


Chapter  XI 


Based  on  the  methods  worked  out  by  the  Eastman  Kodak 
Research  Laboratories 

MANY  practical  methods  have  been  worked  out  from  time 
to  time  for  the  toning  of  lantern  slides  and  photographic 
papers.  When  these  are  applied  to  the  toning  of  motion 
picture  film,  the  toned  film  obtained  in  most  cases  although  ap- 
parently satisfactory  when  viewed  in  the  hand,  appears  sub- 
stantially black  on  projection.  Generally  speaking,  the  color  of 
the  image  as  seen  in  the  hand  is  no  criterion  whatever  of  its  ap- 
pearance on  the  screen,  so  that  in  judging  any  particular  tone  it 
is  essential  to  view  the  projected  image. 

The  importance  of  producing  toned  images  of  the  maximum 
degree  of  transparency  is  therefore  at  once  apparent.  The  ex- 
cellence of  any  formula  may  be  estimated  by  its  capacity  for 
producing  a  transparent  image  which  on  projection  shall  retain 
the  necessary  vigor  and  snap. 

While  other  methods  have  been  suggested  for  producing  a 
colored  image,  the  method  almost  universally  employed  is  to 
replace  the  silver  by  a  colored  metallic  compound — usually  a 
ferrocyanide  of  a  metal  of  which, 

Iron  (ferric)  ferrocyanide  is  blue 
Copper  ferrocyanide  is  red 
Uranium  ferrocyanide  is  reddish  brown 
Vanadium  ferrocyanide  is  greenish  yellow. 
Silver  Sulphide  ferrocyanide  is  warm  brown. 
The  object  in  toning  is  to  replace  the  metallic  silver  compos- 
ing the  image  by  one  of  the  above  compounds,  or  by  a  mixture 
of  the   same  whereby   intermediate  tones   are   obtained.     This 
toning  may  be  effected  either  by  a  two-solution  process  or  by  a 
single-solution  process. 

The  two-solution  process  consists  of  first  converting  the  silver 
image  into  silver  ferrocyanide  by  means  of  a  suitable  bleaching 
bath,  thoroughly  washing  and  acting  upon  the  ferrocyanide  image 



with  a  metallic  salt,  usually  in  presence  of  an  acid.  Thus  the 
metallic  ferrocyanide  is  produced  by  double  decomposition.  The 
reaction,  however,  is  never  complete,  so  that  the  image  is  mixed 
with  undecomposed  silver  ferrocyanide  which  tends  to  add  "body" 
to  the  latter.  If  allowance  is  made  in  the  original  positive  for 
this  intensification,  good  tones  are  obtained. 

Single-solution  process :  Instead  of  the  two  separate  baths  used 
above,  a  single  solution  may  be  employed  consisting  usually  of 
the  metallic  ferrocyanide  dissolved  in  a  suitable  solvent  (say  an 
alkali  salt  of  citric,  tartaric,  or  oxalic  acids)  in  presence  of  an 
acid  and  certain  other  salts. 

On  immersion  of  the  positive  film  in  this  solution  the  silver 
image  is  converted  to  silver  ferrocyanide,  whilst  the  colored 
ferrocyanide  is  formed  simultaneously  and  in  its  proper  place. 

In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  metallic  ferrocyanide  is  deposited 
in  a  colloidal  condition  in  presence  of  the  gelatine  of  the  film,  its 
state  of  division,  and  therefore  the  nature  of  the  tone,  is  usually 
affected  by  the  presence  of  certain  salts,  changes  of  temperature, 
concentration  of  the  baths  and  other  factors  which  must  be  main- 
tained constant  in  order  to  produce  uniform'  results.  With  such 
single  baths  it  is  possible  to  secure  tones  which  are  unobtainable 
by  a  two-solution  process.  As  these  single  solutions  are  sensitive 
to  light  and  rapidly  attack  foreign  metals,  such  as  faucets,  they 
are  comparatively  unstable  and  require  care  in  their  use. 

Two-solution  methods  are  reliable,  economical,  and  are  not 
so  prone  to  influence  of  disturbing  factors.  The  total  time  re- 
quired for  toning,  however,  is  invariably  double  that  taken  up 
by  a  single-solution  process,  so  that,  from  an  economic  stand- 
point, two-solution  methods  are  especially  recommended  for  the 
worker  who  tones  occasionally. 

In  the  above  case  if  the  toned  image  be  treated  with  acid  hypo 
to  remove  the  opaque  silver  ferrocyanide,  an  almost  pure  colored 
image  remains.  The  intensity  of  the  toned  image  is,  however, 
considerably  diminished  and,  previous  to  toning  due  allowance 
must  be  made  in  choosing  the  positive  in  order  that  the  final  image 
shall  be  of  the  correct  density  for  projection. 

Since  most  toning  processes  either  intensify  or  reduce  the 
original  image,  it  is  most  important  to  commence  toning  with 
positive  film  of  the  correct  density,  so  as  to  obtain  uniform 



Any  good  metol-hydroquinone  formula  will  produce  good 
tones,  although  a  straight  hydroquinone  developer  will  produce 
excellent  tones  in  all  cases  except  with  certain  vanadium  and 
iron  formulas  for  green  tones.  A  metol-hydroquinone  developer 
is  essential  in  these  cases  in  order  that  the  rich  olive-green  color 
may  be  obtained,  and  the  proportion  of  metol  in  the  developer 
should  be  about  twice  the  usual  quantity. 

Before  toning  it  is  necessary  that  the  developed  film  should  be 
entirely  free  from  fog,  since  a  thin  veil  becomes  intensified  in 
most  of  the  toning  processes.     Fog  may  be  caused  by : 

(a)  Oxidization  of  the  developer,  noticeable  by  the  brown 
coloration  produced  after  continued  use.  The  remedy  is  obvious. 
Do  not  use  exhausted  or  badly  oxidized  developer. 

(b)  Carelessness  in  compounding  the  developer.  The  usual 
mistake  consists  in  adding  the  carbonate  to  the  metol  and  hydro- 
quinone without  previously  adding  some  sulphite  in  order  to  pre- 
vent oxidation.  It  is  not  advisable,  however,  to  add  the  whole 
of  the  sulphite  to  the  metol  and  hydroquinone  in  the  first  place, 
otherwise  the  metol  may  precipitate. 

(c)  The  presence  of  metals  such  as  copper,  brass  and  tin,  and 
fumes  from  sodium  sulphide,  etc.,  in  the  developing  baths  are 
to  be  strictly  avoided.  A  salt  of  copper  if  present  only  to  the 
extent  of  one  part  in  10,000  will  produce  fog  immediately  on 
cine  positive  film. 

It  is  advisable  that  all  metallic  parts  such  as  pins  on  develop- 
ing racks,  etc.,  should  be  enamelled  or  replaced  with  hard  rubber, 
or  silver  plated,  in  order  to  eliminate  any  source  of  danger. 

Exposure  and  development  are  of  great  importance.  In  such 
a  case  as  sulphide  or  copper  toning,  the  best  results  can  be  ob- 
tained only  on  full  development. 

Fixing  should  be  complete  and,  if  possible,  carried  out  in  two 
consecutive  baths  followed  by  thorough  washing,  otherwise  un- 
even coloring  will  result. 

The  toned  deposits  obtained  by  the  processes  recommended  are 
as  transparent  as  is  consistent  with  "pluckiness,"  and  only  those 
formulae  have  been  recommended  which  by  virtue  of  their  rapid- 
ity of  action,  long  life,  and  cheapness,  can  be  employed  com- 

Permanency  of  the  tone  produced  in  every  case  depends  largely 
on  the  thoroughness  and  care  exercised  during  the  various  chemi- 
cal operations, 



The  silver  sulphide  image  may  be  considered  permanent,  and 
likewise  the  blue  tones  in  those  cases  where  the  film  is  finally 
fixed  after  toning.  In  the  other  cases,  however,  where  more  or 
less  silver  ferrocyanide  still  remains  in  the  toned  image,  the  film 
is  not  absolutely  permanent  (blue  and  green  tones  being  affected 
by  excessive  heat).  In  no  case,  where  instructions  are  carefully 
followed,  will  the  toned  image  deteriorate  during  the  active  life 
of  the  film.  Moreover,  so  far  as  can  be  ascertained,  the  wear 
and  tear  of  film  which  has  been  toned  by  the  methods  recom- 
mended is  in  no  way  impaired.  By  virtue  of  the  hardening 
action  of  most  of  the  toning  baths  on  the  gelatine  it  is  advisable, 
especially  during  the  winter  months,  to  immerse  the  film  for 
three  or  four  minutes  in  the  usual  3  per  cent,  glycerine  bath  after 

In  case  film  has  to  be  stored  for  long  periods  of  time  it  is  in- 
advisable to  tone  the  same,  nor  is  it  advisable  to  tone  valuable 
film  unless  duplicates  of  the  same  are  available. 

The  life  of  the  toning  bath  has  been  carefully  investigated  in 
each  case.  The  term  "life"  is  considered  as  the  total  length 
of  film  capable  of  being  toned  by  a  given  volume  of  fresh  solu- 
tion when  toning  is  conducted  continuously  and  without  inter- 

In  all  cases  it  is  false  economy  to  exhaust  a  toning  bath  to 
the  limit  and  thereby  obtain  inferior  tones.  The  cost  of  the 
chemicals  employed  is  insignificant  compared  with  the  value  of 
the  film  being  treated,  being  about  one  per  cent  per  twenty-five 
feet  of  film  toned.  (This  calculation  was  made  when  chemicals 
were  not  so  high  as  at  present.) 

The  figures  given  represent  the  capacity  of  the  baths  for  ton- 
ing under  the  best  conditions.  They  apply  only  providing  the 
baths  are  kept  covered  to  exclude  light  when  not  in  use  and  pro- 
viding no  foreign  metallic  surface,  however,  small,  is  allowed  to 
come  into  contact  with  the  solution. 

As  previously  mentioned,  single-solution  baths  are  not  intended 
for  use  at  very  infrequent  intervals.  In  such  cases,  two-solution 
methods  should  be  employed,  although  it  is  possible  only  to 
recommend  the  latter  for  the  production  of  green  and  blue-green 

Copper  Red  Tone.  Red  chalk  color.  Use  a  snappy,  •  rather 
dark  positive  with  this  bath.  After  immersing  the  well-washed 
film  in  water  for  one  minute,  place  in  the  following: 



Potassium  Citrate 6  lbs.  4  ozs. 

Copper  Sulphate    i  lb. 

Potassium  Ferricyanide   i  lb. 

Ammonium  Carbonate 8  ozs. 

Water  to 10  gals. 

Dissolve  each  ingredient  separately  in  as  little  water  as  pos- 
sible, mix  the  filtered  solutions  so  obtained  in  the  order  given, 
and  dilute  to  the  required  volume.  The  ammonium  carbonate 
should  be  almost  transparent,  and  free  from  white  powder. 

To  obtain  the  best  results  the  bath  should  be  employed  at  70® 
F.  At  higher  temperatures  inferior  results  are  obtained  and  at 
80°  F.  the  bath  is  useless. 

Tone  for  twenty  to  thirty  minutes. 

Washing  should  be  continued  until  the  high  lights  are  per- 
fectly clear,  which  usually  requires  from  ten  to  fifteen  minutes. 

With  use,  the  bath  precipitates  a  brown  sludge  of  copi>er  f erro- 
cyanide,  and  in  consequence  becomes  weaker  by  virtue  of  the 
loss  of  copper.  Ten  gallons  of  the  solution  will  tone  about  1,000 
feet  of  film  without  revival.  As  soon  as  the  bath  shows  signs 
of  weakness  it  should  be  revived  by  adding  separately  one-quarter 
the  above  amounts  of  copper  sulphate,  ferricyanide,  and  am- 
monium carbonate,  dissolved  in  as  little  water  as  possible — omit- 
ting the  potassium  citrate. 

The  bath  will  not  keep  more  than  a  few  days  even  after  being 
so  revived.  In  view  of  the  relative  instability  of  this  bath,  it 
is  more  economical  to  employ  a  wooden  drum  immersed  in  a 
shallow  tank  (using  fresh  solution  as  soon  as  exhausted  in  place 
of  the  usual  "tank  and  racks.") 

Uranium  Red  Tone.     Brownish  red  color. 

Use  a  rather  thin  positive  as  this  bath  intensifies  slightly. 
Immerse  the  well-washed  film  in  the  following: 


Uranium  Nitrate  (Neutral) 3  ozs.  150  Grs. 

Potassium  Oxalate  (Neutral)....  3  ozs.  150  Grs. 

Potassium  Ferricyanide   i  oz.     150  Grs. 

Ammonium  Alum 8  ozs. 

Hydrochloric  Acid  10  per  cent. . .  6  ozs. 
Water  to 10  gals. 

Since  the  nature  of  the  tone  is  influenced  largely  by  the  acid 



content,  it  is  very  important  that  the  uranium  nitrate  should 
contain  no  free  acid.  This  may  be  assured  by  neutrahzing  a 
solution  of  the  same  with  dilute  ammonia  until  a  slight  permanent 
precipitate  is  obtained. 

It  is  most  convenient  to  keep  stock  solutions  of  the  above  (say 
io%  solution)  wherewith  a  new  bath  may  be  expeditiously  com- 
pounded. A  io%  hydrochloric  acid  solution  is  one  containing 
10  parts  by  volume  of  the  acid  per  lOO  volumes  of  the  final 

Slight  variations  of  temperature  around  70°  F.  produce  no 
apparent  effect. 

Tone  for  ten  minutes.  Since  this  and  the  following  single  solu- 
tion methods  of  toning  produce  a  marked  intensification  of  the 
silver  image — which  intensification  increases  with  the  time  of 
toning — it  follows  that  the  nature  of  the  tone  changes  with  the 

The  composition  of  the  bath  has  been  so  adjusted  that  the 
maximum  effect  is  produced  in  about  10  minutes,  the  tone  pass- 
ing through  a  series  of  changes  from  brown  to  red  during  this 

Although  it  is  possible  to  obtain  intermediate  tones  by  with- 
drawing the  film  from  the  bath  at  shorter  intervals,  the  tones 
so  obtained  are  not  so  "plucky,"  and  it  is  almost  impossible  to 
duplicate  them.  Experience  has  shown  that  modifications  of 
tone  are  best  obtained  by  keeping  the  time  of  toning  constant 
and  varying  the  nature  of  the  toning  bath  and  that  of  the  positive 
film  employed. 

Wash  from  ten  to  fifteen  minutes. 

Usually  the  high  lights  will  become  clear  in  the  above  time, 
although  a  thin  yellowish  brown  veil  invariably  remains  in  the 
clear  gelatine  as  a  result  of  the  intensification  of  minute  traces 
of  fog.  This  is  of  no  account,  however,  in  projection.  If  the 
bath  is  working  correctly  this  yellowish  veil  is  only  just  per- 
ceptible. Should  it  be  at  all  marked,  then  either  the  film  was 
fogged  during  development,  or  the  bath  was  not  compounded 
correctly.  Washing  should  not  be  carried  out  for  too  long  a 
period,  especially  with  water  inclined  to  be  alkaline,  because  the 
toned  image  is  soluble  in  alkali. 

Ten  gallons  of  solution  will  tone  about  1,000  feet  of  film  with- 
out any  appreciable  change  in  the  tone,  aft^r  which  the  rich  tone 



tends  to  become  flat  as  a  result  of  a  deficiency  of  acid  in  the  bath. 
At  this  point  the  bath  may  be  revived  by  the  further  addition  of 
acid  to  the  extent  of  the  original  amount  employed,  when  a  fur- 
ther i,oco  feet  may  be  toned.  After  this  stage  the  richness  of 
tone  falls  off  rapidly  and  the  bath  should  be  thrown  away.  In 
view  of  the  sensitiveness  of  the  bath  to  acid,  the  importance  of 
the  neutrality  of  the  ingredients  is  at  once  apparent. 

Used  intermittently  over  a  period  of  several  days,  the  life  of 
the  bath  is  approximately  the  same. 

With  continued  use  a  slight  brownish  flocculent  precipitate  may 
form  in  the  bath,  but  this  should  be  only  slight,  otherwise  it  is 
caused  by  incorrect  mixing,  the  action  of  light,  or  by  contact  with 
a  metallic  surface. 

Uranium  Red  Brown.  Reddish  Sepia  Color.  Use  a  positive 
that  is  a  full  shade  lighter  than  a  normal  black  and  white.  The 
formula  employed  is  the  same  as  for  Uranium  Red  tone,  but 
contains  only  half  the  amount  of  hydrochloric  acid.  The  pro- 
cedure is  the  same  as  that  for  Uranium  Red  Tone. 

In  view  of  the  less  energetic  nature  of  this  bath  the  life  is 
slightly  longer  than  that  for  Uranium  Red.  If  after  i,ooo  feet 
of  film  have  been  toned  the  bath  is  renewed  with  acid  to  the 
extent  of 

6  ozs io%  acid  per  lo  gals. 

Then  lo  gals,  of  solution  will  tone  3,ocx)  feet  of  film. 

Sepia  Tone  by  Uranium  and  Iron.  This  particular  tone  is 
obtained  by  suitable  admixture  of  red  and  blue  toning,  solutions. 
By  varying  the  proportions  of  these  baths,  tones  from  red  sepia 
to  brown  may  be  obtained. 

The  following  is  only  one  of  the  many  tones  to  be  obtained 
by  this  method.  Increase  in  the  proportion  of  the  iron  baths 
makes  the  tone  colder  and  vice  versa. 

Use  a  positive  that  is  a  full  shade  lighter  than  normal. 

Immerse  well-washed  film  in 

Solution  for  Uranium  Red  Brown 9  vols. 

Solution  for  Iron  Blue I  vol. 

The  instructions  regarding  method  of  procedure,  life  of  bath, 
-etc.,  are  exactly  the  same  as  for  Uranium  Red  Brown. 

Sulphide  Yellow  Brown  for  Tinting.  This  tone  is  seen  to  ad- 
vantage only  when  subsequently  tinted,  as  when  used  without 
tinting  it  gives  a  very  unpleasing  brindle  brown. 



Use  a  normal  print  for  this  tone  as  it  reduces  just  about  the 
correct  amount  for  tinting. 

A.  Potass.  Ferricyanide   3  lbs. 

Potass.    Bromide    I  lb. 

Water  to   10  gals. 

B.  Sodium  Sulphide   crystal 3  oz. 

Hypo  crystal  8  oz. 

Water  to   10  gals. 

It  is  convenient  to  keep  solutions  of  hypo  and  sodium  sulphide 
(say  20%)  and  measure  these  out  by  volume  as  required.  A 
trace  of  iron  in  the  sodium  sulphide  is  of  no  moment  providing 
the  stock  solution  is  boiled  and  the  precipitated  iron  sulphide  al- 
lowed to  settle  before  use. 

The  well-washed  positive  is  thoroughly  bleached  in  A,  washed 
for  five  minutes,  and  immersed  in  solution  B,  until  the  film  is 
thoroughly  toned.  This  bath  appears  to  "ripen"  slightly  with  age 
so  that  a  small  amount  of  used  bath  should  be  added  when  com- 
pounding fresh  solution  or  a  waste  piece  of  film  should  be  toned 
in  the  new  bath  to  secure  the  same  eifect. 

The  effect  of  temperature  on  the  solution  A  is  simply  to  hasten 
the  bleaching.  With  bath  B,  on  immersion  of  the  bleached  film 
two  reactions  occur: 

(a)  Solution  of  the  silver  bromide  in  hypo. 

(b)  Conversion  of  the  silver  bromide  to  silver  sulphide. 
Normally,  good  results  are  obtained  at  70°  F.     Owing  to  the 

increased  solvent  power  of  hypo  for  silver  bromide  at  high  tem- 
perature, the  tone  becomes  warmer  and  the  image  has  less  con- 
trast at  a  limit  of  75°  F.,  beyond  which  it  is  inadvisable  to  go. 

Hence,  if  the  tone  is  too  cold  and  the  film  too  opaque,  the  tem- 
perature should  be  increased  one  or  two  degrees  from  70°  F.  and 
vice  versa. 

Tone  about  five  minutes  and  wash  fifteen  minutes. 

The  bleaching  bath  A  will  keep  until  exhausted.  Ten  gallons 
of  bath  B  will  tone  about  2,000  feet  of  film,  after  which  there  is 
a  tendency  for  a  dichroic  fog-like  deposit  to  form  on  the  surface 
of  the  film  during  toning  owing  to  the  hypo  becoming  saturated 
vnth  silver  bromide.  As  soon  as  this  happens,  the  bath  should  be 

Green  tones  by  Vanadium  and  Iron.  Use  a  normal  black  and 
white  positive  for  this  formula. 



Tone  in  the  bath  prepared  as  follows : 


A.  Oxalic  acid i  lb.  4  oz. 

Vanadium  stock  solution 40  oz. 

Water  to 5  gals. 


B.  Potass,   ferricyanide    3  ozs.   145  grains 

Water  to 20  gals. 

C.  Ferric   Alum    8  oz.  145  grains 

(Ferric  Ammonium  Sulphate) 

Potass.  Bichromate  y2  grains 

Oxalic  acid  7  oz. 

Potass,   ferricyanide    3  oz. 

Water  to   15  gals. 

EHssolve  each  of  the  chemicals  separately  and  mix  the  solu- 
tions obtained  strictly  in  the  order  given. 


D.  Ammonitmi  Alum 2  lb.  i  oz.  no  gr. 

Hydrochloric  acid    10% 133^  oz. 

Water  to   10  gals. 

Total  Volume   50  gals. 

Add  B  to  A  with  stirring;  then  add  C,  and  finally  add  D  to 
the  mixture.     The  solution  is  then  ready  for  use. 

The  syrupy  variety  of  Vanadium  Chloride  sold  by  Merck  is 
recommended  although  its  nature  appears  to  vary  with  different 
batches,  certain  samples  being  very  difficult  to  incorporate  with 
the  toning  bath  without  giving  rise  to  precipitation. 
Vanadium  Stock  Solution : 


Vanadium  chloride  (syrup) 3^  tl.  oz. 

Oxalic  acid    3  oz.  200  gr. 

Water  to  y^  gal. 

Any  sludge  which  may  have  been  deposited  from  the  vanadium 
chloride  should  be  included  also  and  the  whole  heated  in  a  glass 
or  enamelled  vessel  until  a  clear  blue  solution  is  obtained. 

The  method  of  mixing  the  various  solutions  A,  B,  C  and  D  is 
of  the  greatest  importance.  They  should  be  mixed  only  in  the 
concentrations  recommended  and  strictly  in  the  order  given.  Un- 
less this  is  done,  the  vanadium  will  precipitate  out  as  a  green 



Variations  of  temperature  around  70°  F.  have  little  or  no  effect. 

Tone  ten  to  fifteen  minutes  and  wash  for  the  same  length  of 
time.  Washing  should  be  thorough  as  it  is  only  during  washing 
that  the  rich  green  tone  develops. 

Ten  gallons  of  solution  will  tone  about  1,400  feet  of  film 
without  any  appreciable  deterioration  of  tone,  and  if  at  this 
point,  and  after  each  1,000  feet,  the  bath  is  revived  by  the  addi- 
tion of  hydrochloric  acid  equivalent  to  the  amount  originally 
employed:  i.e. 

2j4  ozs.,  10%  Hydrochloric  Acid  per  10  gals. 
3,000  feet  may  be  toned.  As  the  bath  becomes  exhausted  it  may 
be  found  necessary  to  increase  the  time  of  toning  to  fifteen 
minutes.  It  is  not  permissible  to  add  further  amounts  of  vana- 
dium chloride  in  order  to  revive  the  bath,  as  the  vanadium  would 
then  be  precipitated.  The  vanadium  may  be  incorporated  with 
the  bath  only  at  the  time  of  mixing. 

Used  intermittently  the  life  is  approximately  the  same. 

Greenish  Blue  Tone  With  Vanadium  And  Iron.  Use  normal 
black  and  white  positive  for  the  formula. 

The  formula  employed  and  instructions  are  exactly  the  same 
as  for  Green  tones  by  Vanadium  and  Iron,  except  that  the  pro- 
portion of  Vanadium  chloride  is  as  follows : 

Vanadium  Chloride  Stock  Solution. 
Per  10  gal.  of  bath,  4  ozs. 

and  only  half  the  amount  of  hydrochloric  acid  should  be  em- 
ployed. It  is  not  permissible  to  convert  this  bath  to  the  pre- 
ceding by  the  addition  of  further  amounts  of  vanadium  chloride, 
in  which  case  the  latter  would  be  precipitated. 

Positives  for  this  bath  should  be  a  full  shade  or  even  two 
shades  lighter  than  normal  and  should  be  developed  in  metol- 
hydroquinone  developer  as  a  plain  hydroquinone  formula  does  not 
give  good  results  with  this  bath. 


A.     Potassium  Ferricyanide   4  lbs.  43^  ozs. 

Ammonia  .880 13  ozs. 

Water  to  10  gals. 

Bleach  for  two  to  ten  minutes,  then  wash  for  ten  or  fifteen 
minutes,  tone  in  the  following : 



B.     Ferric  alum   (crystal)  Avoirdupois 

(Ferric  ammonium  sulphate) ...  .13  ozs.  2  drams 
Vanadium  chloride   (stock  sol.). -.25  fl.  ozs. 

Potassium  bromide 6  ozs.  5  drams 

Hydrochloric  acid  (concentrated) .  23^  ozs. 
Water  to   10  gals. 

Refer  to  green  tones  by  Vanadium  and  Iron  for  composition  of 
vanadium  stock  solution. 

Temperature  of  toning  should  be  around  70°  F.  and  the  time 
of  toning  ten  to  fifteen  minutes. 

Wash  for  ten  minutes  after  toning. 

Providing  bath  A  is  screened  from  the  light  and  kept  covered 
in  order  to  prevent  the  undue  escape  of  ammonia,  the  bath  keeps 
fairly  well.  Should  it  show  any  signs  of  weakening  it  should 
be  revived  by  the  addition  of  a  further  quantity  of  ammonia 
equal  in  amount  to  that  originally  used.  If  so  revived  at  in- 
tervals, 10  gallons  will  bleach  8,000  feet  of  film  before  exhaustion. 

Ten  gallons  of  solution  B  will  tone  6,000  feet  of  film  without 
further  addition  of  acid,  after  which  it  should  be  thrown  away. 

Olive  green  tones  with  iron  (two  solutions). 

This  tone  is  almost  indistinguishable  from  those  obtained  with 
vanadium.  Use  a  thin  metol-hydroquinone  developed  positive 
with  this  formula,  plain  hydroquinone  does  not  give  very  satis- 
factory results. 

Bleach  in  solution  A  as  for  green  tones  by  vanadium  and  iron, 
and  after  washing  for  ten  to  fifteen  minutes  tone  in: 


Ferric  Alum   13  oz.  2  drams 

Potassium  bromide  6  oz.  5  drams 

Hydrochloric  acid   (concentrated) .  2j^  oz. 
Water  to   10  gals. 

The  time  of  toning,  washing,  life  of  bath,  etc.,  are  the  same 
as  for  green  tone  by  Vanadium  and  Iron.  Should  the  high  lights 
of  the  toned  image  be  stained  blue,  this  is  due  to  insufficient 
washing  after  bleaching: 

Iron  Blue  Tone.  Use  normal  or  slightly  thin  positive.  Tone 
in  the  following; 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOT  O  G  R  A  P  H  Y 


Potassium  bichromate   15  grains 

Ferric  Alum i  oz.  250  grs. 

Oxalic  acid   4  oz. 

Potassium  ferricyanide   i  oz.  146  grs. 

Ammonium  alum   6  oz.       5  drams 

Hydrochloric  acid  10% i  oz.      2  drams 

Water  to   10  gals. 

The  method  of  compounding  this  bath  is  very  important.  Each 
of  the  solid  chemicals  should  be  dissolved  separately  in  a  small 
quantity  of  warm  water  and  the  solutions  allowed  to  cool.  Then 
the  latter  should  be  filtered  into  the  tank  strictly  in  the  order 
given,  and  the  whole  diluted  to  the  required  volume.  If  these  in- 
structions are  adhered  to,  the  bath  will  be  free  from  any  sign  of 
precipitate  and  will  remain  so  for  a  considerable  period. 

Tone  for  ten  to  fifteen  minutes  and  wash  ten  to  fifteen  minutes 
until  the  high  lights  are  clear.  A  very  slight  permanent  yellow 
coloration  of  the  clear  gelatine  will  usually  occur,  but  should  be 
only  just  perceptible.  It  is  of  no  moment  in  projection.  Should 
any  sign  of  blue  stain  occur,  it  is  an  indication  of  a  stale  bath 
or  incorrect  mixing  of  the  same.  These  remarks  regarding  stains 
apply  in  all  cases  where  single  toning  solutions  are  employed. 

If  the  acid  is  replaced  to  the  extent  of  the  original  amount 
after  toning  each  1,000  feet,  the  bath  will  on  the  whole  tone 
3,000  feet  per  ten  gallons  of  solution. 

If  even  after  revival,  the  tone  remains  flat,  the  bath  is  exhausted 
and  should  be  thrown  away.  As  the  bath  becomes  exhausted, 
the  time  of  toning  should  be  extended  a  little  longer  than  ten 
minutes  in  order  to  obtain  the  necessary  contrast. 

After  continued  use,  a  slight  bluish  sludge  will  collect  in  the 
bath,  but  this  is  of  no  moment.  Should  this  form,  however,  to 
an  appreciable  extent,  it  is  due  either  to  incorrect  mixing,  the 
action  of  light,  or  to  contact  with  metallic  surfaces. 

Two-Solution  Iron  Blue  Toning  Bath.  Starting  with  a  light, 
normal  positive,  this  is  toned  according  to  instructions  given  for 
olive-green  tones  with  iron. 

The  tone  image  is  then  immersed  in  the  following  fixing  bath 
for  three  minutes; 



Hypo  (crystal)  8  lbs.  5       ozs. 

Sodium  bisulphite    (EKCo) 2  lbs.  1%  ozs. 

Water  to  10  gals. 

After  fixing,  the  film  is  washed  for  ten  to  fifteen  minutes.  If 
the  resultant  image  is  too  thin,  the  toning  solution  should  be  al- 
lowed to  act  for  fifteen  minutes,  or  positive  film  of  greater  con- 
trast should  be  employed. 

Violet  Tone  With  Iron  and  Ammonia.  Iron  blue  tones  may  be 
converted  to  violet  or  dark  blue  by  immersion  for  one  to  two 
minutes  in  the  following  bath. 


Ammonia  Pure  .880 3  to  5  ozs. 

Water  to 10  gals. 

Wash  for  one  or  two  minutes  and  dry. 

After  some  time  the  film  will  turn  blue  again  but  the  violet 
tone  can  be  restored  by  treatment  with  ammonia. 

In  many  cases  pleasing  effects  may  be  obtained  by  tinting  film 
which  has  already  been  toned.  The  result  is  that  the  clear  por- 
tions of  high  lights  assume  the  color  of  the  dye,  whilst  the 
shadows  and  half-tones  project  a  tint  intermediate  between  that 
of  the  dye  and  the  toned  deposit 

Considerable  judgment  is  necessary  in  choosing  suitable  tints 
to  blend  with  any  given  tone. 

The  most  successful  combination  of  toning  with  tinting  is  in 
the  production  of  sunset  and  moonlight  effects  over  water.  First 
tone  blue  and  subsequently  tint  "orange"  or  "red." 

The  following  combinations  will  cover  most  cases  required : 

Yellow  Brown  tone  with  pink  tint. 

Green  and  Blue  tones  with  light  yellow  tint. 

Blue  and  Violet  with  almost  any  delicate  shade. 

It  is  considered  unnecessary  to  illustrate  every  combination 
of  tone  and  tint.  Only  typical  examples  have  been  given.  It 
must  be  noted  that  toned  film  except  copper  and  sulphide  toned, 
dyes  more  quickly  than  untoned  film  in  any  given  dye  bath.  In 
order  to  obtain  the  exact  tints  above,  the  dye  bath  should  be 
diluted  with  about  an  equal  quantity  of  water. 

Dye  for  five  to  ten  minutes,  according  to  shade  desired. 

The  equipment  necessary  for  systematic  toning  and  tinting  is 
essentially  the  same  as  that  required  for  development,  consisting 



of  the  usual  tanks  and  racks  or  small  drums.  It  is  highly  de- 
sirable to  use  the  same  for  this  purpose  exclusively  and  if  pos- 
sible keep  in  a  separate  room  thus  excluding  any  possibility  of 
contamination  either  by  the  copper  or  sulphiding  bath,  which 
would  cause  development  fog  immediately. 

The  "drum"  system,  on  account  of  the  great  expense  involved 
in  apparatus  and  the  larger  space  required  for  manipulation,  is 
not  to  be  recommended  for  toning  and  tinting  operations.  For 
the  worker  on  a  small  scale,  who  desires  only  to  produce  short 
lengths  of  film  occasionally,  a  small  wooden  drum  revolving  in 
a  shallow  wooden  tank  is  most  efficient  and  economical.  The 
tanks  employed  should  be  of  slate  or  other  resistive  materials,  and 
have  in  an  outlet  at  the  bottom  a  hard-rubber  stopcock  or  a 
wooden  plug. 

Wooden  tanks  may  be  used  but  when  once  used  for  one  color 
cannot  be  used  for  any  complementary  color. 

The  tank  containing  the  sulphiding  bath  should  be  enclosed  in 
an  outer  tank  through  which  hot  or  cold  water  may  be  circulated 
in  order  to  control  the  temperature.  The  racks  or  drums 
may  be  of  wood,  but  if  metal  pegs  are  employed  they 
should  be  coated  with  an  acid-resisting  paint  such  as  asphalt. 
The  presence  of  any  metalic  surface  in  the  toning  baths  will 
cause  contamination  of  the  same  and  effect  a  precipation  of 
sludge.  Neither  toning  nor  tinting  frames  should  be  interchanged 
but  should  be  kept  separate  in  order  to  prevent  contamination 
of  one  bath  by  frames  employed  in  another.  This  also  applies 
to  the  small  drum  system.  A  pink  tint  would  be  ruined  by  using 
a  rack  which  had  been  immersed  in  a  deep  blue  dye  bath  unless 
the  rack  had  been  washed  thoroughly. 

In  the  case  of  delicate  tinting,  however,  no  harm  is  done  pro- 
viding the  racks  have  been  coated  with  the  following  waterproof 
varnish : 


Hard  Paraffin i  lb.  5  ozs. 

Syrian  asphalt    i  lb.  5  ozs. 

Benzol    4  gals. 

Carbon  tetrachloride 3  gals. 

Before  varnishing  it  is  preferable  to  immerse  the  racks  in  a 
1%  solution  of  hydrochloric  acid  for  two  or  three  minutes  and 



wash  for  fifteen  minutes.  Dry  thoroughly.  Then  dip  the  well- 
dried  racks  in  the  above  solution  and  drain  off  the  excess  liquid. 
The  varnish  dries  almost  immediately. 

The  varnishing  should  be  repeated  at  intervals. 

Developers,  toning  solutions  and  dyes  should  be  mixed  in 
crocks  of  glazed  earthenware.  Use  warm  water  when  possible 
and  ensure  thorough  solution  by  stirring  with  a  wooden  paddle, 
which  should  be  thoroughly  washed  after  each  operation.  Hav- 
ing dissolved  the  chemicals  in  as  small  a  quantity  of  hot  water  as 
possible,  the  solution  should  be  cooled  so  that  on  dilution  the  final 
solution  will  be  at  approximately  the  correct  temperature. 

The  chemicals  employed  should  be  pure.  When  a  good  water 
supply  is  not  available,  distilled  water  only  should  be  employed. 

In  "tinting"  the  following  factors  must  be  taken  into  con- 
sideration : 

Dyestuffs  are  chemically  of  two  different  types,  acid  and  basic ; 
so-called  acid  dyestuffs  are  the  alkali — usually  sodium  salts  of 
organic  acids — whilst  basic  dyestuffs  are  the  chlorides,  sulphates, 
etc.,  of  organic  bases. 

For  the  tinting  of  film  only  "acid"  dyestuffs  should  be  con- 
sidered, since  "basic"  dyestuffs  usually  enter  the  gelatine  so 
rapidly  that  satisfactory  control  of  the  dyeing  is  impossible. 
Moreover,  it  is  not  possible  to  make  a  complete  selection  from 
basic  dyestuffs  alone.  Such  a  selection  would  necessitate  the  use 
of  acid  and  basic  dyestuffs  in  admixture — a  procedure  highly  un- 
desirable and,  in  many  cases,  impossible. 

Any  dyestuffs  suitable  for  admixture  to  produce  intermediate 
tints  should  possess  the  following  properties : 

The  dye  should  be  inert  and  not  attack  the  gelatine  or  support. 
This  is  of  fundamental  importance  as  the  gelatine  coating  of  dyed 
film  in  many  cases  has  a  tendency  to  lose  its  flexibility,  causing 
what  is  known  in  the  trade  as  "brittleness." 

Several  dyestuffs  when  employed  at  a  concentration  of  i%,  at- 
tack gelatine  readily  at  70°  F.  and  vigorously  at  80°  F.,  especially 
in  presence  of  small  amounts  of  acids,  producing  a  marked 
softening  and  often  partial  solution  of  the  film.  The  effect  is 
roughly  proportionate  to  the  concentration  of  the  dye  and  to  the 
temperature,  and  varies  with  each  individual  dyestuff.  Exper- 
ience shows  that  the  gelatine  coating  of  film  which  has  been 
softened  in  this  way  by  the  dyestuffs  becomes  "brittle"  on  sub- 
sequent projection. 


MOTION         PICTURE        PHOTOGR  A  P  H  Y 

The  actual  factors  in  the  production  of  brittleness  are : 

1.  The  hydrolysis  of  the  acid  which,  in  many  cases,  is  added 
to  assist  dyeing.  If  a  solid  acid  has  been  employed  the  heat  en- 
countered during  projection  will  greatly  accelerate  this  hydrolysis. 

2.  The  corrosion  of  the  dye  itself.  Dyes  vary  considerably 
in  this  respect  according  to  their  particular  composition.  So  far, 
it  has  not  been  possible  to  make  any  general  classification  of  dye- 
stuffs  in  this  connection,  though  nitro  compounds  appear  to  be 
particularly  corrosive  in  their  action. 

3.  The  presence  of  impurities  in  the  dyestuff.  These  take 
the  form  of  excessive  amounts  of  loading  material,  such  as  sodium 
sulphate  or  chloride,  or  small  traces  of  iron,  the  latter  having  a 
tendency  to  harden  the  film  considerably. 

In  all  the  above  cases,  the  nature  of  the  gelatine  is  altered.  It 
loses  its  property  of  remaining  resilient  under  normal  conditions 
of  temperature  and  humidity  and  becomes  "brittle." 

A  suitable  test  as  to  whether  a  dyestuff  has  any  propensity 
to  produce  brittleness  is  to  incubate  a  sample  of  film,  half  of 
which  has  been  dyed,  for  about  48  hours  at  100°  degrees  C.  If 
any  difference  in  brittleness  is  noticeable  between  the  dyed  and 
undyed  portions  so  treated,  the  dye  is  unsuitable  for  tinting. 

On  the  contrary  most  dyestuffs,  when  used  at  a  concentration 
of  1%  and  at  80°  F.,  produce  more  or  less  softening  of  the  gela- 
tine.    This  may  be  prevented  by : 

(a)  Use  of  dilute  solutions  only.  Except  in  special  cases,  a 
dye  solution  stronger  than  0.5%  is  seldom  required.  The  usual 
strength  employed  is  about  0.2%,  at  which  concentration  no 
softening  usually  occurs.. 

(b)  Omission  of  acid  from  the  dye  bath. 

(c)  By  working  at  temperatures  not  higher  than  70°  F. 

(d)  By  slight  hardening  of  the  film  before  dyeing  and  sub- 
sequent softening  by  glycerine,  as  described  below : 

The  dye  should  not  "bleed"  to  any  considerable  extent  when 
the  film  is  washed ;  in  other  words,  the  rate  of  removal  of  the  dye 
should  be  slow  and  be  almost  imperceptible  in  a  period  of  say,  five 

Generally  speaking,  basic  dyestuffs  which  are  absorbed  readily 
by  gelatine  do  not  bleed  whilst  most  acid  dyestuffs  which  dye 
gelatine  much  more  slowly  bleed  considerably.  The  rate  of  bleed- 
ing appears  to  vary  inversely  as  the  affinity  between  the  dye  and 
the  gelatine. 



In  tinting,  bleeding  is  of  considerable  importance. 

During  the  period  between  rinsing  after  dyeing  and  the  placing 
of  the  film  on  the  drying  rack,  any  drops  of  water  on  the  surface 
of  the  film  become  more  or  less  saturated  with  dye.  These,  after 
drying,  remain  as  spots  and  irregular  markings  which  are  very 
apparent  on  the  screen. 

It  is  possible  only  in  very  few  cases  to  modify  this  bleeding 
by  an  acid  "stop  bath,"  and  it  may  be  considered  a  general  rule 
that  the  bleeding  of  a  dyestuff  is  a  property  peculiar  to  itself. 
In  making  a  selection  of  dyes  therefore,  it  is  necessary  to  choose 
only  those  which  have  a  minimum  propensity  to  bleed. 

The  rate  of  dyeing  should  be  only  slightly  affected  by  the  addi- 
tion of  acid  to  the  dye  bath. 

In  some  instances  it  has  been  recommended  to  add  a  small 
amount  of  acid  to  the  dye  bath  to  obtain  more  transparent  re- 
sults and  to  increase  the  rate  of  dyeing,  but  we  do  not  recommend 
the  use  of  acid  for  the  following  reasons : 

(a)  Acid  magnifies  the  eflPect  of  temperature  both  on  the  rate 
of  dyeing  and  on  the  softening  of  the  gelatine. 

(b)  Acidified  dye  baths  usually  dye  too  quickly  and  often  pro- 
duce uneven  dyeing  around  the  perforations.  Moreover,  in 
many  cases  the  degree  of  dyeing  is  very  sensitive  to  changes  in 
acidity.  Since  the  acidity  of  the  bath  falls  ofif  with  use,  just  as 
in  toning,  it  is  almost  impossible  to  duplicate  results  systematic- 

If  acid  is  used  it  should  be  a  volatile  acid  such  as  acetic  acid, 
as  any  solid  acid  is  retained  in  the  film  after  dyeing.  In  all  cases 
the  eflFect  varies  with  the  particular  dyestuff  employed,  and  may 
be  considerable  even  w^hen  the  acid  (acetic)  is  present  only  to 
the  extent  of  .02%. 

The  dyes  should  be  stable  to  light  and  not  be  "dichroic"  or 
change  color  on  dilution. 

Moreover,  the  wear  and  tear  of  the  film  should  not  be  impaired 
in  any  way  after  dyeing.  Even  after  incubating  for  48  hours  at 
100°  C,  no  difference  should  be  discernible  between  dyed  and 
undyed  films. 

The  dyestuff  should  not  be  affected  by  "hypo"  since  any  fixing 
solution  left  in  the  film,  or  accidentally  splashed  thereon,  would 
destroy  the  dye  immediately. 

Examination  shows  that  most  dyes  fail  on  the  "bleeding"  test, 



whilst  others,  which  might  otherwise  appear  entirely  suitable,  at- 
tack the  gelatine  at  higher  temperatures  or  cause  "brittleness." 

In  view  of  the  large  number  of  tints  required  in  commercial 
work,  it  is  undesirable  to  keep  a  separate  dye-powder  for  the 
preparation  of  each  particular  bath.  Prepare  the  same  by  ad- 
mixture of  three  or  more  dyestuffs.  If  three  only  are  employed, 
mixing  must  be  conducted  with  great  precision  in  order  to  re- 
produce any  given  tint.  This  difficulty  is  overcome  by  the  use 
of  intermediate  colors. 

The  following  five  standard  dyes  have  been  chosen  as  fulfilling 
the  above  conditions  as  nearly  as  possible.  By  suitably  mixing 
solutions  of  these  as  indicated  in  the  specimen  chart,  almost  any 
desired  tint  may  be  obtained : 

Name  used  in  Formula   Commercial  Name  Mamufacturer 

Cine  Red  Chromotrop  FB  Hoechst 

Cine  Orange  Orange  GRX  Badische 

Cine  Yellow  Quinoline  Yellow         Badische 

(Hoechst,  Agfa.) 
Cine  Blue-Green         Brilliant  Patent  Blue    Hoechst 
Cine  Blue  Naphthaline  Blue  12B  Hoechst 



Hoechst  is  Farbwerke  Hoechst  Co.,  122  Hudson  St.,  New 
York  City. 

Badische,  Badische  Co.,  128  Duane  St.,  New  York  City. 

Agfa,  Berlin  Anilin  Works,  213-215  Water  St.,  New  York  City. 

Kalle,  Kalle  and  Co.,  530  Canal  St.,  New  York  City. 

These  dyes  are  the  commercial  grades  as  supplied  by  the 
various  dye  makers.  As  a  rule,  they  contain  about  20% 
of  loading  material  in  the  form  of  sodium  chloride  or  sodium 
sulphate  which  in  no  way  injures  the  film. 

The  relative  cost  of  pure  dyestuffs  compared  with  commercial 
samples  prohibits  their  employment  commercially. 

The  amount  of  impurity  in  the  dyes  may  vary  slightly  from 
batch  to  batch.  This  variation  is  usually  so  small  as  not  to  affect 
materially  the  nature  of  the  tint  obtained  from  any  particular 
formula.  Moreover,  dye  samples  of  the  same  name  supplied  by 
different  makers  may  differ  considerably  in  their  properties,  par- 
ticularly with  respect  to  ^'bleeding," 



All  tints  we  have  described  were  obtained  with  dye  samples 
from  the  makers  indicated.  Should  dyes  of  other  makers  be  em- 
ployed, the  proportions  stated  may  require  slight  modifications 

Match  any  given  color  under  artificial  light  only. 

Tint  No,  Formulae  for  Tinting  Avoirdupois 

1.  Cine  Red 2  lbs. 

Water    50  gals. 

2.  Cine  Red 8  oz.  145  grains 

Cine  Yellow  8  oz.  145  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

3.  Cine  Red 5  oz.  220  grains 

Cine  Yellow  5  oz.  220  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

4.  Cine  Red 3  oz.  350  grains 

Cine  Yellow  3  oz.  350  grains 

Cine  Blue-green 320  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

5.  Cine  Red 5  oz.  260  grains 

Cine  Orange i  lb.  11  oz.  175  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

6.  Cine  Red i  oz.  175  grains 

Cine  Orange 6  oz.  350  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

7.  Cine  Orange 11  oz.  45  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

8.  Cine  Orange 16  oz.  300  grains 

Cine  Yellow  16  oz.  300  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

9.  Cine  Orange 4  oz.  75  grains 

Cine  Yellow  4  oz.  75  grains 

Water 50  gals. 

10.  Cine  Yellow 2  lbs. 

Water    50  gals. 

1 1.  Cine  Yellow  8  oz. 

Water    50  gals. 

12.  Cine  Yellow  i  lb.  4  oz. 

Cine  Blue-green 2  oz. 

Water    50  gals. 

13.  Cine  Yellow  14  oz. 

Cine  Blue-green 2  oz.  350  grains 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTOGR  A  P  H  Y 

Tint  No.           Formulae  for  Tinting  Avoirdupois 

Water    50  gals. 

14.  Cine  Yellow  7  oz. 

Cine  Blue-green i  oz.   175  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

15.  Cine  Yellow  9  oz.  130  grains 

Cine  Blue-green 7  oz.  175  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

16.  Cine  Blue-green i  lb. 

Water    50  gals. 

17.  Cine  Blue-green 4  oz. 

Water    50  gals. 

18.  Cine  Red 250  grains 

Cine  Blue-green 12  oz.  30  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

19.  Cine  Blue   4  oz. 

Water    50  gals. 

20.  Cine  Red 6  oz.  145  grains 

Cine  Blue-green 4  oz.  350  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

21.  Cine  Red 3  oz.  85  grains 

Cine  Blue-green 2  oz.  175  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

22.  Cine  Red 5  oz.  175  grains 

Cine  Blue-green I  oz.  260  grains 

Cine  Yellow  i  oz.  150  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

23.  Cine  Red 3  oz.  90  grains 

Cine  Yellow   380  grains 

Cine  Blue-green i  oz.  30  grains 

Water    50  gals. 

24.  Cine  Red 10  oz. 

Cine  Blue   i  oz. 

Water    50  gals. 

The  solid  dyestuffs  are  thoroughly  dissolved  in  as  small  an 
amount  of  hot  water  as  possible  and  filtered  through  fine  muslin. 
Hot  water  should  be  poured  over  any  residue,  which  should  be 
slight,  in  order  to  ensure  thorough  solution  of  the  dye.  Then 
the  dye  solution  should  be  diluted  in  the  tank  to  the  required 
volume  at  70  "^  F. 



Except  in  special  cases,  such  as  fire  scenes,  sunset  and  moon- 
light effects,  it  is  very  undesirable  to  employ  strong  tints.  Apart 
from  the  displeasing  effect  and  irritation  to  the  eye,  the  dye- 
stuffs  produce  a  slight  softening  of  the  gelatine  film  when  used  at 
80°  F.  in  I  %  solution. 

Should  it  be  necessary  to  employ  such  concentrated  baths  in 
summer,  it  is  necessary  either  to  cool  the  dye  bath  or  use  a  suit- 
able hardener.  No  trouble  will  be  encountered  if  formalin 
(40%)  be  added  to  the  dye  bath  to  the  extent  of  i  volume  to  400 
volumes  of  dye  solution.  This  is  unnecessary  if  hardener  was 
employed  in  the  fixing  bath  after  development. 

During  the  winter  months  it  is  advisable  to  treat  all  film  after 
developing  and  fixing  with  glycerine.  The  latter  may  be  in- 
corporated with  the  dye  bath  thereby  eliminating  an  extra  opera- 
tion. The  strength  of  the  glycerine  should  be  2%,  or  two  volumes 
per  one  hundred  volumes  of  dye  solution.  However,  in  most 
cases  the  addition  of  glycerine  considerably  retards  the  rate  of 
dyeing.  Therefore,  in  order  to  obtain  the  same  degree  of  tinting 
within  a  period  of  ten  minutes  the  concentration  of  the  dye  bath 
should  be  increased  accordingly. 

The  use  of  delicate  tints  both  removes  the  contrasting  black 
and  white  effect  and  adds  a  touch  of  warmth  to  the  black  de- 
posit of  silver,  even  in  cases  where  the  high  lights  are  insuffi- 
ciently stained  to  be  noticeable.  In  many  cases  the  result  is 
equal  to  that  obtained  by  partial  toning. 

Although  temperat!ure  has  little  effect  on  the  rate  of  dyeing 
with  the  dyes  recommended,  it  is  advisable  in  all  cases  to  work  at 
70°  F.  in  order  to  produce  uniform  results  and  avoid  any  danger 
of  softening  the  film. 

Only  good  ''plucky"  positive  film  may  be  successfully  tinted. 
As  tinting  tends  to  reduce  contrasts,  the  positive  should  be  of  nor- 
mal density  but  slightly  on  the  hard  side. 

Time  of  dyeing  depends  somewhat  on  the  previous  handling 
of  the  film.  Film  which  has  been  fixed  in  a  bath  containing  or- 
dinary, or  chrome,  alum  dyes  more  quickly  than  that  treated 
with  plain  hypo  and  hardened  with  formalin.  It  is  probable, 
therefore,  that  small  traces  of  alum  are  left  in  the  film  even  after 
prolonged  washing.    The  alum  serves  as  a  mordant  for  the  dye. 

The  film  for  dyeing  should  be  fixed  in  hypo  containing  sodium 
bisulphite  only  (25%  hypo  with  2.5%  sodium  bisulphite — the 
cooled  bisulphite  being  added  to  the  cooled  hypo).    In  case  an 


Motion      picture      photograph y 

alum  fixing  bath  is  employed  or  if,  for  any  other  reason,  the  tints 
indicated  are  not  obtained  in  the  time  given  below,  either  the 
time  of  dyeing  or  the  dilujtion  of  the  dye  bath  must  be  altered. 

The  concentration  of  the  dye  bath  has  in  each  case  been  so  ad- 
justed that  dyeing  is  complete  in  ten  minutes — which  time  is  con- 
sidered a  minimum  for  the  production  of  uniform'  results,  and 
for  complete  control  of  the  dyeing  operations.  Shorter  time  of 
immersion  will  produce  lighter  tints.  As  is  the  case  of  toning, 
experience  has  shown  that  in  order  to  produce  uniform  results 
it  is  advisable  to  keep  the  time  of  dyeing  constant,  and  obtain 
varying  effects  by  changing  the  composition  of  the  dye  baths. 

Should  the  film  for  any  reason  be  over-dyed,  a  small  portion 
of  the  dye  may  be  removed  by  washing  from  lo  to  15  minutes, 
though  the  particular  fastness  of  the  dyes  allows  only  slight  mis- 
takes to  be  rectified  in  this  manner. 

Life  of  the  dye  bath  averages  about  40,ocx>  feet  per  50  gallons 
dye  bath.  The  bath  may  be  revived  at  intervals  by  the  addition 
of  more  dye,  though  this  procedure  is  uncertain.  It  is  generally 
advisable  to  mix  fresh  solution. 

Either  the  *'drum"  or  "tank"  method  may  be  employed.  In 
either  case  after  dyeing  for  ten  minutes  (during  which  time  the 
rack  should  be  agitated  in  order  to  ensure  even  dyeing  and 
prevent  accumulation  of  air  bubbles)  the  film  should  be  given  a 
thorough  rinsing  in  plain  water. 

Before  drying  film  on  racks  it  is  advisable  to  set  the  rack  at 
a  slight  angle  for  a  few  minutes,  so  enabling  the  surplus  water 
to  drain  off  through  the  perforations.  If  drums  are  used  for 
drying  it  is  advisable  to  remove  the  surplus  water  by  whirling 
the  drum  previous  to  drying. 

Patchy  and  streaked  film  results  from  insufficient  washing  of 
the  positive  after  fixing  and  before  dyeing,  insufficient  agitation 
of  the  rack  when  in  the  dye  bath,  and  the  use  of  dyes  which 
"bleed"  too  freely. 

In  general,  almost  any  tint,  if  delicate,  may  be  employed  with 
advantage.  For  general  use  those  ranging  through  pink,  rose, 
orange,  yellow,  pale  green  and  pale  blue,  are  recommended — 
others  are  for  special  purposes.  The  nature  of  the  tint  as  seen 
in  the  hands  is  no  criterion  of  its  appearance  on  the  projected 
image,  though  by  a  little  practice  and  by  viewing  only  by  arti- 
ficial light,  it  is  possible  to  preconceive  the  appearance  of  any 
sample  on  projection. 


Chapter  XII 

WITH  the  gratifying  general  progress  of  events  toward  a 
higher  standard  in  motion  picture  art  comes  the  neces- 
sity for  scrcpulous  and  painstaking  care  in  every  detail 
and  department  of  production  and  finishing.  Methods  that  were 
the  result  of  a  naive  scramble  for  wealth  in  an  "easy  money" 
market  are  obsolete.  The  old  timers  are  almost  relegated  to 
the  background.  The  old  order  is  fast  changing,  giving  place  to 
new  methods,  new  systems  and  new  men.  And  in  the  great 
struggle  for  the  survival  of  the  fittest  success  depends  upon  the 
perfection  of  every  detail. 

It  is  gratifying  to  note  that  titling,  that  most  important  detail 
in  the  making  of  a  picture,  is  receiving  more  and  more  attention 
from  producers.  They  realize  that  more  effectiveness  as  well 
as  considerable  saving  in  expensive  crowds  and  settings  can  be 
gained  by  collaboration  with  a  titler  who  is  an  expert  literary 

One  of  the  first  indications  of  an  awakening  consciousness  of 
the  value  of  titles  was  seen  in  the  mechanical  end  of  their  making. 
A  more  elaborate  style  of  letter  was  introduced  and  later  this  was 
elaborated  by  the  introduction  of  silhouettes  or  allegorical  figures. 
Rarely  indeed,  were  these  good,  in  many  instances  they  were 
laughable.  Nevertheless  they  were  welcome,  for  they  were  in- 
dications of  improvement.  This  pseudo-artistic  decorative  work 
had  a  long  run  and  is  still  in  vogue  to  a  considerable  extent.  It 
has  not  the  qualities  to  make  it  a  joy  forever;  folk  tire  of  it. 
Gradually  it  must  meet  the  exactions  of  art. 

A  more  important  question  is :  How  improve  the  literary  value 
of  the  writing  of  the  titles?  Here  is  a  field  as  wide  as  the  in- 
dustry itself.  The  old-style  running  commentary  on  the  picture, 
with  its  crudities,  barn-storming  heroics,  cheap  platitudes  and 
abortive  attempts  at  fine  phrasing,  is  doomed.  It  cannot  with- 
stand the  ever-increasing  pressure  of  an  elevating  competition. 
Those  who  write  these  titles  must  either  mend  their  ways  or  find 
other  occupation  in  keeping  with  their  limitations. 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTO  G  R  A  P  H  Y 

In  the  pictures  of  certain  producers  a  great  advancement  in 
titling  may  be  noted.  These  concerns  apparently  take  a  wider 
view  of  their  mission  in  life  than  merely  to  earn  dividends.  As 
soon  as  a  producer's  aspirations  are  limited  by  the  boundary  line 
of  "profits,"  the  quality  and  grade  of  his  work  suffers.  He  tries 
to  "get  by"  with  cheap  effects — including  inferior  titling — and 
immediately  the  discerning  eye  can  read  the  writing  on  the  wall. 

Titles,  to  stand  the  test,  must  set  forth  the  very  spirit  of  the 
play — they  must  fill  the  blank  that  invariably  exists  between 
picturization  and  drama.  The  most  intelligent  audience  would 
fail  to  get  the  significance  of  an  author's  intention  without  titling. 
Upon  it  largely  depends  the  success  of  the  picture.  That  being 
the  case,  why  not  insist  upon  good  titles? 

Good  titles  should  be  felt  rather  than  seen.  That  is  to  say  the 
subconscious  appeal  of  the  words  should  be  such  that  the  audience 
actually  lives  the  part  with  the  actor  and  literally  feels  the  emo- 
tions portrayed  on  the  screen.  This  is  worthy  work  for  the 
word-artist.  Further,  the  style  of  the  title  should  be  such  that 
the  words  flow  easily,  there  must  be  no  jarring  note  nor  dis- 
cordance. The  words  must  open  the  door  into  the  mind  of  the 
audience  with  graceful  and  powerful  tact. 

Successful  titling  calls  for  highly  specialized  ability.  It  is  a 
profession,  one  that  by  its  very  nature  will  never  be  overcrowded. 
The  process  of  elimination  is  becoming  more  severe  as  the  public 
becomes  more  educated  and  better  able  to  appreciate  the  merit  of 
a  picture  and  its  accessories.  Adequately  to  convey  a  world  of 
sentiment,  pathos  or  enthusiasm  in  a  few  short  words,  calls  for 
skill.  Many  who  attempt  it  never  rise  above  the  succinct  phrase- 
ology of  the  "ad"  man — their  work  is  cold,  staccato,  and  feel- 
ingless.  The  able  title  writer  is  worthily  in  a  foremost  place 
among  those  who  make  movies.  In  his  hands  lies  the  making  or 
marring  of  a  picture. 

It  has  been  argued  that  the  public  is  no  judge  of  the  literary 
value  of  titles,  and  therefore  anything  readable  will  "get  by." 
Nothing  could  be  more  inaccurate.  If  the  public  doesn't  think,  it 
feels.  The  unerring  instinct  of  an  audience  invariably  pays  a 
tribute  to  good  work,  whether  titling,  or  directing,  or  acting.  All 
of  these  points  must  be  carefully  considered  by  producers  who 
wish  to  turn  out  worth-while  work;  and  they  will  be  well  ad- 
vised to  get  the  best  obtainable  in  the  brain-market  to  safeguard 
their  titling. 



The  profession  of  writing  titles  has  all  the  dignity  of  a  literary- 
career — the  audience  is  vast  enough  to  appeal  to  the  ambitions 
of  any  writer.  The  work  calls  for  inherent  as  well  as  acquired 
culture  and  it  may  be  recommended  as  a  career  to  the  young  men 
from  our  universities.  Even  with  their  academic  training,  they 
will  find  it  difficult  to  keep  pace  with  the  ever-increasing  require- 
ments of  the  craft.  Yet  they  will  have  the  satisfaction  of  know- 
ing that  their  vocation  is  one  that  takes  its  place  among  the  con- 
structive works  of  the  world. 

The  word  sub-title  is  a  rather  loose  term,  commonly  used  to 
designate  all  reading  matter,  except  the  main  or  lead  title,  which 
appears  on  the  screen.  A  more  correct  designation  divides  the 
term  into  two  sub-headings :  Captions,  meaning  all  explanatory 
reading  matter,  and  Spoken  Titles,  meaning  all  words  put  into 
the  mouths  of  the  characters  and  indicated  by  quotation  marks. 

When,  where  and  why  are  sub-titles  necessary  or  desirable? 
Some  of  the  reasons  for  their  use  are : 

1.  To  explain  the  purpose  or  indicate  the  main  theme  of  the 

2.  To  give  the  picture  coherency.  They  are  links  which  join 
the  scenes  and  help  to  carry  the  thread  of  the  story. 

3.  To  name  and  characterize  the  principle  roles  portrayed ;  to 
identify  setting  or  location,  and  sometimes  to  fix  the  time  of  the 
story  or  any  of  its  parts. 

4.  To  illuminate  and  interpret  the  picture  or  any  of  its  situa- 
tions by  conveying  ideas  which  the  action  does  not  or  cannot 

5.  To  inject  comedy,  pathos,  or  other  sentiments  which  may 
be  entirely  arbitrary,  into  the  picture. 

6.  To  indicate  lapses  of  time,  or  cover  jumps  in  the  continuity- 

7.  To  economize  footage  or  save  production  costs  by  sub- 
stituting for  scenes  not  shown. 

Some  of  these  uses,  may  appear  to  be  similar  and  some  of  them 
may  overlap.  One  sub-title  may  serve  two  or  more  of  these  pur- 
poses. On  the  other  hand,  a  sub-title  may  be  required  for  only 
one  of  these  definite  reasons. 

There  are  as  many  ways  of  wording  or  phrasing  a  given  sub- 
title of  moderate  length  as  there  are  individuals  who  may  write 
it.  Perhaps  each  one  would  consider  his  style  and  wording  the 
best.     It  is  certain  that  no  two  would  write  it  exactly  the  same. 



There  is  and  can  be  no  set  rules  to  govern  its  composition  and 
no  definite  standard  by  which  it  may  be  measured.  Its  final 
form  must  be  dictated  by  the  intelligence,  judgment  and  experi- 
ence of  the  writer. 

There  is  wide  diversity  of  opinion  as  to  what  constitutes  a 
good  and  sufficient  sub-title.  Some  people  favor  a  florid  or  high- 
sounding  style,  while  others  advocate  a  condensed,  almost  ab- 
breviated form.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  each  kind  may  have  its 
"  proper  uses,  depending  upon  the  character  of  the  story  and  its 
interpretation  in  the  picture.  The  sub-title  writer  should  en- 
deavor to  sense  the  atmosphere  and  characterizations  of  the  pic- 
ture as  they  are  shown  on  the  screen.  He  must  make  the  titles 
fit  the  scenes  as  played,  not  as  he  thinks  they  should  have  or 
wishes  they  might  have  been  portrayed. 

Sub-titles  should  be  fitted  into  a  picture  so  that,  instead  of 
interrupting  or  irritating,  they  help  the  natural  flow  of  the  story 
and  add  to  its  interest.  If  they  are  too  few  or  too  short  and 
abrupt  they  may  defeat  this  purpose  as  effectually  as  when  they 
are  too  numerous  or  too  long.  Everybody  knows  how  interest- 
ing a  spoken  or  written  story  may  be  when  told  by  a  master  and 
how  flat  or  insipid  the  same  tale  is  when  related  by  an  unskilled 

It  is  often  much  more  difficult  and  takes  more  time  and  study 
to  decide  not  to  insert  a  sub-title  than  to  write  one.  If  a  sub- 
title will  not  help  a  scene,  or  if  one  is  not  actually  needed,  it  is 
safe  to  leave  it  out.  It  is  not  always  as  simple  and  easy  to 
write  a  suitable  sub-title  to  fit  a  given  scene  as  it  might  seem 
to  one  who  views  the  finished  picture.  It  is  much  easier  to 
write  a  long  and  flowery  sub-title  than  one  which  is  terse  and 
expressive.  A  caption  of  moderate  length,  designed  to  cover 
several  points,  is  often  revised  and  rewritten  a  dozen  times 
before  it  assumes  satisfactory  form.  Sub-title  writing  has  its 
nuisances  as  well  as  music  and  art.  Words  that  may  express 
the  desired  thought  must  sometimes  be  discarded  because  they 
are  too  long  or  unfamiliar  to  the  average  motion  picture  patron. 
The  best  captions  and  the  most  difficult  to  formulate  are  ex- 
pressed in  a  few  words  of  simple,  correct  English  devoid  of 
technical  or  uncommon  terms. 

Captions  covering  a  considerable  lapse  of  time  should  not  be 
too  short.    There  is  a  psychological  reason  for  this.     It  may 



seem  sufficient  to  cover  a  lapse  of  time  by  simply  flashing  "A 
Year  Later"  on  the  screen.  If  this  short  caption  follows  intense 
action  or  suspense,  the  audience  should  be  given  a  little  longer 
time  in  which  to  relax  and  to  grasp  the  new  thought  before  the 
next  scene  is  shown.  Therefore  a  caption  containing  from  six 
to  ten  words  may  sway  the  trend  of  thought  smoothly  and 
pleasantly  and  without  the  mental  wrench  that  the  shorter  caption 
might  give  the  average  person.  Of  course  this  does  not  apply 
when  surprise  is  desired. 

Often  spoken  titles  present  many  difficulties.  Witness  the 
mushy,  inane  speeches  put  into  the  mouths  of  some  characters  in 
love  scenes — speeches  such  as  one  would  never  make.  The 
effort  should  be  to  write  spoken  titles  that  will  seem  natural  and 
at  the  same  time  be  in  keeping  with  the  character.  A  speech  that 
may  sound  all  right  when  actually  spoken,  with  the  advantage  of 
inflection  and  emphasis,  may  seem  very  flat  when  thrown  upon 
the  screen. 

Dialect-spoken  titles  are  tricky  and  should  be  used  sparingly. 
They  are  usually  difficult  to  read  and  often  fail  to  impress.  Very 
few  people  can  write  any  dialect  with  great  success,  especially 
for  pictures.     Probably  no  one  can  write  all  dialects  satisfactorily. 

Long  spoken  titles  should  be  avoided  as  much  as  possible. 
Better  to  have  two  or  three  short  ones  than  a  single  long  speech, 
provided  the  scene  will  carry  more  than  one.  As  a  rule  it  is  better 
to  have  one  sentence,  worded,  punctuated,  and  spaced  to  read  as 
smoothly  as  possible.  Many  spoken  titles  containing  two  or  more 
sentences  could  be  condensed  into  one  by  a  little  thought  and 
study.  But  brevity  may  be  overdone.  It  is  often  easier  to  catch 
the  sense  of  a  well-rounded  sentence  than  one  which  has  been 
clipped  too  short. 

Title  cards  should  be  edited  carefully  by  the  title  writer  before 
they  are  photographed.  The  idea  contained  in  a  sub-title  is  often 
obscured  by  crowding,  bad  spacing,  incorrect  or  unnecessary  divi- 
sion of  a  word  at  the  end  of  a  line,  (due  to  poor  judgment  on 
the  part  of  the  man  who  letters  the  cards),  making  the  words 
hard  to  read  or  difficult  to  interpret  readily. 

Spoken  titles  should  not  be  cut  into  long  shots  if  it  can  be 
avoided  because  it  is  often  difficult  to  be  sure  which  person  is 
speaking.  If  possible,  flash  to  a  close-up  of  the  person  talking, 
cut  in  the  title,  another  flash  of  the  close-up  and  then  back  to 




the  long  shot.  A  very  short  piece  before  and  after  the  spoken 
title  will  accomplish  this  purpose  and  add  very  little  to  the  foot- 
age. If  a  close-up  is  not  available  and  the  spoken  title  is  essential 
to  the  scene  then  write  it  so  that  the  audience  may  be  sure  which 
person  speaks. 

In  writing  sub-titles  and  also  in  cutting  a  picture  keep  the 
audience  constantly  in  mind.  Try  to  work  from  the  point  of 
view  of  the  person  who  is  going  to  look  at  your  picture.  Re- 
member that  the  people  seeing  the  picture  but  once  will  not  be 
as  familiar  with  it  as  those  who  have  run  it  over  and  over  while 
working  on  it,  and  that  the  public  may  not  catch  the  fine  points 
that  have  become  quite  familiar  or  obvious  to  you. 

While  a  certain  amount  of  latitude  in  language  is  allowable  in 
spoken  titles,  captions  should  be  written  in  good  English  and  be 
correct  grammatically.  Study,  analysis,  judgment  and  experi- 
ence are  as  necessary  in  writing  good  sub-titles  as  in  any  other 
department  of  picture  production.  Ability  to  write  stories,  adr 
vertising  copy,  letters  or  other  forms  of  composition  does  noc 
necessarily  imply  qualification  to  write  satisfactory  sub-titles. 

ASSEMBLING — The  most  difficult  part  of  the  producing  of 
a  motion  picture  is  the  cutting  and  assemhling  of  the  print. 
Hundreds  of  directors  are  producing  pictures  which  are  really 
made  in  the  cutting  departments.  If  a  director  is  a  good  film 
cutter  and  can  follow  the  action  of  his  picture  on  a  pair  of  re- 
winders,  the  producer  has  something  to  be  thankful  for. 

Directors  who  can  cut  their  own  pictures  are  few  and  far 
between.  D.  W.  Griffith,  Thomas  Ince,  Edwin  Carew,  George 
Tucker  and  Edgar  Lewis  are  a  few  great  directors  who  cut  their 
own  pictures,  but  it  has  taken  them  years  to  master  this  art. 

The  majority  of  directors  make  a  child  or  a  pet  of  pictures. 
To  them  the  eliminating  of  this  episode  or  that  unnecessary 
scene  is  like  cutting  off  the  fingers  or  arms  of  a  child. 

If  only  directors  would  realize  that  a  comedy  situation  is  over 
after  the  laugh  and  a  dramatic  situation,  after  the  suspense,  and 
would  bring  the  scene  to  a  close,  pictures  would  be  easier  to  cut. 

The  use  of  close-ups  in  the  midst  of  dramatic  action  is  a  mis- 
take made  by  many  directors. 

In  a  certain  picture  a  woman  was  roughly  thrown  to  the  floor 
and  as  the  man's  hand  grasped  her,  the  director  cut  to  a  close-up 
of  the  woman,  thereby  losing  all  the  dramatic  value  and  suspense 
of  the  scene. 




Close-ups  are  effective  when  used  to  depict  emotion  or  thoughts 
and  as  introductions.  They  are  necessary  for  switchbacks  or 
suspense  but  should  never  be  used  when  they  break  into  dramatic 

There  are  few  film  cutters  who  try  to  cut  and  edit  a  picture 
while  watching  it  on  the  screen  in  a  projecting  room  dictating  to 
a  stenographer.  Eliminating  this  scene,  shortening  that,  trans- 
posing this  scene  or  that  title,  they  think  they  are  cutting  the 
picture  properly.  No  man  can  cut  a  picture  properly  unless  he 
looks  at  it  once  or  twice  in  the  projection  room  and  then  per- 
sonally goes  over  the  entire  film  by  hand,  on  a  pair  of  re  winders. 
Then  when  he  comes  to  an  unnecessary  scene  he  can  eliminate 
it  but  first  he  must  be  sure  that  the  next  scene  or  title  will  not 
break  the  continuity  of  action.  If  a  scene  drags  or  is  too  long,  he 
must  ponder  over  that  scene,  sometimes  imaging  himself  one  of 
the  characters  in  order  to  think  of  a  proper  title.  He  personally 
must  insert  the  title  so  that  it  will  seem  to  come  from  the  correct 
character  when  projected  on  a  screen. 

Dramatic  switchbacks  are  a  physical  impossibility  unless  a 
cutter  personally  arranges  the  scenes.  If  his  assistant  does  this, 
he  is  the  real  cutter  and  it  is  mere  luck  if  he  gets  the  title  inserted 

A  film  cutter  must  be  able  to  write  and  originate  comic  and 
dramatic  titles.  He  must  also  know  the  proper  color  schemes  for 
each  scene  in  order  to  cut  the  negatives  properly  when  the  posi- 
tive print  is  ready  for  the  laboratory. 


Chapter  XIII 

WHEREVER  a  camera  has  to  be  taken  out  for  photograph- 
ing at  a  distance,  great  care  must  be  taken  to  make 
sure  no  essential  part  of  the  kit  is  left  behind.  Make 
a  list  beforehand  of  everything  which  will  be  required.  A  good 
way  of  recollecting  minor  items  of  kit  in  danger  of  being  over- 
looked is  to  act  over  to  yourself  each  stage  of  the  work  before 
you,  asking  of  every  accessory :  "Have  I  that  on  my  list  ?"  Thus : 

I  am  going  to  make  scenic  pictures.  I  pack  the  camera  in 
its  case,  strap  up  the  tripod,  and  start.  I  take  a  taxi  to  the 
railroad  station.  (Note :  Have  I  money  to  pay  the  taxi,  and  buy 
my  ticket?)  At  my  journey's  end  I  select  a  good  view  and  set  the 
camera  up  by  erecting  the  tripod,  screwing  on  camera,  and  at- 
taching camera,  tilting,  and  panoram  handles,  (Have  I  all  three?) 
Next  I  focus.  That  means  focusing  celluloid.  I  thread  up  film, 
for  which  I  require  film  and  take-up  boxes  and  as  many  spring 
clip  hubs  for  the  take-up  spindles  as  there  are  charged  film  boxes. 
I  find  the  exposure  with  my  exposure  meter.  Now  to  take  the 
picture.  I  place  my  hand  on  the  camera  handle,  look  through  the 
view  Under  (Have  I  this,  too?)  and  the  filming  is  done. 

Write  out  a  full  list  of  usually  required  accessories  and  keep 
it  where  it  can  be  referred  to  easily.  The  inside  of  camera  door, 
and  the  top  of  camera  case  are  both  good  places  for  it :  Camera, 
camera  handle,  camera  tripod,  film  boxes,  take-up  boxes,  ex- 
posure meter,  view  finder,  focusing  celluloid,  extra  lenses,  tripod 
handles,  film  clip  hubs  for  take-ups,  soft  rag  and  camel-hair  mop 
brush  for  dusting  camera  and  lens,  emery  for  cleaning  gate,  etc., 

Though  good,  correctly  managed,  lighting  is  a  necessity  of 
high  quality  negative  making,  it  becomes  a  distinct  art  in  scenic 
work,  therefore  I  shall  deal  with  it  more  particularly  under  this 
head.  Three  fundamental  rules  of  lighting  to  bear  in  mind  when 
photographing  any  subject  are  that  the  light  must  be  sufficient, 
its  quality  must  be  actinic  (it  must  be  rich  in  the  photographically 
active  blue  and  violet  rays)  and  the  source  of  light  must  on  no 



account  shine  directly  in  at  the  camera  lens.  Whether  or  not 
the  first  two  of  these  rules  is  fulfilled  can  best  be  decided  by  the 
aid  of  an  exposure  meter.  Decide  the  third  j>oint  by  common 
sense.  If  the  light  source,  usually  the  sun,  is  beating  directly 
into  the  front  glass  of  the  lens,  the  lens  must  be  shaded  by 
means  of  a  dark  hood.  If  that  is  not  practicable  without  cutting 
off  a  portion  of  the  picture,  the  camera's  position  must  be  shifted. 
Where  this  also  is  impracticable  or  undesirable,  and  the  subject 
is  one  which  can  be  photographed  at  more  than  one  time  of  day, 
select  a  time  when  the  direction  of  the  sun  will  have  altered  and 
postpone  filming  till  then. 

To  focus  a  dead  sharp  image  of  those  objects  which  must  be 
sharp  upon  the  film,  and  to  make  the  focusing  accord  with  a 
near  approximation  of  correct  exposure,  is  a  real  stumbling 
block  to  a  great  number  of  would-be  camera  operators.  A  man 
who  knows  how  to  make  focusing  help  exposure  and  exposure 
help  focusing  must  possess  both  considerable  practical  experi- 
ence and  a  quantity  of  judgment. 

To  focus  correctly: 

Open  the  camera  gate,  remove  film  from  film  track  and  lay  in 
its  place  a  length  of  three  or  four  inches  of  matt  celluloid. 

Matt  celluloid  can  be  made  from  any  clipping  of  old  cinemato- 
graph film.  Soak  the  film  in  warm  washing  soda  solution  till  the 
emulsion  softens.  Qean  off,  and  dry  the  cleaned  base.  Make 
a  paste  of  knife  powder  and  water,  smear  it  on  a  piece  of  glass, 
lay  the  transparent  celluloid  down  upon  the  paste  and  rub  the 
film  in  the  emery  by  placing  your  fingers  on  the  back  and  rubbing 
with  a  circular  motion.  After  a  short  while  the  celluloid  will  no 
longer  be  transparent  on  the  side  that  has  been  scratched.  It  is 
then  suitable  for  a  focusing  screen. 

Next  close  gate  firmly  upon  the  matt  celluloid,  adjust  focusing 
tube  and  magnifier  tight  up  in  place,  open  light  shutter  of  focus- 
ing tube,  place  your  eye  to  the  end  of  it  and,  unless  the  rotary 
camera  shutter  is  cutting  the  light  from  gate,  you  will  see  a  more 
or  less  clear  image  thrown  by  the  lens.  If  no  trace  of  an  image 
is  visible  a  slight  turning  of  the  camera  handle  will  make  it  so. 

Turn  the  lens  focusing  flange,  or  rack,  till  the  image  becomes 
quite  sharp  and  then  begins  to  become  less  sharp  again.  Then 
reverse  turning  direction  of  the  focusing  adjustment  till  the 
image  once  more  sharpens  up  to  its  best.     In  this  way,  the  point 



of  critical  sharpness  for  the  particular  object  focused  upon  is 
found.  If  at  first  you  have  difficulty  in  deciding  the  critical 
point,  get  a  large  white  card  and  stick  upon  it  criss-cross  strips 
of  dead  black  paper.  Stand  the  card  up  against  the  object  you 
are  focusing.  Black  bars  on  a  white  ground  are  easiest  of  all 
things  to  focus  clearly. 

Always  do  your  focusing  with  the  lens  diaphragm  open  at  its 
widest  aperture.  Take  careful  note  of  the  apparent  brightness 
of  the  picture  produced,  as  practice  in  this  will  help  you  a  little 
in  judging  exposure  should  you  ever  be  called  upon  to  do  so 
when  you  have  not  your  meter  with  you. 

Notice  that  objects  nearer  to,  and  probably  also  objects  farther 
from,  the  lens  than  the  one  focused  upon  are  not  sharp  on  the 
celluloid  but  are  fuzzy. 

To  focus  other  objects  with  the  principal  object: 
'     The  object  is  not  merely  to  focus  a  single  subject  sharp  but 
to  adjust  the  lens  at  the  same  time  so  as  to  get  reasonable  sharp- 
ness of  objects  both  before  and  behind  it. 

The  method  is  the  same  whether  we  want  subsidiary  sharp- 
ness in  objects  nearer  or  farther  off  than  the  principal  one. 

To  focus  a  good  compromise  between  principal  and  nearer 
objects,  first  get  principal  object  critically  sharp,  then  rack  out 
the  lens  very  slightly  until  a  barely  perceptible  falling  off  in  the 
principal  object  is  seen. 

To  focus  principal  and  farther  objects  get  principal  sharp  and 
rack  lens  slightly  in. 

The  amount  of  racking  out  or  in  to  make  correct  compensa- 
tion for  depth  of  stage  is  very  slight.  Where  possible  follow  it 
by  substantially  reducing  lens  aperture.  Always  compensate  for 
depth  first  and  reduce  aperture  afterwards. 

One  of  the  greatest  difficulties  encountered  by  the  photog- 
rapher, whether  he  wields  a  still  camera  or  turns  the  crank  of  a 
motion  picture  box,  is  that  of  exposure. 

Gelatine  emulsions  are  of  different  speeds  and  latitudes  and 
subject  to  deterioration.  The  celluloid  base  from  which  motion 
picture  film  is  made  and  which  is  also  extensively  used  for  film 
cartridges,  film  packs  and  as  cut  films,  reacts  upon  the  emulsion 
and  causes  it  to  gradually  lose  its  sensitive  qualities  in  much  more 
rapid  ratio  than  that  of  emulsions  coated  upon  glass. 

An  emulsion  records  the  amount  of  light  which  acts  upon  it 



in  a  definite  mathematical  ratio,  but  one  emulsion  may  be  **  faster" 
than  another.  For  example,  if  two  plates  or  pieces  of  film  are 
taken,  one  of  which  is  twice  as  fast  as  the  other,  and  both  are 
exposed  for  a  short  time  at  equal  distance  from  a  standard 
candle,  the  faster  emulsion  will  show  a  much  greater  density  on 
development  than  the  slower  one.  If,  however,  the  slower  one 
is  exposed  twice  as  long  the  two  pieces  will  have  equal  density. 

It  is  highly  important  in  making  tests  of  any  character  in 
photography  that  every  factor  in  making  relative  tests  be  re- 
produced exactly  or  the  results  obtained  will  be  false. 

Development,  time  and  temperature  must  be  controlled  exactly, 
fresh  standard  developer  being  used  for  each  test  as  it  dete- 
riorates with  use ;  fixing,  washing  and  drying  times  and  tempera- 
tures must  also  be  the  same.  A  test  made  in  cold  developer  and 
another  in  warm  easily  give  rise  to  false  conclusions  in  regard 
to  the  speed  of  a  film  or  plate.  Many  photographers  have  been 
grievously  misled  in  their  conclusions  in  regard  to  materials  by 
inaccurate  tests. 

Inasmuch  as  different  emulsions  require  different  developing 
times  to  record  gradations  of  light  in  their  true  ratio,  it  is 
necessary  to  make  preliminary  tests  to  ascertain  the  development 
time  where  it  is  not  given  by  the  maker. 

Where  photometric  instruments  are  not  at  hand  for  accurate 
tests  the  simplest  method  of  arriving  at  the  proper  development 
time  is  to  expose  a  strip  of  film  giving  relative  exposures  of  1,2 
and  4.  Cut  the  film  lengthwise  in  three  strips.  If  you  think  five 
minutes  to  be  about  the  normal  development  time,  develop  the 
three  strips  4,  5  and  6  minutes  respectively.  If  you  have  been 
lucky  in  your  assumptions  as  to  the  speed  and  time,  one  of  the 
nine  permutations  obtained  will  be  correctly  exposed  and  de- 
veloped, giving  a  basis  for  farther  experiment.  If  the  nine  per- 
mutations are  all  too  dense,  the  exposures  have  been  too  long. 
Try  again  with  shorter  exposures;  if  there  is  much  fog  or  stain, 
the  development  may  have  been  too  long.  Try  again  with 
shorter  development.  If  the  strongest  exposure  and  longest  de- 
velopment is  the  best  of  the  nine,  try  again  with  longer  exposure 
and  longer  development  times. 

Many  methods  have  been  worked  out  for  determining  proper 
exposure.  The  following  data  is  largely  taken  from  material 
collected  by  A.  Horsley  Hinton,  formerly  editor  of  the  Amateur 



The  principal  factors  governing  exposure  are:  (i)  the  speed 
of  the  plate;  (2)  the  actinic  power  of  the  sun's  light  for  the 
time  of  year  in  a  given  latitude  and  its  position  at  the  particular 
time  of  the  day;  (3)  the  effective  diaphragm  aperture  of  the 
lens;  (4)  the  nature  of  the  subject  and  its  illumination  as  affected 
by  local  and  atmospheric  conditions.  With  others  these  data  are 
supplemented  by,  and  practically  based  upon,  actino-metric  ob- 
servations of  the  action  of  the  light  upon  sensitive  paper  exposed 
near  the  camera  or  the  subject  at  the  time.  Both  methods  are 
in  many  cases  of  undoubted  use,  but  the  information  given  by 
instruments  of  this  kind  can  only  be  considered  as  approximate, 
and  much  is  left  to  the  judgment  of  the  operator,  whose  surest 
guide  will  be  an  intelligent  study  of  the  principles  on  which  these 
instruments  are  based,  together  with  carefully  recorded  ob- 
servations of  the  combined  working  of  his  lenses,  shutters,  plates 
and  methods  of  development  under  the  varying  conditions  of 
practical  work.  Before  using  any  of  these  instruments  it  is 
necessary  to  know  approximately  the  relative  sensitiveness  or 
"speed"  of  the  plate  or  film  in  use.  In  the  early  days  of  gelatine 
dry  plates  their  rapidities  were  stated  as  so  many  times  those 
of  wet  plates,  or  (as  they  are  still)  "ordinary,"  "instantaneous," 
"rapid,"  or  "extra-rapid,"  terms  which,  though  suitable  for  one 
make  of  plate,  may  not  be  so  for  others. 

In  1890,  F.  Hurter  and  V.  C.  Driffield  introduced  an  entirely 
new  system  of  calculating  the  sensitiveness  of  plates  of  different 
rapidities.  They  make  a  series  of  exposures  in  seconds  on  dif- 
ferent parts  of  the  plate  in  geometrical  progression  with  a  stand- 
ard candle  at  one  meter  distance.  After  development  for  a 
certain  fixed  period  with  a  standard  developer,  fixing,  washing 
and  drying,  the  "densities"  or  logarithms  of  the  opacities  of  the 
different  parts  are  measured  by  a  special  photometer  and  plotted 
on  a  skeleton  diagram,  producing  a  curve,  one  portion  of  which 
will  be  practically  a  straight  line.  (See  the  chapter  on  Negative 
Development).  The  position  of  this  line  with  reference  to  a 
scale  of  exposures  given  on  the  diagram  decides  the  rapidity 
of  the  plate,  while  its  length  indicates  the  "capacity"  of  the  plate 
for  truthful  rendering  of  tone. 

It  is  to  be  deplored  that  no  universally  recognized  system  of 
speed  numbers  has  been  brought  into  use,  nearly  every  maker 
of  films  and  plates  having  some  system  of  his  own  which  bears 
no  relation  to  that  used  by  other  manufacturers. 



The  H.  and  D.  system  is  probably  the  most  scientific  one. 

The  sensitiveness  shown  on  the  H.  and  D,  scale  is  directly 
proportional  to  the  speed  number  given.  The  method  has  been 
adopted  by  several  dry-plate  makers  in  denoting  the  sensitive- 
ness of  their  different  brands,  and  is  more  or  less  the  basis  on 
which  the  plate-speeds  for  the  modern  dry-plate  actinometers 
and  exposure  meters  are  calculated. 

Variation  in  daylight  without  clouds  from  morning  until 
evening  (for  latitude  of  Northern  United  States)  : 





January   3^  4  5  12 

February 2  2J/^  3  4  10 

March  iH  13^  iH  2  3  6 

April   VA  IH  IH  1^  2  3 

May 1  1  1  V4  VA      lA 

June   1  1  1  1  V4      2 

July   1  1  1  1%  lA      2A 

August   1%  lA  lA  iy2  2  3 

September lA  lA  1^  2  3  6 

October   2  2A  3  4  10 

November 3^  4  5  12 

December 4A  5  6 







The  next  important  factor  is  the  actinic  power  of  the  light. 
It  depends  normally  on  the  height  of  the  sun  for  the  latitude  of 
the  place  at  the  time  when  the  photograph  is  taken,  and  exposures 
in  bright  sunlight  are  found  to  vary  approximately  as  the  con- 
secant  of  the  sun's  altitude  above  the  horizon.  The  light  of 
the  sun  itself  is  practically  the  same  at  any  given  time  and  place 
year  after  year,  but  is  liable  to  more  or  less  local  and  temporary 
diminution  by  the  amount  of  cloud,  haze,  dust,  etc.,  present  in  the 
atmosphere  at  the  time.  It  is  also  affected  by  the  time  of  day, 
increasing  from  sunrise  to  noon,  and  then  decreasing  to  sunset. 
The  remaining  factor  is  the  effective  diaphragm  aperture  of  the 
lens  in  relation  to  its  focal  length.  In  most  cases  of  ordinary 
out-door  exposures  this  can  be  taken  at  its  normal  value,  but 



becomes  smaller  and  increases  exposure  if  the  focal  length  is 
much  increased  for  photographing-  near  objects.  Besides  these 
principal  factors,  the  nature  and  color  of  the  objects,  their 
distance  and  the  amount  of  light  received  and  reflected  by  them 
under  various  atmospheric  conditions,  have  a  great  influence  on 
the  exposure  required. 





rcRc/^Y  CLASSES  or  subjects. 

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Fig.   42 

The  American  Photography  Exposure  Tables  are  the  most 
convenient  and  practical  help  in  determining  the  correct  exposure 
for  any  subject,  in  any  part  of  the  world.  An  edition  has  been 
carefully  revised  to  include  all  the  films  and  plates  on  the  Ameri- 
can market.  In  every  instance  the  speed  has  been  determined 
by  scientific  tests  by  a  renowned  expert.  The  tables  assign  to 
each  factor  concerned  in  exposure — subject,  stop,  light,  hour 
and  plate — a  number.  These  are  found  in  the  tables  and  added. 
No  multiplication  is  necessary.    The  sum  is  then  looked  out  on 



a  final  table,  and  opposite  this  number  is  found  the  exposure  in 
fractions  of  a  second,  minutes  or  hours. 

Based  on  the  same  principle  as  these  exposure  tables,  various 
portable  exposure  meters  have  been  brought  out,  in  which  scales 
representing  the  coefficients  for  plate-speed,  light  and  diaphragm 
are  arranged  as  in  a  slide  rule,  so  that,  when  properly  set,  the 
normal  exposure  required  can  be  found  by  inspection,  and  in- 
creased or  diminished  according  to  circumstances. 

The  Harvey  meter  and  the  Burroughs  &  Wellcome  meter  and 
handbook  are  for  sale  by  every  photographic  supply  house. 

The  Watkin's  Kinematograph  meter  is  fitted  with  a  pendulum 
for  counting  half  seconds  and  crank  turns.  It  is  made  especially 
for  motion  picture  operators  and  is  about  the  size  of  a  small 
watch.  It  gives  a  direct  reading  showing  either  the  shutter 
opening  or  diaphragm  number  required  under  the  given  condi- 
tions. It  is  sold  by  Burke  &  James,  Chicago,  as  are  the  Wynne 
meters  described  below. 

G.  F.  Wynne's  "Infallible"  exposure  meter  is  also  in  dial  form, 
but  the  sensitive  paper  is  exposed  directly,  no  pendulum  is  used, 
and  the  scales  are  open  on  the  dial.  In  use,  the  glass  carrying 
the  movable  scale  is  turned  until  the  actinometer  time  in  seconds 
upon  the  exposure  scale  is  opposite  the  diaphragm  number  of 
the  plate,  as  given  in  the  list  of  plate  speeds ;  the  correct  ex- 
posure will  then  be  found  against  each  stop  given  on  the  scale. 
There  are  practically  only  two  scales ;  the  scale  of  diaphragms 
representing  the  diaphragm  or  f  numbers,  the  speed  of  plate 
and  the  variation  of  exposure  due  to  subject;  and 
the  time  scale,  representing  the  actinometer  time  and 
the  exposure.  The  actinometer  is  protected  by  a  yel- 
low glass  screen  when  not  in  use.  In  a  smaller  form  the  scales 
are  on  the  circumference  of  a  locket,  and  the  actinometer  at 
the  back.  An  "Infallible"  Printmeter  is  also  made  for  showing 
exposures  in  contact  printing  on  sensitive  papers,  but  can  also 
be  used  for  testing  speeds  of  plates  and  papers.  Beck's 
"Zambex"  Exposure  Meter  gives  the  exposure  and  stop  to  be 
used,  also  the  depth  of  focus  to  be  obtained  with  different 
diaphragm  apertures.  The  required  exposure  is  set  to  the 
"speed"  number  on  the  next  scale  of  the  meter.  The  third 
scale  corresponds  tb  the  times  of  darkening  the  sensitive  paper 
in  the  actinometer  attached  to  the  meter,  and  shows  the  dia- 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTO  G  R  A  P  H  Y 

phragm  aperture  suitable  for  the  given  exposure.  Other  scales 
show  the  distances  that  will  be  in  focus  with  the  different  stops 
used,  arranged  so  that  the  focal  depth  of  four  different  lenses 
can  be  found.  Several  other  exposure  meters  are  made  on  the 
principle  of  the  slide  rule,  with  scale  corresponding  to  the  factors 
of  "plate  speed,"  "diaphragm  number,"  "light,"  "exposure,"  and 
the  exposure  is  found  by  simple  inspection  without  an  actino- 
meter.  They  are  designed  for  use  with  particular  brands  of 
plates,  but  can  be  used  for  others  of  similar  speeds. 

The  last  types  of  meters  described  depend  for  their  light 
measurement  upon  matching  a  tint  or  shade,  a  rather  difficult 
matter  for  most  persons.  A  new  instrument  based  on  the  same 
principle,  but  which  does  not  require  the  tint  to  be  matched,  is 
the  Steadman  Aabameter.  It  may  be  obtained  from  any  photo 
supply  dealer.  It  consists  of  a  series  of  graduated  openings 
which  give  a  ratio  of  exposure  upon  a  strip  of  sensitized  paper 
in  the  progression  of  i,  2,  4,  6,  8,  16.  The  number  of  grada- 
tions recorded  in  a  given  time  gives  the  light  strength  and  refer- 
ence to  a  simple  chart  tabulated  on  a  card,  and  gives  the  proper 
exposure  at  a  glance. 

Another  class  of  exposure  meters  comprises  those  in  which  the 
intensity  of  the  light  is  estimated  visually  by  extinction  through  a 
semi-transparent  medium  of  increasing  intensity,  such  as  J. 
Decoudin's,  in  which  the  exposure  is  judged  by  the  disappearance 
of  a  series  of  small  clear  openings  on  a  graduated  scale  of  den- 
sities when  laid  on  the  most  important  part  of  the  image  as  seen 
on  the  ground-glass.  Its  indications  are  not  very  definite,  and 
the  proper  scale  changes  in  density  after  a  time.  A  better  form 
is  "E.  Degen's  Normal  Photometer,"  consisting  of  two  sliding 
violet  glass  prisms,  one  adjusted  for  the  diaphragm  ap^ertures, 
the  other  for  the  actinic  illumination  of  the  object.  They  are 
mounted  with  their  outer  faces  parallel. 

In  use  the  upper  slide  with  prism  is  drawn  out  so  that  the 
pointer  coincides  with  the  division  indicating  the  diaphragm  aper- 
ture to  be  used:  the  object  to  be  photographed  is  then  viewed 
directly  through  openings  at  one  end  of  the  instrument,  and  the 
lower  slide  is  drawn  out  and  pushed  back  slowly  till  the  object 
viewed  is  almost  obscured.  The  attached  pointer  will  then  in- 
dicate the  exposure  required,  or,  reversing  the  order,  the  dia- 
phragm aperture  for  a  given  exposure  can  be  found.     Auxiliary 



scales  are  attached  for  very  short  or  very  long  exposures.  The 
principle  of  construction  is  that  the  logarithms  of  the  times  of 
exposure  are  proportional  to  the  thickness  of  the  colored  prisms. 
"G.  Heyde's  Actino- Photometer"  is  on  a  somewhat  similar  prin- 
cipal, and  consists  of  a  circular  metal  box  with  dark  violet  glass 
viewing  screens  in  the  center  of  both  sides,  with  obscuring  iris 
inside  the  case  worked  by  revolving  the  back  of  the  box.  On 
the  front  of  the  instrument  exposure  tables  are  given  for  plates 
of  every  rapidity,  and  for  diaphragm  apertures  from  f/3  to  f/45. 
Exposure  meters  of  this  type  are  specially  applicable  for  open- 
air  work  where  there  is  sufficient  light  for  ready  measurement. 

Practically  all  of  the  commercially  sold  meters  give  the  ex- 
posure in  a  manner  suitable  for  still  camera  work,  which  is 
seldom  convenient  for  the  cinematographer. 

The  following  table  gives  the  diaphragm  number  and  shutter 
opening  graduated  from  the  exposures  usually  given  for  still 
camera  work.  Where  longer  exposures  are  recorded  for  still 
cameras  it  is  not  possible  to  get  full  exposure  with  the  motion 
camera.  It  is  understood  that  the  calculation  originally  made 
with  the  meter  is  for  a  still  camera  using  plates  of  the  same 
relative  speed  as  cine  emulsion,  which  is  as  fast  as  the  fastest 
plates  ordinarily  used  in  stand  cameras,  the  only  exception  being 
the  ultra-fast  plates  sometimes  used  for  Graflex  work. 

Table  of  Comparative  Exposures  for  Still  and  Motion  Cameras. 

sec.    sec.       sec.     sec.      sec.      sec      sec. 

Still  camera  at  fl6 1   1/2    1/4  1/8   1/16   1/32  1/48 

Motion  camera : 

5^  opening  shutter F3.5    F4       F5.6    F8       Fll       FI6      F22 

^  opening  shutter F3.5    F4       F5.6     FS       Fll      FI6 

H  opening  shutter F3.5     F4       F  5.6    FS      Fll 

for  ys  opening  shutter  the  diaphragm  should  be  set  half  way 
between  the  reading  for  the  ,J^  opening  and  the  reading  for 
J4  opening. 

With  a  little  calculation  almost  any  reliable  exposure  tables 
may  be  usfed  for  the  motion  picture  camera.  As  the  shutter  re- 
volves sixteen  times  per  second  it  requires  one-sixteenth  second 
for  the  shutter  to  turn  once ;  if  it  has  an  opening  which  is  one- 
half  of  the  circumference  the  exposure  given  is  one-half  of 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTQGR  A  P  H  Y 

one-sixteenth  or  one-thirty-second;  a  one-third  opening,  one- 
forty-eighth,  etc.  Now  the  diaphragm  numbers  on  a  lens, 
whether  they  be  U.  S.  or  F  system,  are  arranged  so  that  each 
higher  number  gives  just  half  the  exposure  of  the  one  below  it. 
Also,  U.  S.  i6  and  F  i6  are  equal.     Now  let  us  figure:  Suppose 

An  exposure  chart  for  motion  picture  work  is  given  here. 
F  system  is  used. 

Month  and  Weather 











Nov.,  Dec. 

Bright  Sun 

Hazy  Sun 

Diffused  light .  .  . 










Very  Dull 

Feb.,  Oct. 

Bright  Sun 

Hazy  Sun 

Diffused  light .  .  . 













Very  Dull 

Mar.,  Apr., 
Aug.,  Sept. 

Bright  Sum 

Hazy  Sun 

Diffused  light .  . . 

















Very  Dull 

May,  June, 

Bright  Sun 

Hazy  Sun 

Diffused  light .  .  . 

















Very  Dull 

our  table  of  exposure  says  that  under  the  conditions  that  obtain 
where  we  wish  to  work  that  the  normal  exposure  is  one-fourth 
second  at  U.  S.  thirty-two.  The  next  lower  stop  is  U.  S.  i6, 
which  is  twice  as  fast,  therefore,  at  U.  S.  i6  we  can  expose  in 
one-eighth  second.  Now  our  cinematograph  lens  is  perhaps 
marked  in  the  F  system.  F  ii  is  next  below  F  i6  with  an  ex- 
pMDsure  of  one-sixteenth  second.  The  most  we  can  give  is  one- 
thirty-two  second  with  our  shutter  as  far  open  as  we  can  use  it, 
we  must  open  our  diaphragm  still  further  in  order  to  get  enough 
light  through  our  lens  to  make  the  picture  in  one-thirty-two 



seconds.  F  8  is  the  next  diaphragm  number  giving  an  exposure 
in  half  the  time  as  F  ii ;  one-half  of  one-sixteenth  is  one-thirty- 
two,  therefore,  if  we  set  the  diaphragm  at  F  8  and  turn  at  normal 
speed  we  will  have  a  correctly  exposed  negative. 

In  regard  to  exposure  in  back  lighting :  In  calculating  exposure 
for  back  lighting  it  is  usual  to  calculate  the  exposure  for  the 
lower  tones  in  the  picture,  as  the  high  lights  where  the  sun 
strikes  are  always  over-exposed.  It  is  practically  always  neces- 
sary to  use  a  lens  hood  or  some  sort  of  shield  to  protect  the  lens 
from  the  direct  rays  of  the  sun.  When  the  sun  sets  low  enough 
to  be  included  in  the  picture  it  is  then  usually  too  dark  for  back 
lighting,  and  the  effect  then  becomes  either  silhouette  or  moon- 
light effect.  It  is  customary  in  most  back  lighting  effects  to 
light  up  the  shadows  by  an  inclined  reflector  placed  between  the 
foreground  and  the  camera.  Back  lighting  generally  takes  two 
to  four  times  the  exposure  necessary  in  the  same  light  when 
used  in  direct  lighting. 

This  chart  is  calculated  to  give  full  shadow  detail,  at  sea  level, 
42°  North  Latitude. 

For  altitudes  up  to  5,ocx)  feet  no  change  need  be  made.  From 
5,000  to  8,000  feet  take  ^  of  the  time  in  the  table.  From  8,000 
to  12,000  feet  use  }^  of  the  exposures  in  the  table. 

Exposure  for  average  landscapes  with  light  foreground,  river 
scenes,  light  colored  buildings,  monuments,  snow  scenes  with 
trees  in  foreground.  The  data  compiled  for  use  with  Eastman's 
standard  motion  picture  film  and  cemeras  with  50  per  cent 
shutter  opening. 

The  exposures  given  are  approximately  correct,  but  usable 
negatives  can  be  obtained  with  3^  and  Y^  less  time  where  it  is 
not  possible  to  give  more  on  account  of  small  apertured  lens  or 
34  opening  shutter.  Allowance  should  be  made,  however,  for 
smaller  shutter  opening  whenever  possible. 

Forty-two  degrees  North  Latitude  is  that  of  New  York  and 
the  Northern  States.  For  Southern  Canada  use  next  larger 
sized  stop  and  in  the  winter  months  perhaps  two  sizes  larger. 
For  Southern  California,  Florida  and  the  Southern  States,  the 
next  size  smaller  will  be  sufficient  generally  except  in  the  early 
morning  and  late  evening  hours,  when  the  opening  shall  be  ac- 
cording to  the  chart  or  even  increased.  When  the  light  is  red 
or  yellow  where  the  indicated  stop  numbers  are  underlined,  the 



diaphragm  opening  must  be  increased  to  the  next  or  even  to 
the  second  or  third  opening  beyond  that  indicated  by  the  chart. 

The  numbers  given  in  the  chart  indicate  the  diaphragm  open- 
ing necessary  under  the  F  system,  which  is  the  system  used  in 
marking  the  diaphragm  opening  on  nearly  all  cinematograph 
lenses.  They  are  F  3.5,  F  4,  F5.6,  F  8,  F  11,  F  16,  F22,  F  32 — 
each  succeeding  number  in  this  series  giving  one-half  the  expos- 
ure of  the  one  preceding.  Other  intermediate  numbers  are  some- 
times given,  but  not  often,  and  may  be  disregarded  practically 
when  using  this  chart.  In  the  following  clas.sifica'tion  of  subjects, 
the  diaphragm  opening  should  be  modified  from  the  one  given  in 
the  chart  according  to  the  direction  given  after  each  class. 

For  example,  we  wish  to  make  a  picture  in  June,  at  four 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  of  some  red  brick  building  on  a  hazy 
day.  Under  June  we  look  in  the  hazy  sun  column  and  opposite 
the  time  we  find  the  exposure  to  be  F  16.  For  this  classification 
the  increase  is  two  points,  or  F  8. 

Subjects — For  other  subjects  modify  the  exposure  for  an 
average  landscape  as  given  for  the  class  of  subject. 

Class  A — Studies  of  sky  and  white  clouds.  Decrease  opening 
three  points. 

Class  B — Open  views  of  sea  and  sky ;  very  distant  landscapes ; 
studies  of  rather  heavy  clouds ;  sunset  and  sunrise  studies.  De- 
crease opening  two  points. 

Class  C — ^Open  landscapes  without  foreground;  open  beach, 
harbor  and  shipping  scenes ;  yachts  under  sail ;  very  light  colored 
objects;  studies  of  dark  clouds;  snow  scenes  with  no  dark  ob- 
jects ;  most  tele-photo-subjects  outdoors ;  wooded  hills  not  far  dis- 
tant from  lens.     Decrease  opening  one  point. 

Class  D — Landscapes  with  medium  foreground ;  landscapes  in 
fog  or  mist ;  buildings  showing  both  sunny  and  shady  sides ;  well 
lighted  street  scenes;  persons,  animals  and  moving  objects  at 
least  thirty  feet  away  from  the  camera.  Increase  opening  one 

Class  E — Landscapes  with  heavy  foreground;  buildings  or 
trees  occupying  most  of  the  picture;  brook  scenes  with  heavy 
foliage ;  shipping  about  the  docks ;  red  brick  buildings  and  other 
dark  objects;  group  outdoors  in  the  shade.  Increase  opening 
two  points. 



Class  F — Portraits  outdoors  in  the  shade;  very  dark  near 
objects,  particularly  when  the  image  of  the  object  nearly  fills 
the  film  and  full-shadow  detail  is  required.  Increase  opening 
three  points. 

Class  G — Badly  lighted  river  banks,  ravines,  glades  and  under 
the  trees.  Wood  interiors  not  open  to  the  sky.  Increase  open- 
ing four  to  five  points.  For  back  lighting  and  Rembrandt  ef- 
fects, give  an  additional  increase  of  one  more  point  than  indicated 
by  the  classification. 

Subjects  which  require  openings  much  greater  than  afforded 
by  the  lens  used  should  not  be  attempted  or  the  film  is  only 


Chapter  XIV 

TWELVE  years  ago  there  were  probably  only  five  studios 
for  the  production  of  films  where  there  are  now  more  than 
one  hundred.  The  large  amount  of  money  which  has 
been  made  in  this  industry  and  the  possibilities  of  future  profits 
have  drawn  capital  for  the  formation  of  new  enterprises  from 
various  sources,  and  with  the  creation  of  so  many  new  companies, 
competition  has  become  keen,  and  the  cost  of  producing  films  has 
become  an  important  factor. 

In  the  making  of  a  picture  the  costs  may  roughly  be  divided 
into:  cost  of  raw  film;  interest  and  depreciation  charges  on 
buildings  and  equipment;  salaries  of  directors,  actors  and  me- 
chanics ;  cost  of  developing  and  printing,  and  the  cost  of  lighting. 

Just  what  relation  these  various  costs  bear  to  one  another  is 
doubtful,  but  it  has  been  stated  that  completed  films  cost  to 
make  anywhere  from  50c.  to  $5.00  a  foot,  the  average  being 
approximately  $2.00  per  foot. 

The  raw  film  itself  costs  about  33/2  cents  per  foot 
for  the  negative  and  3  cents  per  foot  for  the  positive. 
Naturally  the  highest  cost  is  for  labor,  and  in  this  respect  the 
moving  picture  industry  does  not  differ  materially  from  many 
other  manufacturing  processes.  Any  manner  in  which  labor 
costs  can  be  kept  down  and  labor  utilized  to  its  fullest  capacity, 
is  bound  to  decrease  the  cost  of  the  film  and  increase  the  profits 
of  the  manufacturer. 

One  item  which  tends  to  help  utilize  labor  to  its  fullest  extent 
is  proper  light.  The  first  maxim  in  the  studio  is  that  "no  picture 
can  be  made  without  proper  light  and  plenty  of  it."  Sufficient 
light  has  to  be  provided,  whether  it  be  daylight  or  artificial  light, 
to  take  clear  pictures  in  approximately  1/50  of  a  second.  They 
must  be  taken  with  detail,  as  they  are  projected  to  a  magnifica- 
tion of  about  150  diameters  on  the  screen,  and  the  public  is  be- 
coming more  and  more  critical  regarding  proper  definition  of  the 
subject  projected. 

The  stop  used  is  generally  about  f  4.5  with  a  2-inch  lens,  and 



if  there  is  not  an  abundance  of  light,  the  picture  will  not  be  satis- 
factory when  the  camera  is  working  at  the  required  speed. 

The  indoor  studios  depended  on  daylight  for  their  lighting 
by  the  use  of  glass  skylights ;  later,  studios  were  constructed  not 
only  with  overhead  lighting,  but  with  the  sides  also  of  glass. 
Even  under  these  conditions,  on  rainy  or  cloudy  days,  or  about 
three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  during  the  autumn  and  winter 
months,  the  daylight  available  was  insufficient  to  produce  good 

At  about  this  period  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Lamp  had  been  de- 
veloped, and  its  high  actinic  values  were  justly  appreciated  by 
the  few  studio  managers  who  were  then  in  the  business,  and  an 
installation  of  these  lamps  was  made  in  1905  at  the  Biograph 
Company's  original  studio  on  14th  Street,  New  York  City. 
From  this  installation  has  come  the  practical  development  of  the 
Cooper-Hewitt  Lamps  for  the  moving  picture  stage. 

Few  people  who  see  the  films  on  the  screen  appreciate  what 
has  to  be  done  to  take  even  the  simplest  scene,  after  a  scenario 
has  been  accepted  by  a  company  and  turned  over  to  the  director 
who  is  the  successor  of  the  stage  manager.  The  actors  must 
be  selected  for  the  various  parts  and  given  instructions ;  scenery 
must  be  found  for  the  setting,  or  if  necessary,  new  flats,  etc., 
painted,  and  erected  on  the  stage.  The  necessary  "props"  must 
be  obtained,  and  after  rehearsing  the  scene  time  and  again  until 
the  producer  is  satisfied,  he  calls  for  "Lights"  and  then  for 
"Camera,"  and  the  picture  is  taken.  Fifty  or  sixty  feet  of  film, 
which  require  about  one  minute  to  photograph,  may  have  taken 
two  or  three  hours  to  rehearse.  All  scenes  occurring  in  the 
same  set  are  generally  taken  one  after  another  irrespective  of 
how  they  occur  in  the  scenario,  and  after  developing,  the  sec- 
tions of  the  films  are  jointed  together  in  their  proper  places. 

The  importance  of  light  is  emphasized  by  the  statement  that 
no  matter  how  good  the  scenario  may  be,  or  how  well  it  may 
be  worked  up,  the  result  of  the  efiforts  of  the  producer  and 
actors  will  not  register  clearly  and  accurately  on  the  film  if  the 
action  is  not  properly  lighted. 

One  of  the  most  efficient  ways  to  light  a  stage  either  wholly 
dependent  on  artificial  light  or  using  it  in  conjunction  with  day- 
light is  by  means  of  Cooper-Hewitt  Lamps  arranged  in  banks, 
say,  eight  tubes.     Each  of  these  banks  throws  a  mass  of  light 



upon  the  scene  similar  to  that  from  a  fair  size  window  or 

The  Cooper-Hewitt  Lamp  is  particularly  desirable  for  this 
class  of  work  on  account  of  the  great  actinic  power  of  the  light ; 
for  equal  illumination,  it  being  about  the  same  as  daylight.  Also 
the  fact  that  the  light  comes  from  a  long  tube  in  place  of  being 
concentrated  in  a  small  point,  ensures  thorough  diffusion  of  the 
light  and  gives  a  lighting  effect  similar  to  daylight.  The  light 
blends  with  daylight,  and  where  used  in  a  daylight  studio  can 
gradually  be  added  as  the  daylight  decreases. 

Even  with  two  or  three  hundred  lamps  on  a  stage  there  is  very 
little  glare,  and  no  harmful  effects  are  produced  on  the  eyes  of 
the  actors.  Furthermore,  even  with  this  large  amount  of  light, 
the  temperature  of  the  stage  is  only  slightly  raised  above  the 
surrounding  atmosphere.  This  is  a  most  important  point  to 
be  considered  in  taking  pictures,  and  especially  in  fairly  long 
scenes,  as  the  fatigue  produced  by  an  excess  of  light  will  pre- 
vent the  players  from  putting  forth  their  best  efforts. 

Lamps  are  frequently  arranged  in  skylights  for  hanging  from 
the  ceiling  to  provide  top  light,  and  floor  stands  are  added  to 
take  care  of  the  side  lighting  and  reinforce  the  lighting  at  special 
points  to  obtain  the  best  effects.  By  properly  arranging  the 
lights  around  the  sides  of  the  stage  and  overhead,  modeling 
effects  can  be  produced  which  do  away  with  the  flat  pictures  apt 
to  result  from  improper  lighting. 

As  an  instance  of  the  manner  of  lighting  a  studio  for  large 
stage  work,  we  may  take  a  stage  of  about  32  ft.  deep.  In  a 
typical  installation  of  this  type  there  are  208  tubes,  136  for  over- 
head lighting  and  32  for  high  side  lighting,  with  48  mounted  in 
floor  stands  for  moving  about  to  throw  the  light  from  one  side 
and  towards  the  front. 

The  overhead  lamps  are  arranged  in  the  following  manner — 
Eight  tubes  in  two  banks  are  hung  approximately  8  ft.  over  the 
front  line,  at  an  angle  of  about  .30  degrees  inclined  toward  the 
stage ;  back  of  these  lamps  are  hung  three  banks  of  eight  lamps, 
each  at  the  same  angle,  and  this  idea  is  carried  out  so  that  at 
the  back  line  there  are  four  banks,  at  about  18  ft.  above  the 
'stage,  this  fan-shaped  method  being  essential  to  cover  the  stage. 
On  one  side  are  four  hanging  banks  which  are  inclined  45  degrees, 
throwing  the  light  in  on  the  stage.     No  lamps  are  placed  op- 




posite  to  these,  for  the  reason  that  if  the  illumination  was 
equalized  the  picture  would  photograph  flat.  The  floor-stands 
are  placed  at  various  positions  to  get  light  in  on  the  stage  to 
light  up  spots  where  the  top  and  side  lighting  do  not  reach  and 
to  produce  artistic  modeling. 

The  overhead  lamps  in  this  studio  are  all  suspended  from  a 
trolley  system  which  permits  the  lamps  to  be  removed  from  one 
end  of  the  studio  to  the  other,  and  cover  in  this  manner  three 
different  stages.  By  this  method  scenes  can  be  set  up  on  two 
stages  while  pictures  are  being  taken  on  the  third,  and  no  time 
is  lost  between  the  taking  of  the  scenes. 

The  overhead  structure  for  this  work  consists  of  three  tracks 
running  the  entire  length  of  the  studio.  On  this  track  are  run 
a  number  of  grooved  wheels  which  are  linked  together  by  three 
angle  iron  frames.  From  these  three  frames  are  suspended  by 
chains,  the  skylight  banks  and  their  auxiliaries  or  starting  ap- 
paratus. The  iron  frames  are  controlled  by  endless  wire  cables 
running  from  one  end  of  the  studio  to  the  other,  and  which  are 
connected  to  winches,  so  that  the  overhead  frames  can  be  moved 
about  very  readily,  when  desired,  by  turning  the  handles. 

The  wiring  is  run  to  a  panel  board,  mounted  at  one  side  of  the 
studio,  and  this  panel  is  arranged  so  that  all  of  the  lamps  can  be 
thrown  on  at  one  time,  or  by  a  system  of  double  throw  switches, 
by  throwing  certain  switches,  any  number  of  the  lamps  can  be 
left  on,  the  balance  thrown  off,  or  vice  versa.  This  arrange- 
ment permits  the  dimming  of  lights  for  night  scenes,  or  by  throw- 
ing on  all,  gives  the  impression  of  the  sun  coming  up,  or  the 
turning  on  of  lights  in  a  room. 

In  addition  to  Cooper-Hewitt  Lamps  a  studio  should  have  a 
number  of  arc  lamps,  several  spot  lights,  which  can  be  used  in  con- 
junction with  the  tube  lamps  for  spot  lighting  effects.  More- 
over, arc  lamps  are  used  for  fireplace  lighting,  table  lamps,  and 
other  special  effects. 

Arc  lights  are  also  often  used  without  the  admixture  of  Cooper- 
Hewitts,  as  many  effects  can  be  produced  with  them  which  can- 
not be  obtained  with  the  diffuse  illumination  from  the  mercury 
tubes.  The  following  paragraphs  about  "hard"  lights  are  an  ab- 
stract from  a  pap^r  on  "White  Light  for  Motion  Picture  Photog- 
raphy," delivered  before  the  Society  of  Motion  Picture  Engineers 
by  William  Roy  Mott,  of  the  Research  Laboratory  of  the  Na- 
tional Carbon  Company,  Inc.,  Cleveland,  Ohio. 



The  famous  psychologist,  Professor  Munsterberg,  wrote  a  few 
years  ago  a  book  on  moving  pictures  and  in  it  he  asserted  that  the 
production  of  moving  pictures  by  the  best  companies  had  grad- 
uated as  an  art  ranking  with  painting,  sculpture  and  music.  By 
attention  to  mode  and  variation  of  lighting,  many  new  psycho- 
logical appeals  can  be  made,  including  the  portraying  of  the 
thought  images  in  the  minds  of  the  characters  of  the  play,  some- 
thing impossible  to  duplicate  on  the  theatre  stage. 

Besides  being  one  of  the  fine  arts,  the  moving  picture  art  has 
become  the  greatest  educational  institution  in  the  world.  Very 
special  lighting  is  needed  for  scientific  films,  for  ultra-rapid 
moving  picture  work  and  for  the  several  new  color  processes. 

The  moving  picture  industry  is  one  of  our  foremost  industries. 
Since  Edison's  and  Jenkin's  invention  of  moving  picture  devices 
of  only  a  score  or  so  years  ago,  the  industry  has  leaped  to  fourth 
place  in  the  United  States.  There  is  spent  annually  three  or 
four  hundred  million  dollars  by  the  people  here  for  admission  to 
moving  picture  theatres.  The  daily  attendance  is  said  to  average 
between  ten  and  twenty  millions  of  people.  Of  the  fifty" 
thousand  motion  picture  houses  in  the  world,  there  are  about 
twenty  thousand  in  the  United  States  and  the  United  States  is 
the  greatest  producing  center  in  the  world.  The  sunshine  of 
California  has  built  up  a  major  producing  center  in  and  near 
Los  Angeles.  There  over  twelve  million  dollars  are  spent  an- 
nually for  this  production  and  about  twenty-five  thousand  people 
are  employed. 

The  importance  of  light  in  relation  to  expense  of  production 
may  be  judged  from  the  following  statement  made  by  Mr.  G. 
McL.  Baynes  of  the  English  Hepworth  Manufacturing  Company. 
"As  to  photographic  difficulties  encountered  in  outdoor  work 
in  England,  it  is  ridiculous  to  say  that  they  cannot  make  pictures 
there.  It  is  true  production  is  more  expensive,  perhaps  tzvice 
as  much,  because  we  have  to  wait  for  the  sunshine."  Thus  in 
foggy  England,  the  difficulties  are  much  greater  on  account  of 
poor  light  than  in  the  West  or  East  of  the  United  States. 

The  invention  of  the  high  average  white  flame  arc  lamps  and 
carbons  and  of  other  artificial  light  sources  such  as  the  daylight 
gas  filled  tungsten  lamps  and  the  mercury  arc  lamps,  have  elimi- 
nated these  expensive  waits  for  sunshine. 

The  home-center  of  the  moving  picture  industry  in  the  East  is 



again  building  up  rapidly.  There  new  studios  are  to  be  found, 
especially  in  or  near  New  York  City  and  to  a  lesser  degree  near 
other  centers  of  population,  in  Chicago,  Philadelphia,  Qeveland. 
Scenic  interest  is  another  industrial  factor  which  accounts  for 
their  location  in  Ithaca  and  Florida. 

The  increase  in  artificial  light  facilities  has  been  an  important 
economic  factor  in  this  Eastern  movement  which  is  being  ac- 
celerated by  the  continual  increase  in  the  extraordinary  salaries 
which  are  paid  moving  picture  artists.  The  cost  of  production 
of  an  average  negative  of  one  reel  is  said  to  be  about  $i,ooo, 

iclc  Line 


Fig.   43 

Plan     of    Moving    Picture    Stage    showing    increased     depth     of 

and  of  this  it  is  certainly  economy  to  spend  one  or  two  per  cent, 
on  securing  the  best  lighting. 

The  lighting  differences  between  the  theatre  stage  and  movie 
stage  are  illustrated  by  Fig.  44  which  shows  the  theatre  stage  has 
a  broad  front  line,  below  which  come  the  footlights  and  a  very 
shallow  background,  because  the  essential  action  of  the  stage 
must  be  visible  to  every  one  in  the  audience  on  both  sides  of  the 
auditorium.  On  the  other  hand,  the  moving  picture  photog- 
rapher can  select  any  point  of  view  and  this  necessarily  has  an 
enlarging  background  in  the  usual  case  of  real  scenery.  The 
camera  lines  in  the  ground  view  (Fig.  43)  represent  limits  outside 
which  the  lighting  units  must  be  placed,  except  for  trick  flame 
lamps  used  to  imitate  lanterns  and  house  lamps.  In  the  vertical 
plane  exactly  the  same  rule  must  be  followed  in  regard  to  in- 
creasing light  of  overhead  lamps  for  the  background.     The  ex- 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTO  G  R  A  P  H  Y 

cellent  results  from  footlights  has  not  yet  been  appreciated  by 
moving  picture  artists. 

Motion  pictures  became  commercially  successful  for  entertain- 
ments only  when  it  became  possible  to  select  a  subject,  stage  it 
with  all  the  startling  realism  of  the  spoken  drama  and  give  its 
photography  those  qualities  perhaps  best  connoted  by  the  term, 

Fig.   44 

Floor   plan    showing   theatre    stage    is    very    shallow,    and    has    a 
decreasing   width    of    Back-Ground. 

For  portraiture  effects — Rembrandt,  line  lighting,  etc.,  control 
of  the  position,  direction  and  diffusion  of  light  is  necessary. 
Some  lighting  forming  an  oblique  angle  on  the  face  to  the  camera 
gives  increased  reflection  and  aids  in  preventing  flatness.  For 
artistic  results,  the  white  flame  arc  is  distinctly  superior  for 
securing  modeling,  atmosphere,  definition,  half-tone  and  fine 
photographic  quality  in  the  negatives. 

Mr.  Max  Mayers,  in  his  valuable  paper  on  "Artificial  Light  in 
the  Motion  Picture  Studio,"  given  before  the  Society  of  Motion 
Picture  Engineers,  says,  "Back  lighting  is  a  splendid  way  of 
obtaining  pleasing  and  natural  results.  This  is  effected  by  plac- 
ing the  lights  well  back  and  directing  them  toivard  but  not  at  the 
camera,  masking  the  direct  rays  at  the  lamp,  and  preferably  using 
a  shielding  tube  with  perfectly  dull  black  interior  over  the  lens 



barrel,  to  prevent  halation.  Thus  the  figures  and  objects  in  the 
set  will  be  silhouetted,  and  by  the  proper  front  arrangement  of 
reflecting  surfaces  and  well  diffused  lights  at  a  fair  distance, 
the  features  and  details  may  be  perfectly  modeled  in  shadow, 
with  pleasing  highlight  relief  effected  by  the  rear  lights." 

456      7^9  10  12345678 

Time  in  Hours • 

Fig.    45 
Average  daily  variation  for  June  and  December. 

A  large  amount  of  light  is  required  in  moving  picture  work, 
because  of  the  short  exposures  (1/30  to  1/50  sec.)  and  need 
for  definition.  In  the  interest  of  definition  and  depth  of  focus 
it  is  highly  desirable  to  work  at  small  lens  opening.  For  instance, 
with  the  white  flame  arc  lights  f  5.6  is  often  used  in  moving 
picture  studios  whereas  f  4.5  and  even  f  3.5  have  been  recom- 
mended with  other  sources  of  artificial  light.     Some  of  the  flame 



lamps,  with  their  reflectors  and  diffusing  screens,  can  be  used 
to  give  a  light  intensity  of  10,000  and  more  candles  per  square 
foot,  so  that  even  daylight  is  surpassed,  if  so  desired. 

We  will  now  consider  daylight.  The  larger  the  number  of 
days  of  good,  clear  sunshine,  the  lower  is  the  cost  of  moving 
picture  production,  because  of  the  saving  of  time  of  high  salaried 
artists.  But  little  has  been  done  as  yet  to  use  artificial  light  in 
conjunction  with  outdoor  scenes  for  which  daylight  is  ideal 
except  for  the  interruption  of  the  photography  by  dark,  cloudy 
days.  In  England  some  use  of  arc  lamps  has  been  made  for 
outdoor  scenes.  Even  on  consecutive  clear  days  there  may  be 
a  large  variation  in  actinic  light  as  shown  in  Fig.  45. 

For  interior  scenes  daylight  must  be  diffused  to  avoid  out- 
door appearances  caused  by  the  direct  shadows  from  sunlight. 
This  diffusion  is  secured  by  using  prism  glass  in  the  roof  and 
sides  of  studios.  If  the  studio  work  for  interior  scenes  is  done 
outdoors  then  awnings  of  light-sheeting  or  muslin  are  used  to 
secure  proper  diffusion.  This  is  sometimes  done  in  studios  with 
glass  roofs,  especially  if  clear  glass  has  been  used. 

A  serious  objection  to  daylight  in  such  studios  is  the  hot-house 
effect,  especially  in  summer.  As  these  glass  houses  receive  con- 
tinuously one  to  two-horsepower  of  solar  energy  per  square 
yard  of  projected  area  normal  to  the  light,  the  heating  effect  is 
many  times  greater  than  with  good  artificial  light  alone,  because 
the  full  amount  of  artificial  light  is  used  intermittently  and 
seldom  for  more  than  a  total  of  an  hour  a  day. 

The  artificial  light,  used  generally  for  side  illumination,  with 
daylight  should  be  given  by  the  light  of  the  greatest  photographic 
power  in  proportion  to  the  energy  liberated  in  the  studio.  For 
this  reason  flame  arcs  are  commonly  used  with  daylight.  In 
the  winter  daylight  is  rather  poor  after  penetrating  the  glass 
and  screening  and  so  dependence  is  then  largely  placed  on  arti- 
ficial light. 

This  seasonal  variation  and  hourly  variation  of  sunlight  and 
skylight  is  shown  in  Fig.  46,  taken  from  Eder's  Handbuch  der 
Photographic.  Again  the  changing  direction  of  sunlight  has 
been  a  serious  objection  and  the  studio,  known  as  the  Black 
Maria,  of  the  Edison  Company  was  arranged  on  wheels  so  that 
it  could  be  moved  to  face  the  light. 

Finally  there  is  one  class  of  interior  scenes  for  which  daylight 




























































•— • 




in  any  form  is  entirely  unsatisfactory.  This  is  in  night  scenes, 
where  sharp  shadows  and  brightly  illuminated  parts  must  come 
in  the  same  picture.  Again  all  moving  picture  work  in  actual 
interiors  such  as  subways,  mines,  caves,  hotels,  theatres,  churches, 
etc.,  must  be  done  with  artificial  light.  This  brings  us  to  the 
vital  importance  of  artificial  hghts.  And  of  these  the  closest 
to  daylight  photographically  is  the  light  of  the  while  flame  high 
amperage  arc  lamps. 






£jy^^?e  /<9S4 



































'  y 

'  a  s  /o  //  /£  /  a  J  ^'^Jls 

Fig.    46 
Daily    variation     of    photographic    light    with     daylight. 

The  white  flame  high  amperage  arc  gives  a  light  which  is  re- 
markably close  to  daylight  both  in  color  and  photographic  values. 
Like  daylight  the  spectrum  is  not  entirely  continuous,  but  the 
effect  of  being  practically  continuous  is  obtained  by  the  enormous 
number  of  light  giving  lines  in  every  part  of  the  spectrum,  in- 
cluding the  ultra-violet  which  with  the  white  flame  arc  is  very 
similar  to  that  given  by  sunlight. 

This  duplication  of  daylight  is  so  good  and  the  intensity  of 
light  is  so  great  that  this  light  is  being  used  by  large  clothing 
concerns  as  a  reliable  substitute  for  daylight  in  making  dye 
fading  tests.  In  fifty  hours  of  testing  with  the  flame  arc,  dyes 
are  faded  to  the  same  degree  as  by  about  three  weeks  of  ordinary 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTQG  R  A  P  H  Y 

daylight  in  June  in  Cleveland.  The  white  flame  arc  is  also  used 
for  color  matching. 

It  is  a  part  of  the  higher  management  of  moving  picture  pro- 
ducers to  give  the  actors  and  actresses  a  background  of  reality 
and  not  of  ghastly  unreality.  Producers  favor  the  use  of  music 
to  lend  realism  and  to  create  a  desired  emotion.  "The  living  in- 
terpreter must  have  the  living  scene  to  do  his  best." 

It  is  now  a  recognized  fact  that  pleasant  scenes  need  pleasant 
light.  White  light  is  the  best  for  ordinary  drama  and  comedy. 
A  blue  or  blue-green  light  is  especially  good  for  very  sad  scenes, 
such  as  death-bed  scenes.  Mr.  Edward  L.  Simons  at  a  time 
even  before  the  use  of  flame  arcs,  pointed  out  the  eflPect  of  blue- 
green  light  on  the  actors  by  saying  ''but  without  the  arc  lamp, 
it  would  be  pretty  hard  to  go  through  a  real  love  scene,  because 
everybody  would  look  sick."  Hence  the  value  of  the  red  content 
of  the  white  light  is  of  great  importance  to  moving  picture  pro- 
ductions. AltKough  photographically  of  no  value  for  ordinary 
purposes,  it  is  of  value  in  giving  the  artists  a  suitable  environ- 
ment for  their  best  artistic  expression.  When  film  is  sensitized 
to  long  wave  lengths  then  the  red  and  yellow  light  are  important. 

A  few  hints  here  about  "make-up."  The  moving  picture  artist 
soon  learns  that  red  will  photograph  black  because  the  ordinary 
film  is  not  sensitive  to  red  light.  For  this  reason  the  make- 
up should  be  light,  little  rouge  being  used.  Gold  teeth  or  fillings 
will  photograph  dark.  An  excessive  amount  of  white  clothing 
should  be  avoided  as  this  may  give  rise  to  halation  which  results 
in  a  blur.  Hence  yellow,  gray  and  other  colors  of  clothes  are 
used.  This  halation  needs  to  be  watched  carefully  with  the 
lights  having  low  latitude  on  plates.  This  means  the  picture 
will  show  parts  highly  lighted  and  dimly  lighted  with  clear 

In  regard  to  film  sensitiveness  the  ordinary  moving  picture  film 
has  a  maximum  sensitiveness  in  the  violet  with  considerable  sen- 
sitiveness in  the  blue  and  ultra-violet  and  much  less  in  the  green 
and  yellow  and  no  sensitiveness  in  the  red.  Some  moving 
picture  laboratories  are  making  orthochromatic  films  fairly  sen- 
sitive to  yellow  light.  For  panchromatic  photography  and  color 
photography,  of  course,  all  parts  of  the  light  are  used.  Because 
of  the  use  of  a  yellow  screen  with  these,  special  flame  carbons 
can  be  used  not  only  to  give  more  light,  but  such  light  that  a 



screen  of  better  transparency  can  be  used.  This,  of  course,  is 
very  important  because  color  photography  film  calls  for  a  great 
deal  more  light  for  moving  picture  work  than  ordinary  films. 
The  yellow  flame  carbons  with  special  screens  have  been  found 
very  good  in  motion  picture  production.  Calcium  fluoride  is  used 
and  gives  a  spectrum  rich  in  red  and  yellow  bands  with  very  little 
spectrum  yellow. 

The  flame  arc  shows  a  rapid  increase  in  actinic  light  with  in- 
crease in  current.  In  fact  the  flame  arc  with  doubling  of  the 
current  at  the  same  arc  voltage  increases  its  photographic  effect 
not  twice  but  three  to  four  times.  This  makes  it  profitable  to 
use  the  flame  arcs  at  high  amperages  of  15-25  to  35  amperes.  In 
some  cases  much  higher  amperages  have  been  used. 

A  vertical  flame  arc  is  generally  preferred,  but  the  arc  will 
burn  well  in  a  great  variety  of  positions.  In  general,  flame 
upper  carbons  and  flame  lower  carbons  are  used  in  moving 
picture  flame  lamps  so  that  the  lamps  can  be  used  on  either  direct 
or  alternating  current  and  without  any  regard  to  polarity  if  it 
is  direct  current.  This  arrangement  is  different  from  the  photo- 
engraving field  where  a  very  common  trim  is  a  neutral  enclosed 
arc  upper  carbon  with  a  white  positive  louder.  In  this  case  the 
flame  carbon  must  always  be  made  positive  because  the  flame 
chemicals  travel  through  the  arc  stream  from  the  positive  crater 
to  the  negative  crater.  It  is  the  flame  materials  that  produce  the 
light  and  wrong  polarity  or  pure  carbon  open  arc  gives  about  one- 
sixth  the  photographic  light  of  the  white  flame  arc.  However,  a 
positive  flame  upper  carbon  gives  better  efficiency  with  a  flame 
negative  lower  as  against  a  neutral  negative  lower. 

On  alternating  current,  both  carbons  should  be  flame  carbons, 
as  here  the  flame  material  feeds  from  both  electrodes,  and  so 
this  arrangement  gives  the  maximum  efficiency.  The  use  of  re- 
actance ballast  on  alternating  current  lamps  in  place  of  resistance 
ballast  increases  greatly  the  efficiency  of  a  white  flame  arc  for 
equal  power  in  the  arc,  and  gives  from  50  to  100%  more  light 
for  equal  power  on  the  line.  With  reactance  ballast  on  two  or 
three  flame  arcs  in  series  on  1 10  volts,  the  overall  power  factor 
is  better  than  .85.  Three  flame  arcs  in  series  on  100  volts  with 
metal  coated  carbons  give  but  very  little  if  any  more  efficiency 
than  two  flame  arms  in  series. 

We  will  now  consider  some  of  the  typical  flame  lamps  used  in 
moving  picture  studios. 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHQTQG  R  A  P  H  Y 

Special  flame  lamps  have  been  developed  to  operate  on  A.  C. 
or  D.  C.  and  in  series  on  220  volts  or  in  multiple  on  no.  This 
makes  the  lamp  of  universal  use,  and  calls  for  no  special  atten- 
tion to  the  electrical  conditions.  The  resistance  of  the  flame 
lamp  to  mechanical  shocks,  electrical  shocks  such  as  over-voltage 
and  to  bad  weather  conditions,  has  made  it  universally  used  for 
outside  moving  picture  work.  Combined  with  all  these  ad- 
vantages is  the  remarkable  small  weight  of  these  lamps.  For 
instance  some  of  the  twin  arc  lamps  weigh  no  more  than  20 
pounds  for  lights  giving  8,000  or  more  horizontal  candle  power, 
and  with  the  light  of  a  little  greater  actinicity  than  daylight. 
The  amount  of  light  is  probably  greater  in  proportion  to  weight 
than  any  other  artificial  light  used  in  moving  picture  studios. 
Further  improved  design  can  greatly  reduce  this  weight. 

We  will  now  discuss  briefly  a  number  of  typical  high  amperage 
flame  lamps.  The  following  flame  lamps  are  commonly  used: 
Allison  and  Hadaway,  Aristo,  Bogue,  Chicago  Stage  Lamp, 
Joyce,  Klieglight,  Macbeth,  Scott,  Simplex,  Sunlight,  Universal 
and  Wohl.  As  there  is  no  article  or  book  where  these  types 
have  been  shown  collectively,  no  doubt  the  following  will  be  of 

The  Aristo  lamp  is  an  enclosed  arc  lamp  which  has  been  much 
used  by  portrait  photographers  and  in  motion  picture  studios. 
In  the  latter  one  frequently  finds  the  Aristo  lamps,  white  flame 
carbons  3^  x  12  inches  upper  with  V2  x  6  inches  lower  with  or 
without  the  globe.  The  greater  dift'usion  of  the  light  and  re- 
liability of  the  flame  arc  Immediately  found  great  favor  with  the 
photographers  of  moving  picture  concerns  when  demonstrated  a 
few  years  ago  by  Mr.  A.  D.  Spear,  at  Edison  Studio.  The 
amount  of  light  with  28- A  and  63  arc  volts  with  flame  carbons 
was  5,130  (mean  spherical  candlepower  in  the  tests  made. 

The  Allison  and  Hadaway  lamp  is  a  twin  arc  designed  especially 
for  portability  in  a  suitcase  form.  There  is  also  made  by  this 
company  a  diffusing  cabinet  with  flame  lamp  and  a  small  portable 
flame  lamp  with  shunt  control  to  greatly  raise  the  current  at 
the  time  of  taking  the  pictures.  The  horizontal  candlepower 
of  the  15  ampere  flame  lamp  is  said  to  be  8,000. 

The  Chicago  Stage  lamp  is  unusual  in  having  the  flame  car- 
bons at  right  angles. 

The  Joyce  flame  arc  lamp  has  been  used  somewhat  in  industrial 
motion  picture  work. 



The  Klleglight,  Fig.  47,  is  a  high  amperage  (30  to  40  amperes) 
lamp,  with  horizontal  carbons.  The  lamp  is  mounted  on  a  ped- 
estal with  casters,  and  is  used  for  side  lighting.  The  lamp  is 
very  powerful  and  so  is  usually  diffused  by  a  large  glass  screen. 
A  low  weight  lamp  with  vertical  flame  carbons  is  also  made.  The 
portable  Klieglight  is  shown  in  Fig.  48. 

The  Macbeth  Company  is  well-known  in  the  photo-engraving 
field,  and  have  recently  produced  a  tilting  lamp,  which  is  ap- 
parently of  considerably  greater  efficiency  than  their  usual  photo- 

Fig.  47 

Klieglight  Stand,  2i-35  ampere  with  horizontal  flame  carbons. 

engraving  lamp.  The  lamp  is  designed  so  that  the  light  can  be 
directed  to  any  part  of  the  stage,  both  vertically  and  horizontally. 
The  tilting  lamp  is  designed  to  bum  an  A.  C.  and  D.  C.  and  in 
case  of  220  volts,  two  in  series. 

The  Scott  lamp  is  a  revival  of  the  inclined  gravity  feed  lamp 
at  15  to  20  amperes,  and  has  two  arcs  in  series  in  each  lamp. 
This  lamp  is  especially  used  for  overhead  lighting,  and  in  a  stand 
form  for  side  lighting.  These  lamps  give  a  greater  effect  by 
40%  than  some  of  the  flame  arcs  having  only  one  arc  on  1 10  volts. 

The  Simplex  lamp  is  a  twin  flame  lamp  which  is  easily  portable 
and  can  be  carried  around  in  a  suitcase.  This  lamp  is  designed 
for  15  to  25  amperes. 

The  Universal  or  Majestic  lamp  has  two  flame  arcs  in  series 



Fig.   48 
Kliegliglit    Portable. 



and  these  are  placed  next  to  the  economizer.     The  lamp  can 
easily  be  directed  to  throw  its  light  to  any  part  of  the  stage. 

The  Wohl  Duplex  hanging  lamp  has  two  flame  arcs  in  series 
and  laboratory  tests  have  shown  a  mean  spherical  candlepower 
of  6,700,  with  no  reflector,  with  the  lamp  taking  30  amperes  on 
115  line  volts  (direct  current).  With  the  reflector,  the  horizontal 
beam  candlepower  is  22,000,  according  to  tests  made.  In  mov- 
ing picture  studios  these  lamps  are  provided  with  suitable  woven 
glass  diffusing  screens  or  large  tracing  cloth  diffusing  screens. 
The  Wohl  Broadside  is  a  stand  lamp  taking  30  amperes  with  four 
arcs  in  series  on  220  volts  or  60  amperes  on  no  volt  line  with 
two  pairs  of  series  arcs.  A  portable  light  weight  lamp  is 
also  made.  A  complete  description  of  all  the  American  lamps 
would  fill  a  book,  so  we  will  pass  on  to  foreign  lamps  and  spot 

The  foreign  makers  of  white  flamx  lamps  have  lagged  con- 
siderably behind  the  American  manufacturers.  An  English  flame 
lamp  called  Truelight,  is  interesting  because  four  arcs  are  used 
in  series  on  220  volts,  with  the  current  reversing  direction  at 
each  arc  and  carbons  changing  size  to  maintain  a  focusing  effect. 
Some  of  the  early  German  flame  lamps  are  shown  in  Eder's 
Handbuch  der  Photographie.  They  can  be  of  no  importance 
compared  with  the  American  lamps. 

Another  type  of  flame  lamp  is  the  spotlight  lamps  operated 
usually  by  hand.  These  are  used  in  the  same  way  as  the  ordinary 
theatre  spotlight  lamps,  but  unlike  the  theatre  lamps,  the  carbons 
used  should  be  the  white  flame  photographic  carbons  or  the 
white  flame  searchlight  carbons.  Some  movie  directors  have  told 
the  writer  that  using  the  white  flame  photographic  carbon  in- 
creased the  photographic  light  about  six  times  compared  with 
ordinary  projector  carbons.  The  white  A.  C.  projector  carbon 
is  not  as  efficient  for  studio  lighting  as  the  white  flame  photo- 
graphic carbon. 

The  flame  searchlight  has  also  entered  the  moving  picture  field 
with  great  success.  It  is  often  operated  fifty  feet  away,  and 
with  current  120  to  150  amperes.  We  will  next  consider  home- 
made flame  lamps.  Electricians  in  moving  picture  studios  have 
to  continually  devise  new  effects  for  simulating  lanterns,  indoor 
lamps,  fires,  etc.  In  general,  it  is  a  great  mistake  to  make  an 
article  if  it  can  be  found  on  the  market ;  but  there  are  times  when 





it  is  an  advantage  to  know  how  to  make  a  flame  lamp  out  of 
other  lamps. 

For  some  purposes  a  cheap  lamp  with  adjustable  current  for 
changing  the  amount  of  light  is  convenient.  In  Figs.  49  and  50 
are  shown  the  electrical  arrangements  that  the  writer  devised 
several  years  ago  for  doing  this.     The  globes  should  be  removed 


Laop  Heeistanoe 


Shunt  Beai&tanod 
20  anp 

<W*>P  9MU4 



Fig.  49 

Conversion   diagram  for  changing  D.   C.   Enclosed   Arc   Lamp  to 
Adjustable  Flame  Lamp. 

from  the  lamps  and  where  necessary  the  lower  holders  should 
be  made  rigid.  All  the  electrical  wiring  should  be  arranged  on 
one  side  of  the  arc,  and  then  a  resistance  (or  reactance  can  also 
be  used  on  A.  C.)  is  connected  in  shunt  to  carry  15  to  20  amperes 
at  50  volts  around  the  lamp  resistance  and  solenoid  ordinarily 
taking  only  5  to  7^2  amperes.  Half-inch  white  flame  carbons, 
metal  coated  at  the  holder  ends,  give  excellent  results.  It  is  easy 
to  work  two  converted  enclosed  arc  lamps  with  the  two  flame  arcs 
in  series  on  1 10  volts. 
















The  chief  carbon  used  for  photo-engraving  and  photography  is 
the  white  flame  carbon  of  which  over  a  million  a  year  are  now 
being  sold  for  this  class  of  work.  In  the  larger  sizes  a  special 
star-shaped  core  is  used.     The  color  of  the  light  can,  where 


Lanrp  Kesotanoe 
5  amp* 


Shunt  HesLctanoe 
20  amp. 


Fig.    50 

Conversion   diagram    for   changing   alternating   current   Enclosed   Arc 
Lamps  to  high  amperage  Flame  Arcs  by  leactance  shunt. 

necessary,  be  changed  to  suit  the  exact  requirements  without 
buying  a  new  lamp  or  even  a  new  screen,  because  other  flame 
carbons  of  dift'erent  colors  are  available  for  these  lamps  when 
they  are  needed.  The  white  flame  is  strictly  a  snow  white  light 
with  a  spectrum  full  of  lines  in  its  every  part.  This  is  most 
generally  used. 
The  pearl  white  is  a  light  a  little  more  suited  for  panchromatic 



and  color  photography.  The  color  of  its  light  is  very  close  to 
that  of  ordinary  sunshine.  The  yellow  flame  carbon  gives  a 
light  rich  in  red  and  green  but  having  comparatively  little  spec- 
trum yellow  or  blue.  The  sensation  of  yellow  light  is  produced 
by  the  combination  in  the  eye  of  the  red  and  green  light.  The 
violet  in  this  light  is  fairly  strong.  The  red  flame  arc  gives  a 
light  rich  in  red  and  spectrum  yellow  and  has  a  fair  amount  of 
blue.  The  so-called  blue  flame  carbons  are  designed  to  be  espe- 
cially rich  in  far  ultra-violet  beyond  3000  Angstrom  units. 
This  far  ultra-violet  is  practically  absent  in  sunlight  and  likewise 
in  the  white  flame  arcs  ordinarily  used  in  photographic  work. 
The  near  ultra-violet  light  is  very  important  photographically 
with  sunlight  and  skylight,  and  with  the  white  flame  arcs. 
The  ultra-violet  of  the  white  flame  is  largely  in  the  region  longer 
than  35CX)  Angstrom  and  it  efflciently  goes  through  ordinary 

An  important  improvement  has  been  the  use  in  photographic 
lamps  of  metal  coated  flame  carbons,  especially  on  the  holder 
end.  The  metal  coating  reduces  the  holder  drop  in  voltage  from 
about  half  a  volt  to  1/20  of  a  volt  so  that  a  holder  designed  for 
5  ampere  use  can,  with  metal  coated  carbons,  be  used  at  20  or 
30  amperes  with  long,  excellent  service. 

American  white  flame  carbons  throughout  the  United  States 
have  shown  10  to  15  per  cent  better  efficiency  of  light  and  longer 
life  on  the  average  than  the  foreign  carbons.  This  is  because 
of  superior  knowledge  and  skill  that  the  American  carbon  manu- 
facturers have  as  regards  the  making  of  these  flame  carbons. 
This  condition  of  superiority  has  been  maintained  for  several 

The  following  ten  points  repeat  a  few  of  the  advantages  of 
the  flame  lamps  for  photographic  artists ;  the  greatest  efficiency ; 
best  color  duplicating  daylight ;  instant  response  when  current  is 
turned  on ;  less  unsteadiness  from  fluctuating  line  voltage ;  wear- 
ing part  of  smallest  cost  per  unit;  most  rugged  to  all  kinds  of 
mechanical  and  electrical  abuse  and  to  adverse  weather  condi- 
tions ;  lowest  cost  of  installation  and  operation ;  can  be  used  for 
spot  lighting  or  with  screen  for  diffuse  lighting  or  with  reflector 
for  indirect  lighting;  largest  candlepower  per  single  unit  and 
maximum  portability  In  proportion  to  candlepower. 

In  considering  the  lighting  of  moving  picture  studios,  we  will 



consider  first  over-head  lighting  and  then  side  lighting.  In  re- 
gard to  overhead  Hghting  there  are  two  classes — diffuse  and  con- 
centrated. The  diffuse  lighting  is  often  obtained  in  the  glass 
studios  by  use  overhead  of  flame  arcs  which  occupy  only  a  small 
area  and  allow  considerable  of  daylight  to  enter  the  scene.  The 
concentrated  overhead  lighting  is  secured  by  mounting  in  a  re- 
flector a  score  of  flame  lamps  or  by  the  use  of  very  powerful 
spot  light  or  flame  searchlight. 

For  side  lighting  powerful  flame  lamps  on  stands  with  wheels 
are  universally  used.     A  well-known  illumination  expert  of  mov- 





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Fig.   51 


side  lighting   for  usual 

L  scene 

ing  pictures,  Mr.  Mayer  of  Wohl  &  Company,  states  that  the  best 
lighting  for  moving  picture  stage  is  ordinarily  given  by  using 
50%  more  side  lighting  than  top  Hghting,  and  that  the  so-called 
L  arrangement  (Fig.  51)  is  generally  more  effective  for  lighting 
than  the  box  arrangement.  The  side  lighting  should  have  con- 
trast to  give  the  proper  perspective.  The  angular  sweep  of  the 
camera  is  usually  such  that  the  distance  from  the  camera  divided 
by  two  gives  the  width  of  the  operating  field  (close-ups  of  4 
feet  cover  an  approximate  width  of  2  feet). 

The  diagram,  (Fig.  51),  illustrates  roughly,  the  L  arrangement. 
In  this  arrangement  there  are  shown  the  long  wall  of  the  scene 
to  the  short  wall  with  the  camera  opposite  the  short  wall  and  a 
number  of  side  lights.  The  overhead  lighting  is  not  shown. 
Small  reflectors  are  used  with  the  side  lamps  to  give  slant  light 
coming  back  toward  the  camera,  but  of  course  not  into  it.  This 
gives  a  good  reflection  on  surfaces  sidewise  to  the  light  because 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTO  G  R  A  P  H  Y 

the  light  is  reflected  so  obliquely  that  a  large  amount  is  carried 
to  the  camera  from  side  surfaces,  and  this  arrangement  gives 
the  much  desired  line  and  Rembrandt  effects,  or  as  better  known 
to  the  moving  picture  artist  as  molding  and  modeling  effects. 
The  viTorking  area  of  such  a  stage  is  therefore  bounded  by  the 
long  wall  and  short  wall  and  the  camera  line,  outside  of  which 
the  lights  must  be.  The  distance  outside  should  be  sufficient 
to  avoid  harsh  changes  due  to  inverse  square  law. 

The  use  of  real  scenery  in  place  of  painted  scenery  gives,  of 
course,  the  best  results.  Real  scenery  should  be  lighted  from 
the  side.  Painted  scenery  should  be  lighted  directly  from  the 
front  with  the  light  striking  nearly  perpendicular.  If  the  scene 
is  set  up  with  painted  scenery,  two  sets  of  lighting  should  be 
used,  one  for  the  foreground  and  the  other  for  the  painted 
scenery.  This  same  principle  applies  to  panorama  where  near 
objects  are  lighted  in  one  way  and  the  panorama  in  a  different 
way  to  give  suitable  blending  of  the  illusion. 

In  lighting  it  is  well  to  get  a  suitable  blending  of  the  direct 
light  and  of  the  diffuse  light.  Nature's  rule  is  half  and  half. 
The  diffuse  light  is  so  advantageous  in  cutting  out  the  harsh, 
sharp  black  shadows  and  giving  what  'us  known  technically  as 
luminous  shadow  effects.  Diffuse  light  can  be  secured  by  in- 
direct light  as  well  as  by  diffusing  screens.  The  intensity  of  the 
light  should  photographically  be  very  high  in  order  to  get  the 
camera  to  operate  satisfactorily  with  f  5.6.  The  flame  arc  can 
be  used  with  a  camera  lens  at  f  5.6  to  give  good  lighting  on  a 
small  stage  with  20  kw.  The  jump  from  f  5.6  to  f  4.5  or  even 
f  3.5  makes  a  big  difference  in  the  definition  and  clearness  of 
the  picture.  The  depth  of  focus  can  be  maintained  better,  of 
course,  with  f  5.6,  and  because  of  the  important  artistic  value 
of  the  background  and  the  large  distances  with  rapid  movements 
that  should  be  covered,  it  is  highly  desirable  to  work  with  a 
good  depth  of  focus.  With  the  flame  arc  the  high  concentration 
of  light  can  be  easily  controlled  as  well  as  the  direction  of  light. 
This  convenience  of  control  of  the  amount  and  direction  of  light 
are  necessarily  of  the  highest  importance  for  free  artistic  expres- 
sion on  the  part  of  the  directing  geniuses.  In  general,  the  moving 
picture  stages  will  use  with  flame  arcs  the  following  amount  of 
powers  having  the  lens  at  f  5.6. 



Small    stage 20  kw.     4  to     6  flame  lamps 

Medium  stage 50  kw.  10  to  16  flame  lamps 

Large  stage 100  kw.  20  to  32  flame  lamps 

Using  the  larger  openings  of  lens  f  3.5  as  low  as  20  kw.  with 
flame  arcs  can  be  used  to  secure  the  illumination  of  large  stages. 
As  the  amount  of  light  varies  with  the  reflecting  surfaces  and  is 
inversely  as  the  square  of  the  distance  from  the  light  sources  it 
is  not  easy  to  give  exact  information  without  going  into  too 
elaborate  detail.  Also  multiple  reflection  can  in  partly  closed 
spaces  greatly  increase  the  illumination. 

The  artistry  of  the  moving  picture  field  is  advancing  so  rapidly 
with  so  many  new  and  complex  changes  that  it  is  rather  hard 
to  keep  track  of  even  their  main  drift.  Among  the  recent  in- 
novations has  been  the  production  of  plays  with  the  background 
subdued  so  that  instead  of  the  usual  "close-up"  the  faces  of  the 
players  in  tense  scenes  are  accented  throughout  the  entire  pro- 
duction of  the  play,  as,  for  example,  in  the  play  "The  Golden 
Change."  In  this  case,  the  background  is  subdued  to  such  an 
extent  that  the  characters  in  the  foreground  appear  to  stand  out 
in  stereoscopic  relief. 

In  another  arrangement  an  intensely  lighted  background  is 
used  to  cause  the  players  to  stand  out  in  sharp  shadow-like  re- 
lief. In  still  other  cases  the  immense  control  of  intensity  of 
light  gives  a  power  of  securing  the  sudden  appearance  or  disap- 
pearance of  an  actor  in  trick  and  dramatic  pictures  and  to  aid 
greatly  in  securing  such  peculiar  effects  as  double  exposure  and 
other  photographic  tricks.  The  lighting  can  be  utilized  in  such 
a  way  that  the  artistic  forming  of  the  picture  is  accented  in  har- 
mony with  the  idea  involved.  Another  way  in  which  flame  arcs 
are  used  is  for  casting  shadows  in  trick  pictures  and  to  represent 
prison  scenes  in  the  more  artistic  manner  of  showing  the  shadows 
of  the  prison  bars  rather  than  the  actual  grim  stolid  fact. 

It  would  not  be  expedient  to  describe  in  elaborate  detail  the 
many  devices  for  rapidly  moving  the  lights  around  in  studios  or 
the  particular  mechanical  arrangement  for  carrying  the  lamps 
around  on  wheel  cabinets  or  on  trolleys  or  on  ropes,  etc.  The 
actual  installations  of  lighting  are  arranged  in  a  great  variety 
of  ways.     In  some  cases  the  overhead  lighting  is  set  up  with  the 



idea  of  permanently  supplying  the  particular  set.  In  other  cases 
the  overhead  lighting  is  arranged  so  as  to  be  easily  moved  by  a 
trolley  system  from  set  to  set.  In  the  latter  case  the  small 
weight  of  the  flame  lamps  in  proportion  to  their  candlepower 
greatly  reduces  the  cost  of  moving  system  and  also  affords  a  better 
utilization  of  admitting  overhead  daylight  if  this  is  desired. 

For  side  lighting  the  flame  lamps  are  mounted  on  wheel  stands 
either  separately  or  in  powerful  unit  groups  of  6  and  12.     Such 


)teroar7  V*por 

Vohl  Idoap 

es  *  40  Vatt  Hftste 

Slagraa  of  th«  zlag  shoving  tho  ftpprozinatd  looatlon  of  th« 
Ile}itln«  valts. 

do  largo  olrolo  la  tbo  oentor  roproeonts  •  notal  CAO  oartr* 
tag  300    26  ft  40  watt  UasOa  laiq^a. 

Fig.   52 

Overhead  lighting  at   Madison   Square  Garden  for  eight  cameras 

lamps  are  arranged  to  be  easily  moved.  It  is  interesting  to  note 
that  the  resistance  of  the  flame  lamp  can  be  mounted  in  a  sep- 
arate room  so  as  to  further  reduce  the  heating  which  is  remark- 
ably small  with  the  flame  lamp.  In  some  studios  a  dozen  Aristo 
lamps  are  mounted  in  a  portable  cabinet  formed  in  sets  of  three 
rows  of  four  each  with  the  top  row  forward  and  the  bottom  row 
back  away  from»  the  stage.  The  whole  can  be  easily  moved 
around  the  studio  because  mounted  on  wheels. 

We  give  a  diagram  (Fi^.  52)  of  the  overhead  arrangement  of 
flame  arcs  and  mercury  arcs  used  for  lighting  a  boxing  match 
at  Madison  Square  Garden.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  eight 
moving  picture  cameras  were  used  simultaneously  and  the  entire 
room  was  so  well  lighted  that  brilliant  illumination  was  obtained 
in  every  part  of  the  large  hall. 



The  use  of  flame  arcs  is  carried  out  on  an  extensive  scale  in 
the  Vitagraph  moving  picture  studio  located  in  Brooklyn,  New 
York.  Mr.  Ross,  master  mechanic  of  that  studio  was  kind 
enough  to  furnish  data  showing  that  the  average  number  of  flame 
lamps  (20  amperes  each  lamp)  used  per  set  is  twenty,'  In  the 
Brooklyn  studio  alone,  there  are  225  flame  arc  lamps,  hanging 
overhead,  or  in  sets,  in  stands,  or  mounted  so  as  to  be  easily 
moved  about  in  small  carriages  in  order  to  eliminate  shadows. 

P/Amm  Ares. 

flAHtm  Arc* 

Fig.   53 
Interior   room    with   side    and   top    diffuse   lighting    with    Flame   Arcs. 

Figures  53,  54,  5^;,  illustrate  how  some  interior  studios  use 
multiple  reflection  to  greatly  increase  efficiency  and  give  diffused 

Mr.  Cecil  B.  DeMille,  director  of  the  Jesse  L.  Lasky  Feature 
Play  Company,  wrote  an  article  under  the  title  "Lighting  to  a 
Photoplay  is  Like  Music  to  Drama."  He  concludes  that  lighting 
effects  as  applied  to  motion  pictures  assume  precisely  the  same 
value  in  the  photo  drama  that  music  assumes  in  the  spoken  drama. 
He  says  "the  theme  of  a  picture  should  be  carried  in  its  photog- 
raphy."   "The  Cheat,"  representing  unprincipled  sinister  Jap- 




anese  characters,  used  abrupt  bold  light  effects  to  definitely  sug- 
gest the  "clang"  and  smash  of  Japanese  music. 

In  "Carmen,"  however,  the  Rembrandt  idea  was  followed. 
The  lighting  and  grouping  of  the  characters  in  the  soft  shadows 
were  all  worked  out  in  keeping  with  the  school  of  that  famous 

"Light  effects  are  out  of  place  in  comedy ;  there  you  will  notice- 

Fig.    54 
Interior  room  with  entirely  indirect  light  with  Flame  Arcs. 

our  lighting  is  clear  and  brilliant  corresponding  to  the  faster 
light  comedy  and  music,  except  in  the  melodramatic  scenes  where 
we  carry  our  audience  into  thrills,  not  only  by  the  action  of 
the  artist,  but  by  a  change  in  the  mode  of  our  photography." 

Many  new  flame  lamps  have  been  invented  and  developed  in  the 
last  year  or  two,  and  now  varieties  of  flame  carbons  for  special 
effects  are  available  for  a  multitude  of  simple  or  complex  artistic 
effects.  However,  only  a  small  beginning  has  been  made  as  to 
the  artistic  effects  counting  merely  the  minor  factors  of  control 
such  as  direction  of  light,  its  diffusion,  change  of  intensity  and 
the  power  by  proper  color  and  environment  to  greatly  aid  the 
moving  picture  actor-artist. 



There  is  the  subject  of  "catch-lights"  in  the  eyes  of  the  play- 
ers that  represent  the  reflection  of  the  light  sources.  If  the  light 
sources  are  rectangular  in  shape,  then  the  catch-lights  will  be 
rectangular  or  triangular  and  with  sharp  curve  points.  The  bad 
effect  of  not  using  round  or  oval  light  sources  is  easily  ap- 
preciated. It  is  well  recognized  that  curved  lines  convex  to  each 
other  tend  to  give  a  sorrowful,  depressed  look.     Curved  lines 

Rov/of  Wh'ite 

Fig.   55 
Interior   room   for  high    efficiency   lighting   by   multiple    reflection. 

concave  to  each  other,  tend  to  give  a  pleasant,  agreeable,  smiling 
look.  By  attention  to  the  shape  of  the  diffusing  screen  for  the 
light  sources,  it  would  seem  possible  to  vary  this  element  so  as 
to  be  in  harmony  with  the  ideals  of  the  play.  All  the  recent 
moving  picture  photo-plays  of  the  best  companies  show  the  power 
of  white  flame  arc  lighting  to  give  fine  definition,  splendid  half- 
tones, luminous  shadows  and  favorably  shaped  "catch"  lights. 

In  some  studios  the  light  of  the  flame  arc  is  thrown  upon  the 
ceiling  or  a  reflecting  screen,  and  in  this  way  some  very  beautiful 
pictures  have  been  photographed.  The  possibilities  of  indirect 
lighting  with  the  flame  arc  have  been  touched  upon.  By  suit- 
able lamp  design,  it  seems  practical  not  only  to  get  more  diffuse 



light  but  also  greater  candlepower  delivered  to  the  working  plane. 
Again  in  the  matter  of  regulation,  the  shunt  control  is  one  of 
the  important  future  developments  that  will  enable  the  artists 
to  secure  a  wide  variety  of  new  effects. 

On  alternating  current  eificiency  can  be  greatly  increased  with 
the  flame  arc  by  re-actancy  control. 

In  the  matter  of  studio  lighting,  interior  rooms  lighted  entirely 
by  artificial  light  have  splendid  advantages,  because  the  lighting 
can  then  be  entirely  controlled  by  the  artist,  and  the  extremely 
hot  atmosphere  of  sunlight  glass  studio  is  done  away  with  and  a 
cool,  comfortable  studio  can  be  maintained  throughout  the  year. 
The  director  can  then  obtain  all  diffuse  light,  all  direct  light,  or 
any  proportion  and  direction  of  diffused  and  direct  light  under 
perfect  control,  and  old  King  Sol  with  his  changing  position,  will 
be  entirely  unnecessary  for  all  interior  scenes. 


Chapter  XV 


THE  making  of  so-called  educational  pictures  has  developed 
until  it  now  calls  for  a  high  degree  of  specialization.     In- 
dustrial pictures  are  of  the  same  type  in  the  majority  of 
instances,  and  may  be  classed  under  the  same  heading  as  the 
higher  grade  of  scenic  pictures. 

It  is  no  longer  possible  for  a  cameraman  to  take  his  camera 
out  in  an  automobile  and,  after  riding  around  for  a  day,  return 
with  a  heterogenous  collection  of  scenes  and  dispose  of  it  as 
"Picturesque  Podunk,"  length  989  feet. 

If  he  is  not  familiar  with  the  region  he  is  about  to  record,  he 
goes  to  the  nearest  library  or  book  store  and  peruses  with  care 
and  diligence  all  possible  literature  describing  the  locality.  He 
writes  the  history  and  location  of  landmarks  and  points  of  in- 
terest in  his  note-book.  He  records  incidents  of  the  customs  and 
habits  of  the  natives,  with  a  view  of  finding  characteristic  bits 
to  enliven  the  skeleton  scenario  which  he  will  make  before  he 
starts  to  turn  the  crank  on  his  picture.  When  he  has  done  this, 
he  engages  a  car  and  a  chauffeur  well  acquainted  with  the  locality, 
or  pack  mule,  or  whatever  conveyance  the  case  may  demand,  and 
a  guide. 

He  then  starts  out  w^ith  his  outfit  to  find  the  things  which  he 
has  noted  in  the  synopsis.  His  eyes  are  open  for  anything  that 
will  add  interest  to  the  picture.  Many  things  will  greet  his  eye 
that  he  had  not  foreseen.  But  the  chances  are,  if  his  scenario  is 
what  it  should  be,  whatever  he  discovers  will  help  round  out  and 
add  interest  or  local  color  to  what  he  has  already  planned. 
Oftentimes  he  discovers  something  that  will  give  him  material 
for  another  picture  aside  from  the  one  he  has  planned. 

I  remember,  making  a  picture  of  an  historic  Mexican  city  years 
ago.  It  nestles  in  a  beautiful  valley  between  high  mountains  of 
impressive  grandeur,  and  my  first  thought  was  only  of  the  beau- 
tiful scenic  picture  that  I  could  make  in  the  quaint  old  city,  with 
its  historic  buildings  and  rugged  mountain  scenery.  It  was  a 
perfect  mine  of  interest. 



When  I  had  finished  I  had  material  for  the  following  pictures, 
varying  in  length  from  400  to  1,000  feet :  "Picturesque  Monterey," 
''Hemp  Industry,"  "Rope  Making,"  "Thermal  Baths  of  Topo 
Chico,"  "Where  Nature  Makes  Soda  Waters,"  "Iron  Industry 
in  Mexico,"  "Zinc  Mining  and  Refining,"  "Primitive  Laundries," 
"Beer  Brewing,"  "Mexican  Cookery,"  "Bull  Fighting  in  Mexico," 
"Pulque  and  Mescal — The  Mexican  National  Drinks,"  "Beasts  of 
Burden  in  Old  Mexico,"  and  some  others  which  I  do  not  recall. 

On  the  first  trip  many  of  the  scenes  mapped  out  can  be  found 
and  taken.  Others  will  either  be  impractical,  or  lacking  in  in- 
terest, or  be  in  such  relation  to  the  light  as  to  require  taking  at 
a  diflferent  time  of  day. 

A  compass  and  timepiece  are  indispensable,  although  in  the 
absence  of  a  compass  the  watch  may  serve  for  both.  Point  the 
hour  hand  of  the  watch  in  the  direction  of  the  sun  and  half  way 
between  the  hour  hand  and  the  numeral  twelve  will  be  south. 
Knowing  this  and  reversing  the  process  will  show  you  at  just 
what  hour  the  sun  will  be  at  the  most  advantageous  position  for 
taking  your  picture. 

Make  a  note  of  each  subject  which  you  intend  to  take  at  a 
particular  time  and  arrange  the  schedule  with  your  guide  so  as 
to  return  and  cover  the  missing  scenes  with  the  greatest  effi- 

Learn  to  use  just  enough  film  to  show  your  subject  plainly 
and  well,  but  stop  before  the  interest  can  lag.  A  naturalist 
friend  of  mine  took  a  camera  on  one  of  his  expeditions..  On  the 
first  trip  he  took  a  whole  roll  and  sometimes  two  or  three  rolls 
of  film  on  each  subject,  unless  it  flew  away  while  he  was  reload- 
ing. Of  the  details  of  camp  life,  of  the  ex-president  who  was 
a  member  of  the  expedition  for  a  portion  of  the  time,  of  the 
methods  of  preserving  specimens  and  a  thousand  other  interesting 
details  he  took  not  one  inch.  They  were  every-day  matters  to 
him,  and  it  never  occurred  to  him  that  the  people  who  would  view 
the  picture  would  be  interested  in  anything  other  but  what  in- 
terested him. 

Try  to  look  at  things  with  the  eye  of  a  curious  stranger. 
Don't  let  the  little  interesting  things  that  may  be  familiar  to 
you  get  by.  Often  they  are  the  spice  which  seasons  the  picture. 
A  cute  kid  with  a  dirty  face  engaged  in  some  childish  occupation, 
or  a  baby  animal  of  almost  any  kind,  are  more  apt  to  touch  the 



emotions  of  an  audience  than  a  beautiful  landscape.  The  in- 
nocent flirtation  of  a  buxom  peasant  girl,  or  the  foolish  amorous 
smile  of  a  hulking  farmer  boy,  even  a  close-up  of  a  beautiful 
wayside  flower  adorned  with  a  honey  bee,  or  brilliant  butterfly 
will  bring  your  spectators  into  more  human  relationship  with 
a  scenic  picture. 

There  are  millions  of  people  in  this  broad  land  of  ours  who 
have  never  had  the  opportunity  to  travel.  An  old  style  scenic 
with  panoramas  of  ancient  ruins  or  old  castles  brings  to  them 
no  more  sense  of  reality  than  engravings  of  a  fairy  story  in  a 
book.  Show  among  these  ruins  or  castles,  things  which  are 
kindred  to  the  emotions  which  they  experience  and  you  establish 
a  sympathetic  bond  which  gives  them  a  sensation  of  reality  and 
relationship  to  the  images  on  the  screen. 

While  dwelling  on  the  intimate  touches  that  go  to  make  in- 
terest in  a  picture  we  must  not  lose  sight  of  another  factor. 
That  is  the  sense  of  the  beautiful.  "Artistic  composition"  sounds 
highbrow,  but  the  lowliest  of  us  have  some  innate  sense  of  the 
artistic.  The  soddenest  wretch  who  ever  passed  a  nickel  into  a 
picture  house  ticket-window  may  be  capable  of  catching  his 
breath  at  the  glory  of  a  mountain  sunset  thrown  on  the  screen 
though  his  intellect  would  prevent  his  putting  into  words  the 
emotion  that  the  picture  caused. 

The  cameraman  who  makes  interesting  educational  pictures  is 
more  than  a  photographer.  He  is  an  artist,  an  author,  a  director 
and  a  scholar. 

As  an  artist  he  strives  to  make  his  pictures  pleasing  to  the 
eye.  He  is  not  content  with  his  natural  gifts  in  that  direction  if 
he  is  ambitious.  He  studies  books  on  art  and  composition  when 
he  has  the  opportunity  (and  in  this  day  of  free  libraries  and  cheap 
printing  there  are  none  who  have  not  the  opportunity.) 

As  a  scholar  and  author  he  studies  the  subjects  which  he  makes, 
and  complies  a  coherent  and  consecutive  story  before  he  starts 
his  picture.  In  his  brain  must  dwell  a  clear  conception  before  he 
can  crystallize  it  for  others. 

As  a  director  he  has  charge  of  his  subject  matter,  and,  whether 
his  actors  be  moths  or  machines,  cascades  or  cocoons,  he  is  as 
surely  the  director  as  the  man  who  moves  the  living  pawns  and 
knights  on  the  chess-board  of  melodrama. 

As  a  photographer  and  cameraman  he  is  master  of  the  camera's 



technique.  Beside  all  the  accouterments  and  paraphernalia  of  the 
studio  cameraman  he  calls  to  his  aid  other  devices,  such  as  the 
microscope  and  the  ultra-speed  camera.  He  should  have  a  large 
assortment  of  lenses  of  different  focal  lengths.  He  pictures 
phenomena  so  that  he  who  runs  may  see  and  understand.  The 
bullet's  swift  flight  and  a  tree's  slow  growth;  the  mountain's 
magnitude  and  the  microbe's  minuteness  slow  down  or  speed  up, 
contract  or  enlarge  at  his  word  of  command. 

With  ray  screens  and  panchromatic  film  he  can  accentuate  or 
suppress  or  record  with  proper  tone  values  the  different  colors 
as  they  appear  to  the  eye. 

The  European  war  has  aroused  the  American  public  to  a 
greater  interest  than  ever  before  in  the  slogan  "See  America 
First."  Motion  pictures,  following  public  interest  in  the  past, 
have  shown  the  scenic  wonders  of  the  old  world,  the  equatorial 
depths  of  darkest  Africa  and  the  fronded  palms  of  southern  seas 
almost  to  the  exclusion  of  the  many  wonders  encompassed  by  our 
own  boundaries.  True,  we  have  seen  a  few  excellent  pictures,  of 
our  best  known  scenic  wonders  such  as  Yellowstone  Park,  Yose- 
mite  Valley,  Niagara  Falls,  Grand  Canyon  and  Glacier  National 
Park,  but  even  their  possibilities  have  been  but  touched. 

How  many  of  the  thousands  of  visitors,  to  Yellowstone  Park 
have  ever  seen  its  indescribable  beauties  when  wrapped  in  the 
mantle  of  hoary  winter?  The  gorgeous  spectacles  of  its  boiling 
geysers  driving  back  the  ever  encroaching  ermine  cloak  of  drift- 
ing snow ;  its  trees  bedecked  with*  prismatic  ice  jewels  from  the 
condensing  vapors ;  its  sledges  and  teams  of  husky  dogs  and  snow- 
shoed  drivers  ?    Have  these  been  caught  on  the  fleeting  film  ? 

Where  are  the  pictures  of  Alaska,  that  vast  treasure  house 
of  which  we  know  so  little?  Where  is  the  cinematographer  to 
record  the  customs  and  life  of  the  Southwestern  or  Pueblo 
Indian  as  Curtis  has  done  with  the  still  camera?  Where  are 
the  pictures  of  the  romance  of  the  new  West  where  the  cowboy 
has  shucked  his  six-shooter,  wears  blue  jean  overalls  instead  of 
chaps,  and  irrigates  his  ranch  and  raises  blooded  cattle  instead  of 
Texas  long  horns  ? 

Show  us  the  pictures  of  the  gigantic  irrigation  projects  where 
the  civil  engineer  has  built  mighty  dams  and  created  miracle  gar- 
dens in  the  desert.  Show  us  the  life 'of  the  mining  camps  where 
machinery  and  resistless  hydraulic  streams  wrest  treasures  fi'om 



mother  earth.  Take  us  through  the  PhiHppines,  let  us  see  what 
a  paternal  government  has  done  for  the  natives.  Let  us  see 
the  hospitals  and  schools,  the  railroads  and  highways  our  Govern- 
ment has  built.  What  do  we  know  of  the  Tagalogs,  the  Moros, 
the  Bon  Toes,  the  Igorrotes  and  the  other  tribes?  Are  Luzon, 
Cebu,  Mindoro,  Negros,  Samar,  Mindanao  brands  of  cigars  or 
names  of  some  of  our  island  possessions?  Show  us  the  Maine 
Woods,  the  Michigan  Forests,  the  commerce  of  the  Great  Lakes, 
the  pulse  of  our  inland  waterways,  the  awakening  of  the  new 
south,  the  Florida  Everglades,  the  cities  of  the  great  Northwest, 
the  Peoria  distilleries  and  the  Texas  missions. 

Surely  the  man  with  his  hand  on  the  camera  crank  who  can 
select  from  a  myriad  of  subjects  the  high  lights  and  shadows  of 
human  interest  and  arrange  them  in  logical  sequence  will  be  well 
repaid  for  his  work  and  trouble.  It  is  difficult  to  conceive  of 
more  interesting  work  than  this;  to  take  the  things  of  interest 
in  some  particular  place  or  on  some  particular  subject  and  com- 
pose a  graphic  essay  that  will  hold,  if  not  a  worldwide,  a  nation- 
wide audience's  attention. 

Don't  forget,  if  you  take  such  pictures,  that  the  little  intimate 
touches  of  humanity  and  the  close-up  details  of  little  things  here 
and  there  are  the  master  strokes  that  limn  the  greater  subjects 
into  high  relief.  Concretely,  if  you  are  photographing  the  awful 
chasm  of  the  Grand  Canyon,  don't  overlook  the  quizzical  expres- 
sion on  the  countenance  of  the  quaint  gray  burro  who  patiently 
packs  your  apparatus,  nor  the  horny  toad  that  scurries  away 
from  beneath  your  feet,  nor  the  round-faced  papoose  hanging 
contentedly  to  a  limb  while  mamma  squaw  spins  the  wool  for  a 
zigzag  patterned  Navajo  blanket ;  nor  mamma  squaw  either. 
They  all  fit  into  the  picture  and  make  for  what  the  artist  calls 
"atmosphere"  and  "local  color." 

There  are  many  avenues  to  money-making  open  for  the 
amateur  owner  of  a  camera.  It  sometimes  happens  that  the 
amateur  beats  the  professional  out  on  news  events — generally  be- 
cause he  happens  to  be  on  the  ground  first,  but  even  when  the 
odds  are  equal,  the  zest  of  the  chase  or  happy  circumstance  has 
often  favored  the  amateur  with  better  records  than  the  salaried 
professional.  You  may  live  where  things  of  national  interest 
do  not  often  occur  but  that  does  not  prevent  your  making  ar- 
rangements with  your  local  theaters  to  supply  them  with  pic- 
tures depicting  events  of  local  interest. 



As  I  have  said  before  Percy  Haughton,  the  Harvard  Football 
coach,  is  making  use  of  the  motion  pictures  to  find  out  what  his 
teams  are  really  doing.  The  motion  camera  is  now  a  part  of  the 
athletic  equipment  at  Cambridge,  and  it  is  expected  that  many 
hitherto  inexplicable  weaknesses  may  be  found  and  corrected  by 
a  study  of  the  film.  The  presence  of  the  camera  acts  also  as  a 
stimulus  to  the  men  on  the  field,  they  feel  that  they  are  on  dress 
parade ;  it  may  be  possible  to  avoid  the  eye  of  the  coach,  but  the 
lens  is  relentlessly  sure. 

Mr.  Haughton  took  still  photographs  of  plays  that  seemed 
perfect  but  which  failed  in  execution.  The  difficulty  that  con- 
fronted him  was  human.  Although  the  camera  was  fast  enough 
no  photographer  could  possibly  tell  the  exact  second  at  which  to 
press  the  bulb.  Had  he  known  the  second,  it  was  impossible  to 
co-ordinate  eye  and  hand.  The  motion  picture  camera  offered 
the  solution.  With  a  film  the  whole  play  might  be  taken  and  then 
the  defect  discovered  by  a  study  of  the  various  pictures. 

It  was  found  that  certain  men  shifted  their  poise  just  as  the 
ball  was  being  snapped,  and  thus  lost  their  chance  to  start ;  that 
others  relaxed  their  tension  for  just  the  fraction  of  a  second 
before  the  play  was  on  and  thus  were  late.  Individual  peculiari- 
ties of  the  hands — a  thousand  and  one  little  things  that  even  the 
keenest  eye  could  not  find  appeared  on  the  screen  when  the  nega- 
tives were  studied  one  by  one. 

All  our  theories  of  activities  are  likely  to  be  revamped  as  a 
result  of  the  film  studies.  The  eye  cannot  be  trusted  to  tell 
what  it  sees,  for  it  is  easily  confused  by  rapid  motion.  The  lead- 
ing trainers  all  believe  that  considerable  progress  in  every  branch 
of  athletic  activity  will  come  about  as  a  result  of  the  opportunity 
to  make  a  laboratory  study  of  the  human  body  in  motion. 

When  it  is  realized  that  one-tenth  of  a  second  means  about 
one  yard  in  a  hundred-yard  dash,  the  importance  of  little  things 
will  be  realized.  The  single  faulty  motion  of  the  hurdler  taking 
the  bars  makes  all  the  difference  between  the  fast  man  and  the 
slow  one.  There  have  been  men  that  could  not  really  run  fast 
in  a  flat  race  who  were  very  speedy  over  the  hurdles  simply  be- 
cause they  wasted  no  motion  or  effort  in  leaping  across  the 

It  is  in  track  sports  that  the  greatest  good  is  expected  from 
the  film — track  performances  are  a  matter  of  little  things  done 


Making  a  Micro-cinematograph  of  Bacteria  to  illustrate  a  Biological 
subject   at  the   N.    Y.    Institute   of    Photography. 


perfectly.  The  day  of  great  changes  has  passed;  in  the  last 
fifteen  years  the  style  of  athletes  has  been  about  universal.  There 
seems  little  likelihood  of  revolutionary  changes,  such  as  the 
"crouching"  start  in  the  sprints  or  the  substitution  of  the  stride 
for  the  jump  over  the  hurdles  or  the  approach  in  the  high  jump. 
In  many  events  the  limit  of  human  endeavor  is  near  at  hand,  and 
the  lowering  of  records  will  depend  upon  the  conservation  of 
effort  toward  the  end  desired.  Nearly  every  big  event  is  now 
taken  with  the  motion  camera  and  is  eagerly  studied  by  coach 
and  athlete  to  learn  if  the  winner  had  any  new  or  improved  way. 

Authorities  on  the  subject  claim  that  baseball  has  been  placed 
on  a  highly  scientific  basis  by  exhaustive  investigations  conducted 
on  the  same  principles  as  the  most  efficient  methods.  It  now 
seems  probable  that  there  are  still  greater  possibilities  for  im- 
provement under  the  keen  eye  of  the  camera. 

Most  of  the  education  film  companies  have  their  own  camera- 
men who  attempt  to  cover  as  far  as  possible  the  more  important 
educational  features  of  this  country.  These  traveling  cameramen 
include  in  their  itineraries  the  most  interesting  views  of  prin- 
cipal cities  and  the  most  beautiful  views  of  natural  scenery.  It 
is  impossible  for  the  regular  cameramen  to  obtain  many  important 
subjects  so  any  motion  picture  camera  operator  will  find  a  ready 
market  for  high  class  films. 

For  example,  one  of  the  largest  and  best-known  educational 
film  companies  recently  started  a  cameraman  on  a  trip  across  the 
continent  with  instructions  to  take  certain  views  in  New  York 
City  before  proceeding.  He  was  told  to  obtain  a  view  of  the 
Statue  of  Liberty  in  New  York  Harbor  v/ith  the  sun  setting 
behind  the  statue.  Were  it  not  for  this  particular  fact  the 
cameraman  might  have  started  on  his  way  westward  sooner  but, 
owing  to  inclement  weather  and  to  the  hazy  atmosphere  prevalent 
in  the  harbor,  he  had  to  wait  nearly  two  weeks  for  the  required 

How  much  better  it  would  have  been  for  the  company  to  have 
sent  their  cameraman  on  and  to  have  advised  some  local  photog- 
rapher just  what  was  required.  The  local  man  could  have  been 
on  hand  daily  at  little  expense. 

There  are  in  every  fair  sized  city,  some  points  of  interest  that 
make  good  educational  subjects. 

A  man  living  in  the  small  town  of  Burlington,  New  Jersey,  was 



quite  surprised  to  learn  that  an  educational  film  company  had 
sent  a  cameraman  to  that  town  to  obtain  some  views  of  shad- 
fishing  in  the  Delaware  River.  Shad-fishing  in  this  particular 
spot  had  been  going  on  for  years  and  years  but  the  local  man 
had  not  appreciated  the  fact  that  this  familiar  industry  would 
make  a  worth-while  picture. 

There  is  the  same  market  for  first-class  educational  pictures 
as  there  is  for  "Newsfilm."  Educational  work  is  best  for  the 
local  photographer  because  there  is  no  hurry,  no  mad  rush  be- 
cause of  the  news-value  of  the  picture.  Often  "Newsfilm" 
cameramen  become  excited  and  neglect  to  make  some  final  ad- 
justment of  the  camera  which  results  in  a  spoiled  picture.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  man  photographing  educational  pictures  may 
take  his  time  and  get  the  best  results  obtainable. 

Industries  of  special  nature,  such  as-  the  automobile  industry, 
make  good  subjects.  Beautiful  scenery  which  you  may  see  every 
day  but  which  people  may  come  miles  to  view,  is  well  worth 
photographing.  In  fact  any  subject  that  is  of  general  interest 
makes  good  material  for  educational  pictures. 

Of  course,  the  more  technical  part  of  educational  work,  such 
as  the  microscopic  studies  of  plants  and  small  organisms  cannot 
be  attempted  by  everyone  but  some  little  feature  might  occur 
that  would  make  interesting  material  for  a  picture  that  others 
would  enjoy  seeing. 

A  former  professor  of  physics  has  taken  up  moving  picture 
work  lately.  He  found  that  photographs  of  some  of  his  experi- 
ments in  chemistry  and  physics  were  interesting  and  found  a 
ready  market.  Now  he  is  engaged  in  making  a  picture  of  the 
life  and  habits  of  the  ordinary  frog.  You  see  there's  always  a 
field  for  those  who  are  alive  to  the  opportunity. 

When  the  motion  picture  photographer  goes  from  the  tem- 
perate zone  to  the  tropics  he  will  find  himself  confronted  by  new 
problems,  which  result  from  the  unhealthy  climate,  the  uncertain 
light  values,  and  the  intense  heat. 

A  cinematographer  made  a  trip  to  the  Canal  Zone  during  the 
rainy  season.  When  he  removed  the  film  from  the  packing  cans 
it  was  soft  and  an  hour  after  placing  it  in  the  box  of  the  camera 
it  was  as  wet  as  could  be.  The  following  morning  it  was  com- 
pletely covered  with  mildew.  Moisture  not  only  deteriorates  the 
speed  of  film  but,  if  the  film  is  not  developed  immediately,  de- 
stroys the  latent  image. 



How  may  this  be  avoided?  One  cinematographer,  working  in 
the  heart  of  Africa  deemed  it  advisable  to  carry  the  film  stock  in 
a  cooling  case  similar  to  a  vacuum  flask.  He  guarded  against  the 
exterior  becoming  hot  by  covering  it  with  cool  banana  leaves. 
The  film  chest  was  made  like  a  metal  refrigerator  of  double  walls 
of  sheet  zinc  with  layers  of  heat-insulating  felt  packed  between 
the  walls. 

You  who  will  travel  in  warm  climates  take  my  advice.  Do  not 
burden  yourself  with  more  film  than  you  actually  need  as  it  de- 
teriorates rapidly.  If  you  can  arrange  to  have  small  consign- 
ments despatched  as  required  so  much  the  better. 

Before  setting  out,  store  the  film  in  air-tight  cans  and  place 
adhesive  plaster  around  the  edges  of  the  lids.  Once  at  your  des- 
tination, select  a  dry  and  cool  place  for  the  film  boxes.  They  will 
keep  in  good  condition  if  placed  in  an  ash-can  or  other  air-tight 
receptacle  in  which  a  dish  of  fused  calcium  chloride  has  been 
placed.  Calcium  chloride  has  a  strong  affinity  for  moisture  and 
takes  it  up  rapidly.  It  absorbs  it  so  rapidly  that  it  will  soon 
dissolve  in  the  moisture  it  takes  up,  making  a  corrosive  liquid 
disastrous  to  metal.  Therefore,  it  should  be  surrounded  by  some 
absorbent  material  to  prevent  its  spreading. 

Re-load  the  camera  only  just  before  you  plan  to  "shoot." 

If  you  do  not  protect  the  camera  from  the  direct  sun  as  much 
as  possible,  you  may  experience  considerable  difficulty  in  turning 
the  crank.  The  sun  is  apt  to  heat  the  brass  and  make  it  too  hot 
to  be  operated  with  the  bare  hands. 

Develop  the  film  at  the  soonest  possible  moment. 

A  cameraman  working  in  the  Sudan  discovered  that  sunrise  is 
the  ideal  time  for  developing  in  the  tropics.  Then  the  air  is  not 
too  warm  and  the  water,  kept  in  canvas  buckets  since  the  heat 
of  the  previous  day,  is  cool. 

This  operator  used  an  oblong  straw  hut,  17  feet  by  1 1  feet,  as 
a  dark  room.  The  inner  lining  to  keep  out  the  light  was  a  red 
and  black  Turkey  cloth,  slightly  smaller  in  size.  No  ventilation 
was  provided.  There  were  openings  both  at  the  top  and  the 
end  to  accommodate  the  wooden  frames.  In  the  openings  were 
placed  ruby  glass,  ground-glass,  and  thin  wire  netting.  He  made 
his  own  developing  frame  of  native  timber,  shaped  it  like  a  3-foot 
6-inch  drum  and  painted  it  with  paraffin.  He  made  two  troughs, 
one  for  the  developer  and  the  other  for  hypo,  of  wood  joining  the 



sections  together  with  pitch.  He  allowed  for  a  space  of  an  inch 
between  the  film  and  the  trough  interior.  Each  trough  had  two 
wings,  so  that  the  developer  and  hypo  would  be  caught  on  falling 
from  the  film  and  be  conveyed  back  into  the  trough-well.  To 
hold  the  axle  carrying  the  drum  he  equipped  both  of  the  troughs 
with  slotted  side  arms. 

The  developing  materials  used  were  Burroughs,  Wellcome  & 
Co.  "tabloid"  pyro  soda  and  a  little  bromide  of  potassium.  He 
used  eight  cartons  to  develop  two  hundred  feet  of  film,  and  dis- 
solved them  in  a  bucket  half  filled  with  water. 

Often  water  is  difficult  to  get  and  of  poor  quality.  I  have 
used  river  water  that  looked  like  coffee  by  stirring  an  ounce  of 
alum  in  a  barrel  of  it  and  allowing  it  to  settle  over  night.  I 
used  the  clear  water  at  the  top  by  decanting  it  off  with  a  short 
length  of  hose.  Many  times  the  residual  sludge  in  the  bottom 
was  four  inches  deep.  At  a  pinch,  sea  water  may  be  used  for 
washing  if  a  final  rinse  of  about  five  minutes  be  given  in  fresh 

For  the  worker  on  a  small  scale,  pin  racks  and  trays  that  nest 
compactly  are  probably  best  on  account  of  ease  of  transportation. 

One  man  showed  me  a  neat  outfit  he  had  made.  It  consisted 
of  skeleton  drums  which  could  be  dissembled  for  packing,  with 
nesting  nickel-lined  metal  troughs.  The  entire  outfit  of  a  dozen 
loo-foot  drums,  three  troughs  and  a  lot  of  black  felt,  used  for 
extemporizing  dark  rooms  from  hotel  rooms  and  native  huts, 
packed  into  a  fair-sized  trunk! 

He  dried  his  films  on  the  same  drum  on  which  they  were  de- 
veloped, a  thing  which  is  difficult  to  do  satisfactorily  on  pin 


Chapter  XVI 

IT  is  now  several  years  since  Winsor  McKay,  the  famous  car- 
toonist and  creator  of  innumerable  and  popular  comic  char- 
acters, took  the  trouble  to  make  sixteen  thousand  drawings, 
proving  that  with  the  system  of  reproduction  used  in  cinematog- 
raphy to  create  the  action  in  the  images  he  could,  for  the  first 
time  in  history,  produce  on  the  screen  the  miracle  of  an  animated 

Animated  drawings  became  immediately  popular  in  Europe 
although  not  on  the  same  scale  or  with  the  same  effect  as  in  this 
country.  Profiting  by  the  example  set  by  McKay,  others  applied 
themselves  to  the  same  work  and  soon  produced  films  with  ani- 
mated drawings,  cartoons,  caricatures  and  other  products  of 
the  pen  and  brush  which  became  so  popular  with  people  that 
they  have  come  to  form  an  indispensable  part  of  cinema  ex- 

Without  a  doubt,  sixteen  thousand  drawings  is  a  great  number 
and  not  every  one  has  the  patience  of  McKay  nor  the  skill  and 
time  to  devote  months  and  months  to  the  production  of  one 
picture.  As  a  result  of  this,  the  art  has  degenerated  a  bit,  with- 
out losing  any  of  its  attraction,  and  still  the  inimitable  creations 
of  McKay  and  of  Bray,  who  followed  faithfully  in  his  footsteps, 
have  few  imitators  in  point  of  technique,  although  animated 
cartoons  continue  to  excite  delight  and  applause. 

The  average  person  has  little  conception  of  the  mechanics  of 
animated  cartooning.  One  need  not  wonder  at  this  for  many 
young  artists  are  likewise  ignorant.  Those  artists  who  are  doing 
this  work  have  perfected  schemes  of  their  own,  after  weeks  and 
months  of  practice  and  experimenting.  The  successful  ones 
jealously  guard  their  system.     The  reasons  are  obvious. 

As  a  rule,  trick  photography  is  combined  with  an  intricate  study 
of  motion  and  its  portrayal.  Some  artists  rely  almost  entirely 
upon  successive  drawings  and  others  upon  cut-out  figures — an 
elaborate  and  delicate  process.     Occasionally  one  will  find  an 





1  and  S 

Ccurtesy  of  Daniel's  Cartoon  Studios) 

The  same  silhotiette   is  used    for  1    and   3;   again,   the  same    silhouette 

is  used   for  4   and  6.     By  photographing  1,  2,   3,   4,   5,   6   in   succession, 

the  illusion  is  that  of  policemen   running.    This  succession   is  repeated 

as  many  times  as  necessary 



4  and  6 



artist  who  makes  as  many  as  5,000  drawings  for  each  500  feet 
of  film.  On  the  other  hand,  an  ingenious  artist  might  obtain 
smooth  animation  with  but  500  drawings  for  the  same  length 
of  film. 

Consider  the  task  presented  when  animal  cartoons  are  drawn 
and  the  artist  has  to  make  four  legs  move  in  a  fairly  natural  way 
and  at  uniform  speed  in  bringing  a  dog  or  cat  into  a  picture.  If 
too  many  drawings  are  made,  his  picture  drags;  if  too  few, 
the  motion  is  jerky  and  stiff.  To  strike  the  right  combination 
is  an  art. 

There  is  one  difficulty  which,  while  perfectly  evident,  is  rarely 
appreciated.  ''Minute  exactness  is  profoundly  necessary  in  ani- 
mated work,"  to  quote  Vincent  Colby,  creator  of  animated  Colby 
Dogs,  "for  the  excellent  reason  that  the  drawings  are  enlarged 
enormously  when  projected  on  the  screen.  This  brings  out 
in  a  glaring  manner  the  most  infinitesimal  inaccuracies  present 
in  the  original  sketches.  Thus  the  cartoonist's  finished  work  for 
the  movies  contrasts  with  that  of  the  newspaper  caricaturist  in 
that  in  one  case  the  cartoon  is  enlarged  and  in  the  other,  reduced 
for  presentation." 

In  order  to  animate  a  cartoon,  it  must  be  drawn  on  some  trans- 
parent medium  whether  it  be  paper,  celluloid  or  ground  glass. 
In  the  center  of  an  ordinary  bread  board  cut  a  rectangle  g"  x  12". 
Fit  a  piece  of  window  glass  into  this  opening.  Two  steel  pegs, 
four  and  one-half  inches  apart  set  into  a  bar  five  and  one-half 
inches  in  length  are  fastened  to  the  board  at  the  upper  side  of  rect- 
angle and  immediately  at  the  edge  of  the  opening.  The  bar  must 
set  in  a  chisseled-out  space  so  that  the  surface  of  the  bar  is  flush 
with  the  surface  of  the  glass  and  board.  The  glass  is  held  in 
place  flush  to  the  board  by  nailing  thin  strips  of  wood  to  the 
edges  of  the  rectangle  beneath.  It  is  held  fast  by  placing  strips 
of  adhesive  tape  around  the  edges  of  the  glass. 

The  board  is  placed  at  a  slight  angle  to  the  drawing  table 
and  an  electric  light  is  put  under  the  glass.  The  paper  used  is 
substantial  ledger  paper  free  from  water  marks.  The  paper  is 
held  in  place  by  punching  holes  at  the  top,  four  and  one-half 
inches  apart,  which  fit  over  the  pegs  in  the  peg-bar.  Thin  cel- 
luloid, a  clear  and  transparent  grade,  about  .005"  in  thickness 
is  used  over  every  drawing  which  goes  under  the  camera. 

Celluloid  is  one  of  the  most  important  time-saving  devices  in 



animating  a  cartoon.  All  drawings  not  representing  motion  may 
be  put  on  celluloid.  To  be  more  explicit.  Let  us  imagine  a 
kitchen  with  a  table  in  the  middle  of  the  room,  on  the  table  a 
jar  of  jam.  A  boy  walks  into  the  room,  spies  the  jar,  walks  near 
the  table,  rubs  his  stomach  in  anticipation,  takes  the  jar  of  jam 
and  walks  out  of  the  room  through  the  same  door  through 
which  he  entered.  Those  parts  of  the  picture  which  remain 
stationary  may  be  drawn  on  the  celluloid.  Make  it  a  point  to 
take  care  of  as  many  things  on  the  celluloid  as  possible.  This 
leaves  less  to  take  care  of  on  the  paper  drawings.  In  carrying 
out  the  action  planned  above,  one  would  place  a  paper  on  the 
pins  and,  after  drawing  those  lines  which  do  not  move  through- 
out the  action,  on  the  celluloid,  would  place  the  celluloid  face 
down  on  the  model.  Since  the  jar  of  jam  is  stationary  for  the 
first  part  of  this  example,  the  jar  could  be  drawn  on  the  back 
of  the  celluloid  and  left  until  that  part  of  the  action  when  the 
boy  takes  it  up.     Then  it  could  be  erased  with  ammonia. 

Before  attempting  to  animate  a  cartoon,  an  artist  should  ob- 
serve all  natural  movements  of  man,  animal,  fish,  automobile, 
train,  or  whatever  it  is  he  wishes  to  animate.  He  must  likewise 
study  the  consecutive  minor  movements  which  go  to  make  up 
any  major  movement :  the  positions  of  the  feet  in  running  or 
walking ;  of  the  hands  in  clapping,  etc. 

The  field  is  the  space  inside  of  which  all  action  must  operate 
freely.  The  field  lines  should  be  ruled  on  the  glass.  /'  x  95^" 
is  a  good  size  for  the  field.  All  action  entering  the  field  should 
be  started  from  behind  the  field  lines. 

In  order  to  keep  an  exact  likeness  of  a  character  throughout  a 
picture  it  is  best  to  make  a  complete  set  of  head  positions  of  that 
character.  In  this  way,  the  head  may  be  traced  from  the  model  by 
placing  it  under  the  paper  in  the  position  desired.  This  not  only 
keeps  the  likeness  the  same  but  holds  the  proportion  which  is  diffi- 
cult to  obtain  free  handed.  The  ordinary  set  of  head  models  is 
drawn  in  a  row  on  a  slip  of  narrow  paper.  They  are  composed 
of  five  positions.  One  profile,  one  three-quarter  front  view,  one 
three-quarter  rear  view,  one  full  face  and  one  full  rear  view 
make  up  the  set.  If  any  other  position  is  called  for,  it  too  can 
be  placed  on  the  slip  of  paper  and  used  as  many  times  as 


MOTION      PicTUi^E      Photography 

(Bray  Studios  Inc.) 





A  cut-out  is  any  object  which  is  cut  out  of  paper  or  celluloid 
and  laid  over  the  paper  drawings  or  the  celluloid  overlay.  Sup- 
pose a  man's  hat  blows  off  his  head  and  out  of  the  picture.  A 
drawing  of  the  hat  may  be  made  of  celluloid.  The  artist  then 
cuts  out  the  hat  and  instead  of  making  separate  drawings,  moves 
the  cut-out  under  the  camera  until  it  carries  out  the  effect  of 
being  blown  out  of  the  field.  Talk  baloons  are  also  cut-outs 
and  are  laid  over  the  celluloid  while  the  characters  make  mouth 
movements.  ALL  cut-outs  must  have  the  edges  blacked  or 
they  will  cast  a  shadow. 

Ordinarily  the  action  on  each  drawing  should  advance  about 
one-quarter  of  an  inch  but  sometimes  more  or  less.  In  short 
action,  where  the  space  is  limited,  make  a  division  for  the  moves 
and  space  the  action  each  time,  the  distance  of  one  of  these 
divisions.  In  operating  between  two  fixed  points  always  make 
the  divisions  equi-distant  for  the  moves.  Fast  action  should 
never  be  spaced  over  three-quarters  of  an  inch.  Wider  spacing 
makes  the  movement  jumpy.  The  spacing  of  drawings  does  not 
govern  their  speed  on  the  film.  The  number  of  exposures  given 
each  drawing  regulates  the  action.  The  fewer  the  exposures 
the  faster  the  action. 

Avoid  having  more  than  one  character  or  object  in  motion  at 
the  same  time  as  the  eye  can  follow  but  one  movement  easily. 
Characters  should  be  brought  into  some  natural  and  appropriate 
position  before  being  kept  idle  for  a  long  period.  Such  posi- 
tions as  thinking,  sleeping  or  resting  are  frequently  used.  Any 
object  or  character  whose  part  of  the  plot  has  been  spent  should 
be  eliminated  from  the  scene  as  quickly  as  possible. 

When  photographing  take  the  top  drawing  by  the  lower  right 
hand  comer  and  lift  and  lower  it  rapidly  so  that  one  drawing 
can  be  seen  then  the  other.  As  a  result,  the  movement  made  by 
the  two  drawings  can  be  seen.  Do  this  frequently  when  penciling 
out  the  action  and  you  will  find  it  a  great  aid  in  obtaining  perfect 

All  tracing  should  be  carefully  done,  line  for  line  and  dot  for 
dot.  Any  carelessness  will  quickly  be  revealed  in  the  enlarge- 
ment on  the  screen.  Models  for  tracing  come  from  the  figure 
or  parts  remaining  idle  and  each  tracing  is  made  from  the  same 






model  until  the  figure  takes  another  position  which  will  serve 
as  a  new  model.  Traced  lines  should  not  wiggle  in  the  slightest 
degree.  You  can  test  the  accurateness  of  your  line  by  flipping 
the  paper.  If  the  pen  should  move  the  least  bit  in  following  a 
line,  scratch  out  the  wrong  line  lightly  with  an  ink  eraser  and 
correct  it. 

The  parts  to  be  traced  on  each  drawing  should  be  noted  by 
a  number  in  the  spot  where  the  tracing  is  to  be  made.  The  num- 
ber used  for  the  tracing  note  is  the  number  used  on  the  model. 
Jot  notes  describing  incidents  in  the  action  outside  the  field  lines 
on  a  drawing.  This  note  making  is  especially  valuable  when 
making  drawings  which  reverse  or  repeat  actions. 

One  sketch-saving  trick  consists  of  making  a  drawing  of  a 
setting  and  having  a  large  number  of  half-tone  prints  made  of 
it.  On  these  reproductions  the  motion  is  sketched  in,  thus  sav- 
ing an  almost  endless  amount  of  w^ork. 

To  Photograph  Animated  Cartoons 

The  camera  is  set  at  a  distance  above  the  drawings  so  as  to 
exactly  cover  the  field  of  the  drawings.  A  glass  frame  is  fastened 
to  a  board  and  a  peg-bar  is  set  in  this  frame  with  pins  to  fit  the 
holes  in  the  paper.  Each  drawing  and  all  celluloids  for  that 
particular  scene  are  placed  on  the  pins  in  order.  The  glass 
frame  works  on  hinges  and  is  lowered  over  each  drawing  and 
its  celluloids  holding  them  firm  and  flat.  Arrange  two  nitrogen 
bulbs  with  reflectors  so  as  to  illuminate  the  drawings  evenly. 
When  one  drawing  has  been  photographed,  the  next  one  is  put 
in  place. 

As  I  have  said,  the  fewer  the  exposures  the  faster  the  action. 
Ordinary  action  is  given  three  exposures.  Fast  action  is  given 
two  exposures  and  rapid  action  is  given  but  one  exposure  per 
drawing.  As  exposures  govern  speed,  it  is  advisable  to  organize 
a  system  for  walking,  running,  jumping,  etc.,  and  fix  an  exposure 
scale  to  operate  action.  There  is  no  rule  for  exposures,  they 
must  be  regulated  according  to  the  artist's  judgment. 

Each  paper  drawing  must  be  numbered  and  each  scene  desig- 
nated. Also  prepare  an  "exposure  sheet"  on  which  the  exposure 
of  each  scene  must  be  indicated. 

There  is  a  great  demand  for  animated  cartoons.     It  is  per- 



haps  best  for  the  amateur  to  confine  his  efforts  to  short  bits  of 
film  made  especially  for  advertising  purposes. 

A  number  of  large  concerns  market  animated  cartoons.  In 
such  a  place  the  amateur  can  find  employment.  The  artists  who 
animate  the  cartoons  earn  as  much  as  a  hundred  dollars  a  week, 
their  rating  depending  upon  the  amount  of  footage  they  are  cap- 
able of  turning  out  each  week.  Those  who  work  on  celluloids 
or  at  tracing  earn  less,  but  have  every  opportunity  to  study  and 


Chapter  XVII 

UNDER  this  heading  will  be  handled  the  numerous  so  called 
"fake"  methods  used  to  deceive  the  eye  into  believing  it 
sees  something  which  really  never  occurred,  and,  also  some 
of  the  methods  used  to  embellish  or  aid  in  the  artistic  conception 
of  the  picture. 

The  director  will  often  require  that  the  picture  grow  darker 
and  darker  gradually  until  it  has  "faded"  to  blackness.  This  is 
called  a  "fade-out."  It  is  supposed  to  indicate  the  end  of  an 
incident  similar  to  the  end  of  a  chapter  in  a  book.  To  accomplish 
this  the  cameraman  must  slowly  close  the  diaphragm  on  his  lens 
or  the  shutter  opening  on  his  camera.  Either  will  produce  the 
same  result.  Some  cameras  have  an  automatic  closing  and  open- 
ing shutter  that  performs  its  complete  movement  from  open  to 
shut  in  lo  turns  (five  seconds  or  five  feet)  and  vice- versa.  These 
automatics  work  by  merely  pressing  a  button  and  holding  it 
down  until  the  indicator  shows  shutter  to  be  closed.  If  the 
button  is  still  held  down  the  shutter  will  begin  to  open  again  as  the 
pressure  must  be  removed  as  soon  as  indicator  shows  "shut"  and 
a  few  more  turns  given  to  the  crank  handle  to  insure  that  all  of 
the  fade  has  been  wound  up  into  the  take-up  magazine. 

The  "fade-in"  is  exactly  the  reverse  of  the  above.  The  operator 
starts  with  the  shutter  or  diaphragm  on  lens  closed.  He  gives 
first  a  few  turns  of  crank  to  insure  bringing  fresh  film  stock  into 
his  camera  and  then  gradually  opens  either  lens  diaphragm  or 
shutter  until  fully  open  or  until  open  to  the  desired  point.  All 
this  time,  of  course,  the  other  hand  is  keeping  the  crank  going 
steadily  and  accurately  two  turns  to  the  second.  It  will  require 
a  little  practice  to  do  these  two  things  at  the  same  time.  For  this 
reason  an  automatic  shutter  is  very  desirable  as  it  does  not  take 
the  operators  mind  from  his  turning. 

Some  lenses  do  not  diaphragm  completely  shut.  Any  lens  can 
be  made  to  close  entirely  by  having  an  optical  worker  fit  an  extra 
leaf  in  the  diaphragm  which  has  a  little  projection  on  its  end. 
This  small  projection  folds  over  the  other  leaves  when  the  lens 



is  diaphragmed  down  below  f.64  and  closes  out  light  completely. 
It  does  not  affect  the  working  of  the  lens  at  all  when  it  is  used  at 
various  openings  although  it  may  appear  to  one  that  the  projec- 
tion would  cast  a  shadow..  It  must  be  remembered,  however, 
that  every  point  or  node  of  an  anastigmat  lens  is  projecting  the 
image  all  over  the  field  from  every  point  or  node  on  the  surface 
of  the  lens.  The  projection  on  the  diaphragm  only  cuts  out  a 
few  of  these  rays  and  therefore  the  only  effect  is  to  make  the 
lens  work  a  very  little  slower,  so  little  that  it  need  not  be  taken 
into  consideration.  The  small  projection  is,  however,  very  small 
and  only  of  sufficient  size  to  cover  the  pin-hole  opening  of  f.64. 
Do  not  allow  an  incompetent  optician  to  fit  a  large  clumsy  pro- 
jector piece  to  a  diaphragm  leaf. 

Bausch  &  Lomb,  Rochester,  N.  Y. ;  E.  B.  Meyerowitz,  New 
York ;  C.  P.  Goerz,  American  Optical  Company,  New  York ;  are 
some  of  the  concerns  which  dO'  this  kind  of  work. 

There  is  also  a  method  of  honing  the  blades  of  a  diaphragm 
down  to  a  razor  edge  so  they  will  close  completely  but  it  is  a 
decidedly  delicate  process.  The  worst  of  this  is  that  the  blades 
do  not  last  long  after  they  have  been  honed  but  soon  cut  them- 
selves to  pieces. 

To  make  a  fade,  however,  a  lens  does  not  necessarily  have  to 
close  entirely.  The  cameraman  can,  the  moment  his  diaphragm 
has  been  turned  shut  as  low  as  it  will  go,  begin  to  speed  up  on 
his  crank  and  at  same  time  place  his  left  hand  in  front  of  the 
lens,  being  sure  to  keep  cranking  a  few  turns  after  doing  this. 
The  effect  will  be  perfect.  The  same  can  be  done  in  fading-in. 
Start  with  a  fast  crank,  at  same  time  removing  hand  from  lens 
and  quickly  slow  down  to  normal  crank  speed  at  same  time  be- 
ginning to  turn  the  diaphragm  open  to  the  point  you  desire  to 
work  at. 

An  average  fade  should  be  about  five-feet — ten  turns  of 

A  fade  at  the  end  of  the  entire  picture,  (Final  fade)  should 
be  about  ten  feet — a  slow  fade. 

Fades  of  fights  or  exciting  action  should  be  quick — either 
when  in  or  out  fades.  They  should  not  cover  more  than  three 
feet  or  six  turns. 

A  similar  result  to  fades  is  the  circle-in  and  circle-out. 

This  is  accomplished  by  a   diaphragm  that  fits  on  the  lens 



hood  of  the  camera — sometimes  called  the  sun-shade.  It  must 
set  at  least  three  inches  in  front  of  the  lens  (2-inch  lens).  This 
diaphragm  has  a  lever  projecting  to  one  side  and  while  turning 
the  crank  steadily  the  cameraman  uses  his  free  hand  to  push  this 
lever  one  way  or  other  to  either  close  or  open  the  diaphragm 
leaves.  This  produces  on  the  picture  a  circular  shadow  enter- 
ing from  the  edges  or  corners  until  it  completely  circles  the  pic- 
ture out.  The  effect  is  very  pleasant  if  carefully  done,  but  a 
jerky  movement  of  the  lever  is  worse  than  if  the  effect  had  not 
been  attempted. 

A  circle-out  should  never  be  less  than  five  feet  in  length.  This 
means  ten  turns  of  the  crank  during  which  the  diaphragm  lever 
must  be  steadily  pushed  in  its  proper  direction  with  the  other 

The  diaphragm  may  also  be  used  to  shade  or  vignette  the  cor- 
ners of  the  view.  The  diaphragm  can  be  used  for  numerous  pur- 
poses. It  may  be  used  to  cut  out  a  bothersome  bit  of  sky  in  one 
corner  or  to  cut  out  an  objectionable  side  of  the  set.  I  have  used 
it  frequently  to  shade  out  the  corners  of  the  film  where  a  lamp 
was  placed  very  close.  In  this  manner,  I  obtained  the  strong 
effect  from  the  lamp  that  I  desired  and  at  the  same  time  avoided 
flare  in  the  lens. 

Care  must  be  taken  that  the  diaphragm  does  not  slip  after  it  is 
set.  Some  diaphragms  have  set  screws  to  fasten  the  lever  in 
any  position. 

Keyholes  on  the  screen  are  produced  by  means  of  a  metal 
mask  that  is  fitted  in  front  of  the  aperture-plate  of  the  camera, 
and,  of  course,  back  of  the  lens.  The  keyhole  is  usually  cut  in 
thin  brass  by  means  of  a  very  fine  file  and  the  edges  then  smoothed 
by  rubbing  with  a  very  fine  em.ory  cloth  followed  by  rouge-cloth 
such  as  jewelers  use,  the  idea  being  to  obtain  a  very  smooth  edge, 
otherwise  the  edge  will  enlarge  on  the  screen  and  appear  ragged. 
There  are,  in  most  carrieras,  two  small  springs  to  hold  these 
"masks"  in  place  when  they  are  set  in  front  of  the  aperture  plate. 
After  they  are  placed,  focusing  is  done  through  the  ground  glass 
as  heretofore.  The  keyhole  will  appear  as  picture  and  all  around 
it  will  be  black. 

Of  course,  a  variety  of  different  openings  can  be  cut  in  thin 
brass  and  thereby  can  be  obtained  such  effects  as  looking  through 
either  a  plain  or  latticed  window,  looking  out  through  the  entrance 



of  a  cavern,  etc.     In  the  cavern  effect  it  is  a  good  idea  to  leave 
the  edges  rather  rough  to  give  the  effect  of  rough  rocks. 

To  give  the  effect  of  binoculars  two  circles  which  overlap  each 
other  are  cut  with  a  drill  To  obtain  a  smooth  overlap  it  is  neces- 
sary to  first  solder  the  thin  piece  of  brass  to  a  piece  of  heavier 
brass  or  soft  iron.  Then  drill  through  the  thin  piece  into  the 
heavy.  After  the  two  holes  are  drilled  heat  the  pieces  and  they 
will  melt  apart  and  you  will  have  a  thin  piece  or  mask  with  per- 
fectly smooth  and  clean-cut  edges. 

A  telescope  is  done  in  the  same  manner  only  there  is  but  one 
hole.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  when  the  eyes  look  through  binoculars 
they  see  but  one  opening  if  the  binoculars  are  of  any  account  at 
all  and  properly  adjusted,  but  popular  custom  has  decreed  that 
binoculars  are  double  circles  and  they  are  invariably  so  repre- 
sented on  the  screen. 

Sometimes  when  showing  binoculars  the  view  as  seen  through 
them  is  out  of  focus  at  first  and  then  comes  into  sharp  focus  as 
the  holder  of  the  binoculars  is  supposed  to  adjust  them.  This 
is  done  by  first  focusing  the  camera  on  the  view  and  noting  the 
mark  at  which  the  calibrating  dial  is  pointed.  Then  deliberately 
throw  the  camera  out  of  focus,  and,  while  turning,  bring  the 
focusing  dial  back  to  the  correct  mark. 

There  is  no  end  to  the  variety  of  fancy  frames  and  masks  that 
may  be  cut  for  the  aperture  of  cameras.  They  range  from  plain 
ovals  and  circles,  to  intricate  lattice-work  effects  and  geometrical 

In  over-sea  countries  the  fancy  masks  are  used  a  good  bit  more 
than  in  the  United  States. 

Visions  on  Dark  Walls 

We  now  come  to  the  many  varieties  of  visions  that  appear  on 
walls,  against  doors  or  in  dark  fireplaces,  etc. 

The  student  will  now  have  to  learn  to  count  while  he  is  turn- 
ing the  crank.  He  must  not  count  every  turn  but  every  other 
turn.  If  he  tries  to  count  every  turn  he  will  find  that  his  breath 
will  give  out  when  he  reaches  about  one  hundred  or  so.  He 
must  count  aloud  so  that  the  actors  can  hear  him  above  the  buzz 
of  the  arcs. 

Suppose  we  have  a  scene  that  calls  for  an  actor  to  cross  the 
stage,  seat  himself  in  a  chair,  remove  a  letter  from  his  pocket 



and  look  at  it.  He  leans  back  in  chair  and  looks  at  wall  above 
fireplace,  and,  as  he  does  so,  there  "fades-in"  a  picture,  above  the 
fireplace,  of  his  brother's  face. 

We  proceed  thus :  The  entire  scene  of  the  actor  crossing  the 
screen  and  sitting  down,  looking  up,  etc.,  is  taken  first.  The 
cameraman  places  his  film  in  the  camera  gate  after  carefully 
focusing  and  observes  when  the  two  pins  that  pull  the  film  down 
after  each  exposure  are  exactly  at  the  bottom  of  their  downward 
stroke.  He  then  marks  the  two  holes  that  these  pins  engage  in 
when  at  the  bottom  of  the  down-stroke.  This  can  be  done  either 
by  pencil  or  by  cuttmg  a  notch  opposite  the  perforation  we  wish 
to  mark.  The  system  of  marking  depends  upon  the  construction 
of  the  camera.  On  a  Pathe  it  is  difficult  to  mark  imder  the  gate 
so  a  scratch  mark  is  made  on  the  side  of  the  camera  plate  which 
will  come  exactly  opposite  a  perforation  in  the  film  when  the  pins 
are  at  the  bottom  of  the  stroke.  The  idea  of  this  is  so  that  the 
film  can  be  rewound  and  set  to  exactly  the  same  mark  to  start 
again.  If  it  were  to  be  one  or  two  perforations  out  of  true  the 
picture  would  be  out  of  frame  when  taken  the  second  time  and 
the  vision,  instead  of  appearing  above  the  fireplace  as  we  desire, 
would  probably  be  up  half  way  between  the  pictures  which 
would  never  do. 

Having  assured  himself  that  he  has  marked  the  film  so  that 
he  can  return  it  to  exactly  the  same  place,  the  cameraman  takes 
three  turns  of  his  crank  to  make  sure  he  has  fresh  stock  in  camera 
and  stops  with  his  crank  handle  down — straight  down.  He  is 
now  ready  to  start.  It  is  now  important  that  actor  and  camera- 
man start  at  the  same  moment  so  the  cameraman  starts  his  handle 
and  after  two  revolutions  says  loudly,  "one"  after  two  more  turns 
he  says  "two"  and  so  on.  The  actor  goes  through  the  scene  in  this 
case  regardless  of  the  counting  up  to  a  certain  number  which  has 
heretofore  been  agreed  upon  at  which  point  he  is  supposed  to  be 
looking  at  the  vision.  We  will  assume  that  at  20  he  is  to  see  the 
vision  of  his  brother.  When  the  cameraman's  count  comes  to 
twenty  the  actor  looks  up  at  the  spot  on  wall  where  the  vision  is 
to  appear  as  previously  agreed.  He  looks  until  the  cameraman 
comes  to — we  will  say  30 — when  the  actor  removes  his  gaze. 

The  cameraman  counts  up  to  the  end  of  scene  or  when  the 
director  says  "cut"  or  "through."  He  (the  cameraman)  now 
reverses  the  belt  on  his  take-up  magazine  so  the  film  will  wind 



backwards.  He  must  be  SURE  TO  CLOSE  THE  LENS,  no 
light  must  reach  the  film  on  its  wind  back  through  the  camera. 

Having  closed  everything  tight  against  light  and  reversed  belt 
the  cameraman  begins  turning  his  crank  backwards  counting  at 
the  same  time  until  he  has  counted  backwards  as  far  as  he  had 
previously  gone  forwards.  He  now  takes  the  additional  three 
turns  that  he  took  at  first  and  opens  camera.  The  film  should 
now  be  at  the  exact  point  at  which  the  scene  started.  Now,  be- 
fore doing  anything  else  he  OPENS  THE  LENS  and  RE- 
VERSES BELT  ON  TAKE-UP  AGAIN  as  it  must  be  for 
turning  forwards. 

He  can  now  remove  the  film  from  gate  and  focus  for  the  vision. 

This  vision  need  not  be  taken  at  the  same  place  at  all.  It  is 
preferable  to  have  the  brother  seated  before  a  black  cloth  with 
plenty  of  light  on  his  face  from  both  sides  and  not  much  deep 
shadow  except  on  the  black  cloth,  of  course. 

In  order  that  the  vision  will  be  at  its  proper  place  on  the 
screen  before  leaving  the  set-up  in  which  he  took  the  film  just 
exposed,  he  made  a  mark  on  the  ground  glass  of  the  space  oc- 
cupied on  the  ground  glass  by  the  space  over  the  fireplace  where 
the  vision  is  to  appear.  (If  the  ground  glass  is  too  smooth  on 
the  glass  side  to  take  the  mark  of  a  fountain-pen  use  a  piece  of 
ground  celluloid  instead,  in  this  case — turning  it  towards  the  rear 
of  the  camera,  but  use  it  for  getting  position  only  as,  being 
reversed  in  the  camera  it  would  not  give  the  proper  focus  if  used 
for  focusing  by.  Focusing  of  the  vision  must  be  done  on  the 
regular  ground  glass — ^that  is^ — the  bringing  of  it  into  sharpness 
and  clearness.) 

The  person  who  appears  in  the  vision,  having  been  placed  be- 
fore the  black  cloth  and  camera  set  so  he  occupies  the  correct 
position,  the  cameraman  proceeds  to  mask  out  or  cover  all  parts 
of  the  scene  except  the  vision  itself.  This  can  be  done  by  means 
of  the  outside  diaphragm  already  explained  if  it  is  mounted  on  a 
sliding  base  by  means  of  which  it  can  be  brought  to  any  position 
desired  in  front  of  the  lens,  or  it  may  be  accompHshed  by  means 
of  pieces  of  electrician's  friction  tape  being  stuck  across  the  front 
of  the  light-hood  or  sunshade  of  the  camera.  These  masks  or 
whatever  is  used  must  be  about  three  inches  in  front  of  a  2-inch 


Everything  but  the  vision  being  covered  the  film  is  now  re-set 



in  the  gate  so  that  the  pins  will  engage  the  same  perforations  at 
the  bottom  of  the  stroke  as  heretofore  explained,  the  camera 
closed  and  three  turns  of  the  crank  taken  as  heretofore  ending 
with  the  handle  down  as  before.  The  lens  diaphragm  is  closed 
and  the  operator  holds  his  hand  over  it  if  it  does  not  entirely 
close  or  else  the  dissolving  shutter  is  closed.  The  operator  now 
begins  turning,  counting  as  before  but  the  LENS  REMAINS 
CLOSED  up  to  the  number  where  the  vision  is  supposed  to 
appear.  In  this  case  the  vision  is  to  appear  at  20.  So  at  20 
the  operator  removes  his  hand  from  front  of  lens  and  "fades-in" 
for  five  feet  counting  all  the  while.  Or  if  he  is  using  an  auto- 
matic shutter  he  presses  the  button  at  20  and  holds  it  to  25. 
He  now  keeps  on  turning,  the  vision  being  meanwhile  photo- 
graphed and  at  30  in  this  case,  he  quickly  (about  three  feet) 
fades  out ;  the  vision,  of  course,  vanishes  as  he  does  this.  The 
operator  must  continue  turning  with  his  hand  over  lens  or 
shutter  closed  until  he  comes  to  the  full  count  of  his  scene  as 
counted  the  first  time  he  ran  the  film  through  the  camera.  The 
vision  and  scene  are  now  finished. 

If  the  vision  is  to  appear  against  a  light  object  such  as  a  white 
hospital  wall  or  a  book  a  different  process  must  be  used. 

The  film  is  set  the  same  as  heretofore,  but  at  the  point  where 
the  vision  is  to  appear  a  piece  of  dark  cardboard  is  slipped  in 
front  of  the  lens  in  a  slot  in  the  sun-shade  or  hood  to  a  point 
previously  determined  and  with  a  pin  stuck  through  the  card  so 
it  cannot  go  too  far.  This  is  prepared  before  the  scene  is  taken. 
It  is  called  a  corner  vision  and  the  card  being  passed  in  front  of 
the  lens  while  count  is  going  on  and  crank  turning,  will  cause  a 
gradual  shadow  to  grow  in  one  of  the  corners  of  the  picture  which 
will  form  a  background  for  the  vision  which  is  taken  later. 

If  the  vision  is  to  disappear  at  a  certain  count  the  card  is 
merely  drawn  away  from  in  front  of  lens  at  that  number.  The 
time  occupied  in  placing  and  drawing  the  card  should  be  about 
five  seconds  or  five  feet.  After  taking  the  full  scene  it  is  now 
important  to  take  a  test  piece.  This  is  taken  with  the  black 
card  in  front  exactly  as  it  was  for  the  vision  and  about  three 
feet  should  be  taken  for  the  test.  This  is  now  notched — opening 
the  camera  to  do  so,  and  just  above  the  notch  written  in  pencil 
on  the  face  of  the  film  "Test  on  this  end,  vision." 

The  piece  of  film  is  now  taken  to  the  dark  room  in  its  magazine, 



of  course,  and  there  rewound,  a  piece  of  the  end  being  first  torn 
off  and  laid  aside  for  the  moment.  After  the  film  is  rewound 
it  is  placed  in  magazine  ready  to  be  placed  in  camera  and  the 
vision  part  taken.  Before  going  further  the  test  must  be  de- 
veloped. This  can  be  done  by  the  laboratory  but  to  get  it 
quickly  I  advise  every  cameraman  to  have,  in  his  dark  room  a 
small  jar  of  strong  developing  solution  and  a  small  jar  of  hypo 
fixing  bath.  He  dips  the  test  piece  of  film  into  this  and  developes 
it  and  fixes,  after  which  it  is  rinsed  in  running  water  and  hung 
up  at  a  window  to  dry  wihich  it  will  do  within  an  hour  if  weather 
is  dry. 

When  ready  to  place  the  vision  this  test  piece  of  film  is  placed 
in  the  camera  the  same  position  that  the  film  will  occupy — ^viz., 
upside  down  and  with  the  emulsion  towards  the  lens.  The 
ground  glass  is  slipped  in  back  of  it  and  the  film  pulled  up  or 
down  until  the  claws  or  pins  engage  in  a  perforation  which  will 
bring  the  film  into  correct  frame  when  viewed  through  the  mag- 
nifier or  focusing  aperture. 

The  operator  can  now  see  the  shadow  made  for  the  vision  only 
in  this  case  it  will  be  clear  film — ^being  a  negative.  He  can  now 
adjust  his  camera  so  that  the  vision  occupies  this  space  and  by 
means  of  diaphragm  or  black  tape  or  cards  as  heretofore  he  can 
block  out  all  the  parts  of  the  picture  except  this  corner  where  the 
vision  appears. 

He  should  now  remove  the  piece  of  test  film  and  focus  on  the 
ground  glass  for  sharpness.  Then  place  the  film  in  camera  and 
set  it  to  the  point  previously  marked  as  heretofore  and  CLOSE 
THE  LENS.  He  now  begins  the  count  and  at  the  proper  count 
fades  in  the  vision  as  previously  explained. 

But  we  will  assume  that  the  vision  is  not  to  be  in  a  corner  but 
in  the  center  of  a  white  page — as  a  letter. 

To  obtain  this  a  piece  of  clear  glass  is  used  with  a  small  patch 
of  black  paper  pasted  in  its  center.  This  glass  is  moved  about 
until  its  proper  position  is  secured  by  means  of  the  ground  glass 
and  then  it  is  marked  so  it  can  be  replaced  in  this  exact  position 

The  film  is  now  placed  in  camera  and  marked  so  the  same  posi- 
tion can  be  obtained  when  run  the  second  time.  We  will  suppose 
that  ten  feet  are  to  be  run  before  the  vision  appears.  The  film 
is  run  up  to  ten  counts  and  from  ten  to  fifteen  counts  the  dia- 



phragm  in  the  lens  is  slowly  closed — in  other  words — a  fade-out 
is  made. 

The  belt  on  magazines  is  now  reversed  and  WITH  LENS 
STILL  CLOSED  the  film  is  wound  back  five  feet  (not  the  whole 
way  this  time).  The  belt  is  now  changed  back  again  and  the 
piece  of  glass  with  spot  in  center  is  adjusted.  The  lens  is  still 
closed.  The  operator  now  begins  turning  again  and  counting 
from  the  point  he  turned  back  to,  ten  in  this  case,  and  at  same 
time  performing  a  fade-in.  This  will  cause  the  dark  spot  to 
gradually  appear  on  the  letter  although  the  letter  or  page  does 
not  change  at  all.  A  test  is  made  at  the  end  of  the  scene  as 
heretofore  to  enable  the  cameraman  to  place  the  vision  at  the 
correct  point  and  to  assist  him  in  blocking  out  all  other  objects. 

The  vision  is  then  photographed  as  heretofore  fading  in  at 
the  same  count  at  which  the  black  spot  was  faded  in.  The  black 
spot  must  be  of  sufficient  size  to  accommodate  the  vision. 

All  numbers  and  counts  etc.,  should  be  marked  down  in  the 
cameraman*s  note-book  immediately  and  not  left  to  memory.  It 
is  easy  to  forget  or  become  confused  about  numbers. 

One  of  the  best  methods  for  keeping  memoranda  of  numbers 
is  to  mark  them,  with  lead-pencil  on  the  film  itself — ^that  is — on 
the  loop  that  is  exposed  when  camera  is  opened  for  focusing 
and  just  before  the  scene  that  they  refer  to.     For  instance : 

Mark  on  film  something  like  this : 

Vision — May  asleep  in  chair  sees  face  of  mother 
Face  fades  in  30  to  35 
Face  fades  out  60  to  65 
Scene  runs  to  85 
5  ft.  test  on  end. 

It  is  sometimes  not  convenient  to  finish  the  making  of  the 
vision  the  same  day  the  first  part  is  taken.  If  some  time  will 
elapse  between  the  first  and  second  takes  the  film  may  be  removed 
from  the  magazine,  rewound  and  canned.  This  can  must  be 
carefully  labeled  and  set  aside  where  it  will  not  be  sent  to  the 
laboratory  by  mistake. 

Cans  should  be  labelled  somewhat  like  this : 

Vision  No.  6y  (or  whatever  number  scene  is). 
May  asleep  in  chair  sees  face  of  mother. 
Counts  in  notebook  (or  on  film  end). 
Rewound  (or  not  rewound  yet). 



If  a  test  has  been  made  and  developed  it  should  be  taped  on 
top  of  the  can  so  one  can  see  at  a  glance  what  the  can  contains. 
200-foot  cans  are  good  for  this  purpose  as  they  take  up  less  room 
than  the  larger  400-foot  ones. 

A  dissolve  is  one  scene  diffused  into  another.  It  is  accom- 
plished by  merely  making  a  fade-out  and  a  fade-in  overlapping. 

For  instance,  if  the  first  scene  fades  out  at  20  to  25 — ^the 
cameraman  merely  v^^inds  back  the  film  five  feet  (with  the  lens 
closed)  and  then  fades-in  for  five  feet  while  turning  forward 
again  on  the  other  scene. 

It  will  be  found  that  dissolves  are  more  perfect  if  they  overlap 
more  than  normal.  That  is  to  say  if  a  fade-out  is  made  from 
20  to  25  it  is  a  good  idea  to  turn  back  to  19  (instead  of  20)  and 
to  begin  the  fade-in  from  there  to  24  (instead  of  25).  This  will 
prevent  any  tendency  of  the  film  growing  dark  where  one  view 
fades  into  the  other. 

As  with  visions  a  memo  should  be  made  of  numbers  at  which 
dissolves  occur,  and,  if  the  second  scene  is  not  made  the  same 
day  the  film  may  be  canned  and  set  aside. 

Enough  blank  film'  must,  of  course,  be  reserved  so  that  the 
second  scene  may  be  dissolved  onto  the  first  and  an  ample  amount 
left  for  the  succeeding  scene.  For  this  reason  the  director 
should  tell  the  cameraman  about  how  long  he  expects  his  second 
part  of  the  dissolve  to  run,  or,  in  case  the  second  part  is  taken 
first,  as  is  often  the  case,  how  much  blank  film  shall  be  left  in 
first  part  of  roll  to  accommodate  the  first  scene. 

Sometimes  as  many  as  five  or  six  scenes  are  dissolved — one 
into  another,  in  which  case  the  cameraman  must  calculate  what 
the  total  footage  of  all  the  scenes  will  be  and  allow  enough  film 
on  the  roll. 

In  making  a  number  of  dissolves — one  into  another — ^the 
cameraman  must  be  very  careful  not  to  get  his  numbers  mixed. 
It  is  well  to  take  all  dissolves  twice,  so  as  to  have  a  second  take 
in  case  of  a  mistake  at  the  time  the  first  is  taken.  These  should 
be  marked  first  and  second  take  on  the  film  before  the  camera  is 

One  cameraman  had  ten  dissolves  to  make — one  into  the  next. 
He  went  along  and  had  nine  all  right  but  became  confused  on 
the  tenth  and,  of  course,  the  lot  were  spoiled.  This  work  took 
almost  a  week  to  do  and  probably  cost  the  studio  $500  or  more. 



Often  the  director  will  call  for  a  dissolve  into  a  close-up.  To 
do  this  quickly — first  focus  the  long  shot  and  note  the  mark  on 
focusing  dial  at  which  needle  points.  Now  move  the  camera  up 
to  the  point  from  which  you  wish  to  take  the  close-up  and  make 
a  mark  with  chalk  where  tripod  legs  meet  the  floor.  Set  focus 
and  note  the  indicator  dial.  Now  move  back  to  long-shot  posi- 
tion which  may  also  be  marked  in  chalk,  set  focus  dial  back  to 
long-shot  mark  and  go  ahead.  When  director  calls  "dissolve" 
fade-out  for  five  feet,  rewind  with  the  lens  closed,  move  up  to 
marks  previously  made,  reverse  belt,  set  focus  to  the  close-up 
point  previously  determined  and  point  camera  correctly  by 
means  of  the  finder  on  side.  When  ready  say  so  to  director  and 
when  he  says  "go"  begin  turning  and  at  same  time  fade-in  for 
five  feet  (ten  turns). 

If  now  the  director  wishes  to  dissolve  back  to  the  long-shot 
and  says  "dissolve"  repeat  the  above  except  in  this  case  set  the 
focusing  dial  back  to  the  long-shot  position  and  move  camera 
back  to  original  position,  adjusting  the  camera  correctly  by 
means  of  the  finder. 

Miraculous  appearing  scenes  where  the  costumes  or  surround- 
ings change  before  the  eyes,  are  often  required.  For  example : 
suppose  theactor^s  ordinary  costume  must  change  to  the  uniform 
of  a  soldier.  To  do  this,  run  to  a  pre-determined  number,  say 
20 — and  then  fade-out.  The  actor  has  been  previously  instructed 
that  at  20  he  is  to  hold  absolutely  still  until  told  he  may  move. 
After  having  faded  out  from  20  to  25  stop  the  camera  and  care- 
fully mark  the  actor's  general  position.  The  position  of  his  feet 
is  marked  with  chalk  and  the  position  of  his.  hands  on  table  is 
marked  likewise.  The  place  his  head  occupies  is  marked  with 
pencil  on  the  ground  glass  of  the  finder  and  care  is  taken  that  no 
one  moves  the  camera  in  the  slightest  degree.  The  actor  is  now 
told  to  go  to  his  dressing  room  and  put  on  his  uniform  which 
must  be  all  ready  for  him  before  the  scene  is  started.  While  he 
is  doing  this  the  cameraman*  reverses  the  belt,  winds  back  five 
feet  with  the  lens  closed  and  awaits  the  return  of  the  actor. 
When  actor  has  made  his  change  he  is  placed  in  exactly  the  same 
position  as  he  previously  was,  his  head  at  same  place  on  ground 
glass,  his  hands  on  the  chalk  marks  which  are  now  carefully 
erased  and  his  feet  exactly  as  they  were.  It  is  never  possible 
to  get  identically  the  same  pose,  but  the  blur  caused  by  the  dis- 



solve  with  its  confusion  to  the  eye  will  cover  any  small  changes. 

When  actor  is  placed  he  is  instructed  to  hold  perfectly  still 
until  you  count  five.  After  this  he  may  do  whatever  the  director 
wishes.  Turn  forward  and  at  same  time  fade-in  for  five  feet 
and  continue  turning  until  scene  is  ended. 

Miniatures  are  frequently  used  to  simulate  wrecks  of  trains, 
boatSij  etc.  The  success  of  these  tricks  depends  a  great  deal  upon 
the  skill  with  which  the  miniature-man  builds  his  toys.  Some 
makers  of  these  diminutive  models  are  very  skillful  and  can 
construct  a  war-ship,  castle,  bridge,  or  whatever  is  required, 
correct  in  every  detail.  In  using  miniatures  on  water  in  a  studio 
tank,  take  caje  that  no  bubbles  form  as  they  would  appear  very 
large — about  the  size  of  hogsheads  compared  to  the  model-ship — 
and  give  the  trick  away. 

A  great  deal  depends  upon  the  lighting  used  on  models.  It 
should  not  be  too  harsh  as  that  tends  to  throw  details  into  strong 
relief  and  the  possible  crudeness  of  the  object  is  exaggerated. 

Burning  trestles  are  usually  soft  wood  saturated  with  turpen- 
tine which  produces  a  black  smoke  that  photographs  well. 

Explosions  are  usually  produced  in  miniature  with  the  use 
of  slow  burning  flash-powder. 

Wind  comes  frcnn  a  nearbye  electric  fan,  and  rain  from  an 
overhead  tank  in  which  a  number  of  small  holes  have  been 
punched  or  from  a  hose  with  a  spray  nozzle. 

Toys  and  dolls  may  be  brought  to  life  and  chairs,  tools,  etc., 
caused  to  perform  any  actions  the>  operator  may  desire  by  means 
of  the  stop>-mQtion  crank  which  has  been  explained.  When  tak- 
ing a  stop-motion  of  a  doll  walking,  the  cameraman  turns  one 
revolution  thereby  producing  one  picture — ^he  then  advances  one 
of  the  doll's  feet  a  very  little  and  takes  another  turn  on  his 
camera.  He  then  gives  the  doll's  foot  another  move  forwards 
and  another  turn  of  crank  and  so  on — endeavoring  to  produce 
lifelike  motions.  It  must  be  remembered  that  in  stop-motion 
work  the  light  must  either  be  much  weaker  or  else  the  shutter  or 
diaphragm  be  closed  down  enough  to  make  allowance  for  the  com- 
paratively slow  speed  at  which  the  pictures  are  taken. 

An  illusion  that  is  easily  explained  is  that  of  a  man  climbing 
up-  the  side  of  a  building.  He  lifts  himself  up  past  windows  and 
balconies  until  he  reaches  the  roof.  In  this  case,  the  house's 
side  is  built  on  the  studio  floor — flat  against  the  floor  and  not 



upright.  The  camera  is  taken  up  into  the  girders  at  the  top  of 
the  studio  and  pointed  straight  down.  The  man  who  does  the 
climbing  does  not  really  climb  but  merely  drags  himself  over  the 
floor  which,  in  this  case,  is  made  to  resemble  the  side  of  the 
house.  When  viewed  on  the  screen  the  house,  is  of  course,  ver- 
ticle.     The  illusion  is  complete. 

This  same  method  is  used  with  many  different  backgrounds 
painted  to  resemble  the  bed  of  the  ocean  or  the  moss  and  ferns  at 
the  bottom  of  the  sea  in  perspective.  One  of  these  is  laid  on 
the  studio  floor  and  a  woman  attired  as  a  mermaid  drags  herself 
around  with  the  motion  of  swimming  or  is  swung  on  a  thin  wire 
a  few  feet  above  the  floor.  To  finish  this  illusion  the  same  piece 
of  film  should  be  again  run  through  the  camera.  The  second 
time  the  film  is  run  through  the  camera,  the  latter  is  focused  upon 
a  small  flat  aquarium  in  which  fish  are  swimming.  This 
aquarium  should  have  a  flat  glass  side  and  be  backed  up  with  a 
black  cloth  on  the  side  furthest  from  the  camera.  The  camera 
itself  must  be  covered  with  black  cloth  leaving  only  the  lens  ex- 
posed through  a  hole  cut  in  it.  This  black  cloth  should  cover 
the  cameraman  as  well  otherwise  the  glass  of  the  aquarium  will 
reflect  everything  in  front  of  it  and  the  camera  and  anyone  near 
it  will  appear  in  the  finished  film.  After  the  second  exposure,  the 
film  is  developed  and  the  effect  will  be  that  of  a  woman  swim- 
ming among  fishes  at  the  bottom  of  the  sea. 

The  warning  about  reflections  in  the  lens  that  are  given  above 
also  holds  in  photographing  a  close-up  of  the  human  eye.  In 
doing  this,  a  cameraman  must  be  very  careful  how  he  places  the 
lights  or  he  will  have  a  reflection  of  every  light  in  the  studio  in 
the  curved  lens  of  the  eye  and,  when  this  is  enlarged  to  fill  the 
screen,  the  reflections  will  be  plainly  visible.  Again,  in  this  case, 
the  camera  and  operator  must  be  in  black  or  covered  (except  the 
lens  and  the  operator's  eyes),  with  black  cloth. 

Actors  often  have  to  play  dual  roles — ^that  is,  play  two  char- 
acters in  the  same  scene.  To  make  one  actor  talk  to  another 
figure — ^the  latter  being  himself — an  instrument  is  used  to  split 
the  stage  or  frame  in  two  sections.  This  is  an  opening  in  the 
sun  shade — about  four  inches  in  front  of  the  lens  in  which  two 
black  cards  slide  so  that  each  card  can  be  moved  across  until 
one-half  of  the  ground  glass  is  black  or  shaded.  The  action  is 
first  carefully  rehearsed  so  that  the  actors  know  exactly  what  to 



do  at  certain  counts.  After  one  side  is  taken  the  film  is  rewound 
with  the  lens  closed  and  the  other  card  moved  across  until  it  just 
touches  the  first  one  and  the  first  one  is  then  removed.  This 
shades  the  side  of  the  film  just  taken  and  exposes  the  other  side. 
The  lens  is  now  opened  and  the  other  side  taken.  If  the  cards  are 
manipulated  carefully  and  the  actors  are  careful  not  to  cross 
the  line  or  the  blend  of  the  two  sides  the  illusion  will  be  perfect 
and  no  division  of  the  stage  will  be  seen. 

The  action,  in  this  case,  must  be  carefully  timed  so  that  the  two 
figures  will  speak  and  answer  at  the  proper  instant. 

There  will  be,  of  course,  a  space  in  the  center  of  the  picture 
beyond  which  neither  person  may  venture  or  they  will  simply 
vanish.  If,  even,  a  hand  is  passed  across  this  forbidden  space 
it  will  disappear.  There  are,  however,  methods  of  crossing  this 
dividing  line  and  having  one  of  the  figures  follow  the  other  off  the 
stage.  The  action  goes  up  to  a  certain  point  and  one  figure 
leaves  the  stage.  We  will  say  it  is  the  figure  on  the  right.  Left 
now  holds  his  position  for  a  few  moments  and  follows  off. 

This  is  accomplished  by  having  a  certain  count  agreed  upon 
at  which  right  leaves  and  is  OFF  stage.  At  exactly  this  point 
the  camera  is  stopped.  We  will  say  it  is  count  40.  The  film  is 
now  reversed  and  run  back  to  start  and  the  left  side  taken.  xA.t 
count  of  40  the  actor  known  as  "left"  must  remain  perfectly 
still.  That  is  hold.  The  camera  is  stopped  and  the  mask  cover- 
ing half  of  the  lens  is  removed.  The  camera  is  now  started  and 
the  actor  *'left"  has  the  whole  stage  to  act  in  if  he  desires. 
When  the  film  is  developed  there  will  be  a  fogged  place  or  possibly 
a  few  inches  of  black  film  where  the  stop  was  made,  but  this  is 
cut  out  and  the  ends  of  the  film  carefully  joined  together  with 
cement.  If  this  is  done  skilfully  no  jump  will  appear  on  the 
screen  where  the  mask  was  removed. 

Triples  or  three  persons  on  the  screen  at  the  same  time,  the 
three  persons  being  one  and  the  same  individual  are  made  by  using 
three  masks,  one  in  the  center  and  one  on  each  side. 

An  example  of  this  is  a  scene  showing  a  man  at  telephone  on 
one  side  of  the  screen,  a  girl  at  'phone  at  the  other,  and  between 
the  two,  a  panel  of  a  city  with  telephone  wires. 

The  two  sides  are  usually  taken  first  and  then  the  mask  set 
and  the  outside  view  taken.  This  means  that  the  film  must  go 
through  the  camera  three  times  or  that  the  two  outer  scenes  may 



have  been  taken  at  the  same  time  by  placing  the  two  sets  close 
together  the  centre  exposure  masking  the  junction  of  the  two  sets. 

A  vision  in  a  mirror  is  done  by  means  of  a  piece  of  black 
velvet  fastened  to  heavy  cardboard  which  is  made  to  exactly  fill 
the  frame  of  the  mirror.  The  lady  seated  in  front  of  mirror 
sees  her  own  reflection  up  to  a  certain  point  when  suddenly  her 
reflection  changes  to  a  vision  of  her  enemy — a  fierce  looking  man. 
We  turn  the  camera  up  to  the  point  where  the  vision  is  to  appear. 
In  this  case  let  us  say  20  to  25.  Fade-out  from  20  to  25  having 
actress  hold  her  position  during  fade — and  not  move  afterwards. 
Quickly  wind  back  five  feet  of  film  as  heretofore  and  at  same  time 
have  stage-hands  fit  the  black  velvet  into  the  mirror  frame. 
When  this  is  done  fade-in  and  actress  can  now  move  again  and 
register  horror  at  what  she  sees  in  the  glass.  After  scene  is 
ended  be  sure  to  take  a  test  to  show  exact  location  of  the  mirror — 
otherwise  you  may  have  great  difficulty  in  placing  the  vision 
squarely  in  the  centre  of  it. 

When  making  the  vision  fade-in  on  the  film  from  20  to  25 
and  be  sure  to  have  plenty  of  black  cloth  back  of  the  man  posing 
for  the  vision  and  to  block  out  that  part  of  his  figure  which  comes 
below  the  line  of  the  mirror  frame  else  the  vision  will  spread  all 
over  the  dressing  table  or  whatever  the  piece  of  furniture  contain- 
ing the  mirror  may  be. 

A  good  method  of  masking  out  mirrors  is  to  take  a  piece  of 
the  test  and  cut  out  the  mirror  opening  carefully  and  then  opaque 
the  piece  of  film  with  indian-red  water  color.  Place  this  piece 
of  film  as  a  mask  in  the  aperture  back  of  the  lens  and  in  front  of 
the  film  and  the  only  part  of  the  film  you  will  expose  will  be  the 
mirror.  The  mask  must  be  carefully  placed  by  means  of  a  piece 
of  the  same  test.  For  this  reason  make  plenty  of  test  of  a  mirror 

Ghost  or  spirit  figures  are  often  required.  First  take  the  regu- 
lar scene  and  then  rewind  to  the  beginning.  Now  have  all  ob- 
jects in  the  set  covered  with  black  cloth.  Velvet  is  best.  See 
that  camera  is  not  disturbed  in  the  slightest  or  moved  even  the 
slightest  particle.  A  black  drop  is  used  to  hide  the  background. 
In  other  words  everything  is  black.  The  actor  portraying  the 
ghost  now  enters  the  scene  and  the  film  is  run  through  again. 
This  actor  should  not  be  dressed  in  black  or  he  will  not  show. 
Ghosts  are  always  to  wear  something  light  otherwise  only  their 
faces  would  be  visible  against  the  black  ground. 



The  above  effect  will  produce  a  visionary  figure — one  that  can 
be  seen  through  or  is  partly  transparent. 

To  cause  the  illusion  of  a  soul  arising  from  the  body  and  float- 
ing away,  the  figure  is  first  photographed  to  end  of  scene  and  the 
film  re-wound.  We  will  assume  that  the  figure  from  which  the 
soul  emanates  is  to  be  seated  in  a  large  arm-chair.  At  a  cer- 
tain count  (say  30)  the  actor  must  be  in  this  chair  and  remain 
seated  there  until  the  end  of  scene. 

After  rewinding  the  film  to  the  start  cover  everything  in  the 
set  with  black  velvet  and  have  the  actor  sit  in  the  chair  again. 
Now  close  lens  and  turn  to  30.  At  the  count  of  30,  fade-in  while 
simultaneously  the  actor  slowly  rises  from  the  chair  and  with 
a  gliding  motion  crosses  the  stage  and  exits. 

The  effect  will  be  of  the  man  remaining  seated  in  his  chair  all 
through  the  scene  while  the  spirit-like  figure  of  him  will  rise 
from  his  body  and  move  slowly  away  from  the  living  being  and 
out  of  the  picture. 

An  illustration  or  picture  in  a  book  may  be  required  to  come 
to  life  and  move.  In  this  case  a  girl  reads  a  paper  showing  an 
illustration  of  the  "toughest  tenement  in  New  York"  she  is  shown 
reading  and  the  scene  jumps  to  a  close-up  of  what  she  sees  in 
the  paper.  Show  section  of  page  with  view  of  front  of  building 
— people  passing  and  children  playing  in  street.  This  is  a  still 
picture.  Suddenly  the  people  begin  to  move  and  the  children  to 
run  about.  This  is  accomplished  by  taking  a  motion  camera  and 
a  still-camera  to  the  same  location  and  setting  them  to  focus  on 
the  same  scene. 

About  twenty  feet  are  run  in  the  camera  with  lens  closed  and 
at  the  count  of  20  the  cameraman  starts  to  fade-in  and  at  same 
time  his  assistant  snaps  the  still-camera.  The  scene  is  now  run 
to  end.  After  returning  to  the  studio  the  still  picture  is  de- 
veloped and  a  print  made  of  it.  This  print  is  now  fastened  up 
on  wall  and  the  motion-camera  focused  carefully  on  it.  The 
film  has  been  rewound  to  start  and  the  cameraman  now  photo- 
graphs the  still  up  to  count  of  20  when  he  fades-out.  If  he  does 
this  at  the  correct  count  the  still  picture  will  merge  into  the  mov- 
ing one  and  the  figures  will  appear  to  come  to  life. 

Some  very  astounding  illusions  can  be  performed  by  double 

We  wish  to  show  an  airship  sailing  up  Fifth  Avenue,  New 
York,  only  a  few  feet  above  the  heads  of  the  people : 



First,  a  good  view  of  Fifth  Avenue  is  taken,  looking  straight 
or  nearly  straight  along  the  street.  This  is  developed  but  not 
printed.     The  negative  is  laid  aside  for  the  time  being. 

A  miniature  airship  is  now  built  and  suspended  by  two  WHITE 
threads  so  that  it  can  be  pulled  towards  the  camera  along  an 
overhead  wire  for  quite  a  distance — in  this  case  about  15  feet. 
Back  of  the  airship  and  covering  the  entire  field  of  the  lens  is 
stretched  a  white  sheet  or  background  which  must  be  well  lighted 
so  that  it  will  photograph  brilliantly  white.  The  camera  is  now 
set  so  that  the  airship  will,  when  drawn  along  the  wire  grow 
larger  and  finally  pass  out  of  the  top  of  the  frame  when  it  is 
quite  close  to  the  camera.  The  focus  will  be  set  about  midway 
of  the  airship's  travel  and  may  either  be  changed  as  the  airship 
approaches  or  left  stationary.  There  is  little  advantage  in  this 
case  in  changing  focus.  The  airship  itself  must  be  painted  gray 
or  drab  so  that  it  is  visible  against  the  pure-white  backing. 

After  this  piece  of  film  has  been  taken  it  is  developed  and 
the  result  should  show  the  airship  approaching  against  a  jet 
black  ground   (this  being  a  negative). 

A  print  is  now  made  from  this  negative  on  positive  stock  which 
must  be  printed  so  deep  that  the  airship,  instead  of  being  gray 
or  drab  as  in  the  original,  appears  black  or  nearly  black.  In 
other  words  a  very  dark  print  is  made.  This  should  show  a  black 
or  nearly  black  airship  approaching  against  a  pure-white  or  clear 
film  background. 

We  are  now  ready  to  superimpose  the  airship  against  the  back- 
ground of  Fifth  Avenue.  The  piece  of  negative  of  the  street  is 
placed  in  the  printing  machine  and  against  its  face  is  placed  the 
piece  of  print  of  the  airship  with  the  clear  film  background.  A 
mark  is  made  on  the  perforation  of  each  where  the  start  is  made 
and  then  a  piece  of  unexposed  positive  stock  is  placed  in  the  ma- 
chine, its  beginning  marked  and  all  three  are  run  through  the  ma- 
chine together.  If  this  strip  of  film  were  now  developed  it  would 
show  a  picture  of  Fifth  Avenue  with  a  white  airship  coming  up 
its  length  but  we  don't  wish  this  to  be  the  case.  Therefore,  we 
take  the  piece  of  negative  of  the  airship  with  jet-black  back- 
ground and  match  it  up  with  the  print  of  same  so  that  the  begin- 
ning can  be  made  to  correspond  with  the  beginning  of  the  print 
and  place  it  in  the  printing  machine  together  with  the  piece  of  un- 
developed positive  stock  which  we  have  just  printed.     These  two 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTOG  R  A  P  H  Y 

pieces  are  now  run  through  the  machine  and  the  film  is  then  de- 
veloped as  regular  positive  stock. 

The  result  will  be  a  perfect  illusion.  Every  detail  of  the  ship 
will  show  clearly  and  there  will  be  no  visionary  effect  since  the 
print  of  the  airship  was  run  through  the  printing  machine  with 
the  negative  of  Fifth  Avenue  and  this  served  as  a  mask  and  left  a 
clear  space  which  the  final  negative  of  the  airship  followed  iden- 
tically. Every  rope  and  spar  will  automatically  find  its  proper 
place  on  the  masked  film  and  imprint  itself  there. 

To  insure  that  the  airship  travels  in  the  center  of  the  street 
or  where  desired  a  piece  of  the  negative  of  Fifth  Avenue  first 
taken,  can  be  placed  in  the  ground  glass  aperture  when  focusing 
on  the  miniature  airship  and  the  camera  so  arranged  that  it  will 
be  the  right  size  and  travel  on  the  wire  in  the  proper  direction. 

This  trick  need  not  be  confined  to  miniatures.  By  building  an 
airship  large  enough  to  accommodate  living  persons  and  having 
the  ship  so  arranged  that  clear  sky  is  back  of  it  to  serve  for  the 
white  background,  people  can  be  seen  moving  about  on  the  deck 
of  the  ship  as  it  sails  up  the  street. 

The  student  will,  by  using  his  imagination,  think  of  a  variety 
of  original  ideas  that  can  be  carried  out  by  this  method. 

For  instance — A  man  leaps  from  one  building  to  another  while 
far  below  him  can  be  seen  the  street  and  its  traffic.  The  view 
of  the  tops  of  the  two  buildings  is  first  taken  and  the  street 
showing  below.  The  jump  itself  is  performed  from  one  white 
covered  box  to  another  in  the  studio  against  white  backing  and 
if  the  leap  is  to  be  exaggerated  the  actor  is  merely  swung  on  a 
steel  wire  painted  white.  The  position  of  the  two  white  boxes 
is  arranged  by  placing  a  piece  of  the  negative  of  the  roofs  in  the 
camera  and  arranging  the  boxes  to  fit  the  exact  position  of  the 
edges  of  the  roof. 

Also  a  man  can  be  shown  running  along  a  street  at  the  rate 
of  a  hundred  miles  an  hour  by  this  means : 

A  view  of  the  street  is  first  taken  f fom  an  automobile  traveling 
along.  This  should  be  taken  side  view  to  the  street  and  the 
camera  turned  slowly  so  that  the  streets  will  apparently  fly  past 
very  quickly.  This  negative  is  later  used  with  one  taken  in  the 
studio  showing  the  actor  running  on  a  tread-mill  painted  white 
and  against  a  white  backing  as  heretofore.  Any  number  of  ap- 
parently impossible  effects  can  be  otained  by  this  method.  There 



is  no  end  to  the  variety  of  effects  such  companies  as  Keystone, 
Sennett  and  others  obtain  by  its  use. 

Scenes  showing  Hghtning  striking  people  or  buildings  are 
often  needed.  An  actor  comes  to  the  door  of  a  house  during  a 
storm,  he  is  immediately  struck  in  the  chest  by  a  bolt  from  the 

This  is  done  by  counts.  The  perforation  is  marked  so  film 
can  be  reset  in  camera  to  start  At  count  of  (say  30)  the  actor 
is  to  receive  his  supposed  stroke.  So  he  must  be  at  the  door  by 
about  28  and  just  as  the  cameraman  shouts  30  the  actor  must 
recoil  as  if  struck  and  fall.     The  film  is  then  run  to  end  of  scene. 

A  test  is  now  carefully  made — the  actor  returning  to  as  near 
the  position  he  occupied  when  struck  as  possible.  It  is  well  to 
take  the  above  scene  several  times  as  much  depends  upon  whether 
the  actor  returns  to  his  exact  position  for  the  test. 

The  film  is  now  re-wound  and  the  test  developed. 

This  test  will  be  placed  in  camera  back  of  ground  glass  later 
to  find  the  correct  place  for  the  bolt  of  lightning  to  strike. 

You  will  now  need  an  induction  coil,  such  as  is  used  for  X-ray 
work,  capable  of  throwing  a  six-inch  spark.  This  can  be  rented 
from  the  Marconi  Wireless  Telegraph  Co.  or  obtained  from 
some  X-ray  operative  or  electrical  store. 

It  is  set  up  and  covered  by  a  black  velvet  cloth  so  that  only  the 
two  balls  between  which  the  spark  jumps  are  exposed  to  view 
and  these  are  painted  black  with  non-lustre  varnish. 

The  camera  is  now  adjusted  so  that  one  of  the  balls  is  placed 
against  the  actor's  breast  on  the  test — as  seen  in  camera,  and  the 
other  one  is  against  a  post  in  the  sky  from  which  the  bolt  comes. 
The  switch  on  the  electrical  machine  is  then  closed  and  the  effect 
of  the  jumping  spark  is  noted  on  the  ground  glass  and  test.  If 
it  looks  natural  and  effective  the  bolt  is  ready  to  photograph. 
It  is  advisable  to  throw  the  spark  itself  a  little  out  of  focus  as 
this  will  give  a  sort  of  halo  to  the  bolt  and  make  it  look  more  hot 
and  natural. 

Everything  being  ready  the  film  is  placed  in  the  camera  and 
set  to  its  proper  mark  and  the  lens  opened.  The  cameraman 
starts  turning,  counting  at  same  time.  As  everything  is  draped 
in  black  he  is  getting  no  picture.  There  must  be  very  little  light 
in  the  room  however.  At  the  exact  count  of  30  the  assistant 
presses  the  switch  or  key  for  just  one  instant  and  the  camera- 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTO  G  R  A  P  H  Y 

man  then  continues  to  the  end  of  his  scene  and  the  bolt  has  been 

This  should  be  developed  before  the  other  takes  are  finished 
to  see  if  everything  has  gone  right.  It  is  quite  a  tricky  piece  of 

When  making  scenes  on  board  ship  or  in  a  ship's  interior  set 
the  effect  required  is  that  of  a  ship  rocking  at  sea.  Place  the 
camera,  sideways  on  the  tripod-tilt.  While  turning  the  crank 
have  your  assistant  also  turn  the  tilting  handle  several  turns  one 
way  and  then  reverse  the  motion.  This  must  be  done  steadily 
and  not  too  fast,  never  jerkily. 

Camp-fire  effects  at  night  are  obtained  by  several  methods. 
The  most  effective  I  ever  obtained  was  by  digging  a  hole  in  the 
ground  about  two  feet  deep  and  setting  an  arc  light  in  this,  with 
the  wire  leading  away  from  the  trench  covered  by  a  layer  of 
ground.  The  arc  was  turned  so  that  its  rays  were  thrown  up- 
ward into  the  faces  of  the  .men  grouped  around  the  spot.  In 
front  of  this  trench,  that  is,  on  the  side  towards  the  camera,  were 
placed  a  few  logs  of  wood  and  some  leaves  saturated  with 
kerosene.  The  background  consisted  of  an  old  tree  trunk  stand- 
ing in  the  studio  yard  where  this  scene  was  taken. 

The  camera  was  focused  on  a  flash-lamp  bulb  held  by  my  as- 
sistant directly  over  the  spot  where  the  fire  was  later  ignited.  I 
also  measured  the  distance  with  tape  and  checked  up  on  the  cali- 
brated camera  scale.  When  all  was  ready  the  logs  were  lighted, 
the  current  switched  on  in  the  arc  and  the  men  gathered  around 
the  fire.  I  had  the  diaphragm  of  my  lens  wide  open — f.3.5  and 
shutter  at  normal.  I  turned  a  little  slowly — about  Ys  normal 
speed.  The  positive  film  was  tinted  red  and  was  all  that  could 
be  desired. 

Another  method,  where  electricity  cannot  be  obtained,  is  to 
sink  several  slow  burning  magnesium  torches  in  the  hole 
in  the  ground.  These  are  made  by  Newman  of  New  York  and 
are  quite  expensive  so  that,  wherever  possible,  electric  arcs 
should  be  used.  Also,  the  flares  only  burn  about  two  minutes 
and  emit  volumes  of  smoke  which  often  entirely  hide  everything 
from  the  lens. 

Smoke-pots  are  a  sulphurous  combination  of  powders  that  can 
be  purchased  at  any  theatrical  supply  house  and  are  used  to 
"fake"  fires  in  daytime,       Several  smoke-pots  lighted  behind 



windows  will  produce  volumes  of  thick,  yellow  smoke  that  will 
roll  through  the  window  giving  the  effect  of  a  hot  fire  within. 
They  are  harmless  inasmuch  as  they  never  produce  any  real 
amount  of  heat  nor  can  they  explode.  The  smoke  they  pour 
forth  quickly  disappears.  It  is,  however,  very  non-actinic  and 
photographs  effectively.  It  is  also  used  by  "miniature"  workers 
in  miniature  volcanoes.  When  these  effects  are  tinted  red  they 
are  most  convincing. 


Chapter  XVIII 

UNDOUBTEDLY  the  most  important  phase  in  the  produc- 
tion of  a  picture  is  the  choice  of  subject,  and  in  no  case, 
paradoxical  as  it  may  seem,  is  this  so  important  as  in 
pictures  which,  to  the  "man  in  the  street,"  have  no  subject. 

The  fact  that  a  particular  view  or  landscape  is  pleasing  to  the 
eye  is  not  necessarily  a  reason  for  its  being  pleasing  in  a  picture, 
for  there  is  an  essential  difference.     Nature  is  an  unlimited,  un- 
bounded reality,  possessing  color,  relief,  solidity,  distance,  atmos- 
phere, and  other  attributes,  which  can  only  be  represented,  not 
reproduced,  in  a  work  of  art.     While  nature  is  an  entity,  art  is 
an  illusion,  a  symbol,  based  upon  and  recalling  nature,  but  appeal- 
ing to  us  in  a  different  way.     Though  lovers  of  art  are  also  lovers 
of  nature,  they  do  not  enjoy  a  visit  to  a  picture  gallery  in  the 
same  way  that  they  enjoy  a  walk  in  the  country.     A  picture, 
however  real  in  its  illusion,  can  represent  only  a  small  portion  of 
nature — a  small  slice  of  it. 

Here  we  have  the  first  reason  why  a  pleasing  landscape  will 
not  necessarily  give  a  pleasing  photograph.  The  photograph  has 
an  outside  boundary,  a  hard  edge,  where  it  is  cut  out  of  nature. 
The  eye  cannot  wander  beyond  this  edge  and  find  fresh  beauties 
as  it  can  in  nature.  We  are  brought  at  once  to  the  formal  limits  of 
our  subject. 

If  the  eye  strives  to  go  beyond  the  limits  of  a  picture,  the 
result  will  be  restlessness  and  want  of  completeness.  The  objects 
at  the  margins  must  not  be  so  attractive  as  to  lead  the  eye  out 
of  the  picture.  They  should  not  suggest  the  violent  exclusion 
or  excision  of  parts  of  nature.  To  give  instances,  great  circum- 
spection is  necessary  in  introducing  overhanging  branches  of 
trees  not  themselves  included  in  the  picture,  or  of  showing  a  tree 
without  giving  an  indication  of  the  ground  from  which  it  grows ; 
do  not  infer  that  such  objects  are  never  allowable.  Each  case 
must  be  considered  on  its  own  merits. 

A  picture  has  a  two-fold  aim.  It  aims  not  only  to  represent 
nature,  but  also  to  be  a  decorative  design.     The  lines  and  masses 



COMPOSITION      BY      J.      C      WARBURG 

of  the  picture  must  have  a  certain  balance  or  rhythm  in  order  to 
please — hence  the  importance  of  "composition." 

The  photographer,  unlike  the  painter  who  can  shift  objects 
and  place  them  where  he  likes  on  the  canvas  must  find  his  de- 
sign in  nature.  He  has  to  move  his  camera  right  or  left,  back- 
wards or  forwards,  up  or  down,  until  his  focusing  screen  in- 
cludes a  pleasing  design. 

The  problem  is  to  fit  the  picture  into  the  space  satisfactorily. 
The  picture  must  not  look  as  if  it  were  cramped  and  forced  into 
constraining  limits.  It  is  also  necessary  that  all  parts  of  the 
picture  help  the  general  effect  and  belong  to  it.  Extraneous 
objects,  confliction  of  lines,  division  of  interest,  all  detract  from 
the  force  of  the  picture. 

The  general  design  should  be  simple.  It  should  resolve  itself 
on  analysis  into  a  few  sinaple  forms,  or  groups  of  forms,  rather 
than  into  a  heterogeneous  mixture  of  light  and  dark  patches  and 
bewildering  lines. 

If  we  examine  one  of  those  pictures  which  attract  us  in  a 
picture  gallery,  interesting  us  even  before  we  have  made  out  their 
subject,  we  shall  find  generally  that  it  is  built  on  well-marked  but 
simple  lines,  with  well  massed  light  and  shade. 

The  fact  that  the  groundwork  is  simple  has  little  or  nothing  to 
do  with  the  details.  These  may  be  few  or  elaborate,  yet  the 
general  effect  of  the  picture,  considered  as  a  design  or  decorative 
piece  remains  much  the  same. 

The  subject  of  the  picture  is  its  most  important  and  con- 
spicuous part.  It  is  generally  placed  toward  the  middle  of  the 
composition  with  the  subsidiary  objects  leading  to  or  balancing 
it.  Unless  one  portion  of  the  picture  is  more  interesting  than 
the  rest,  there  is  danger  of  the  eye  being  attracted  first  to  one 
side  and  then  to  the  other.  This  may  lead  to  a  restless  or  monot- 
onous effect  By  having  a  principal  object,  supported  by  less 
important  elements  the  interest  is  concentrated.  Such  a  prin- 
cipal object  need  not  be  very  large,  nor  is  it  necessarily  im- 
mediately recognizable  as  the  artistic  motive  of  the  picture.  It 
may  be  merely  a  splash  of  sunlight  on  a  white  house,  or  a  branch 
against  a  white  cloud.  In  many  pictures,  depending  for  their  at- 
traction more  on  the  mood  and  expression  of  the  whole  than  on 
the  actual  subjects  treated — on  tone  more  than  on  design — it  is 
often  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  pick  out  one  portion  of  the 



picture  as  undoubtedly  the  principal  object.     Generally,  however, 
such  a  centre  of  interest  is  discoverable. 

Many  authors  have  sought  to  determine  mathematically  the  best 
position  for  such  principal  object  and  their  results  may  be  useful 
as  suggestions  rather  than  as  rules.  It  has  been  stated,  for  in- 
stance, that  if  a  picture  be  divided  into  three,  or  into  five,  equal 
parts  in  both  directions,  the  points  of  intersection  of  the  dividing 
lines  will  be  the  strongest  positions  for  the  principal,  and  second- 
ary objects.  This  is  rarely  the  case,  however,  and  it  would  be 
correct  to  say  that  such  objects  are  rarely  quite  central  or  quite 
evenly  balanced. 

If  the  most  important  parts  of  the  pictvire  are  placed  toward 
the  centre,  it  may  be  asked  what  should  be  placed  in  the  mar- 
gins. Generally  speaking,  the  base  of  the  picture  should  form 
a  sort  of  threshold  to  the  picture,  a  piece  of  ground  or  herbage, 
upon  which  in  fancy  we  may  step,  the  more  nearly  to  examine 
the  picture  proper.  Sometimes  it  is  a  road  or  path  leading  into 
the  picture,  sometimes  the  lower  leaves  of  a  plant  which  rise 
upwards,  something  soft  and  harmonious  rather  than  detailed 
^nd  emphatic. 

There  is  a  story  of  a  French  painter,  who  painted  a  picture 
with  a  wonderful  foreground.  He  showed  it  to  a  friend,  who 
was  so  full  of  admiration  for  the  foreground  that  he  could  hardly 
look  at  other  parts  of  the  picture.  Seeing  this,  the  painter  seized 
a  brush  and  painted  out  most  of  the  details,  reducing  the  fore- 
ground to  its  simplest  expression,  in  order  that  it  might  form 
but  one  item  in  a  harmonious  whole,  instead  of  overweighing 
other  parts  of  the  picture  and  detracting  from  the  effect. 

Foregrounds,  then  should  be  unobtrusive.  They  should  not 
contain  great  contrasts  or  be  too  sharply  detailed. 

Nevertheless,  a  note  of  contrast,  such  as  a  strongly  lighted 
rock  or  tree-trunk  on  one  side  or  other  of  the  immediate  fore- 
ground, may  often  be  of  value  in  throwing  back  objects  behind 

The  foreground  should  not  form  an  isolated,  uninteresting 
patch — it  should  lead  into  and  blend  with  the  picture.  Some- 
times we  see  a  more  or  less  rectangular  space  of  foreground, 
almost  detached  from  the  rest  of  the  picture,  a  space  which  could 
be  trimmed  off  without  making  much  difference.  Nearly  always 
such  disconnected  islands  in  any  part  of  a  picture  detract  from 
the  unity  of  the  composition. 


COMPOSITION      BY      J.      C      WARBURG 

What  has  been  said  of  the  base  applies  in  less  degree  to  the 
top  and  sides.  One  side  generally  contains  some  important  fore- 
ground object  placed  a  short  distance  from  the  edge. 

Although  few  photographs  contain  "lines"  such  as  those  in 
pencil  drawing,  yet  Line  is  a  most  important  matter  in  every 
branch  of  picture-making.  If  we  examine  a  good  collection  of 
etchings,  we  shall  notice  what  an  immense  power  line  possesses. 
The  etcher  has  neither  the  color  of  the  painter,  nor,  to  any  great 
extent,  the  gradation  of  the  photographer.  He  is  largely  de- 
pendent on  line,  and  uses  its  power  to  the  utmost. 

The  photographer  often  overlooks  the  importance  of  line. 
Line  in  a  photograph  is  not  necessarily  an  actual  line,  such  as  a 
wall  or  paling,  the  base  of  a  building  or  a  path.  More  often  it 
is  the  edge  of  something,  a  ridge  of  hills  against  the  sky,  or  a 
dark  bank  of  trees  against  the  lighter  distance.  Often  it  is  dis- 
continuous :  a  row  of  posts  or  trees,  a  flock  of  sheep  going  down 
a  road.  Whatever  it  represents,  and  however  it  occurs,  a  fairly 
well-marked  line  insensibly  draws  the  eye  along  it. 

If  the  line  is  a  softly  undulating  one  the  eye  follows  it  easily, 
and  without  effort,  and  the  result  is  pleasant  and  soothing.  If, 
on  the  contrary,  it  is  broken  and  jagged,  the  eye  has  more 
trouble  in  following  it,  and  the  resulting  impression  is  one  of 
stress  or  movement. 

We  all  know  the  peaceful  calm  of  a  quiet  sunset  over  the  sea, 
the  straight  horizon  and  the  parallel  banks  of  cloud  above  it, 
or  the  restfulness  of  softly  undulating  downs,  with,  perhaps, 
the  gently  curling  smoke  of  a  farmhouse  in  the  foreground. 
Compare  these  with  the  wildness  of  a  billowy  sea  and  storm- 
torn  clouds,  or  the  jagged  outline  of  a  granite  crag,  or  the 
gnarled  and  twisted  trunks  of  windswept  trees.  The  mental 
effect  is  entirely  different:  Gentle  lines,  especially  where  they 
are  nearly  horizontal,  are  connected  in  our  minds  with  peace; 
jagged  and  broken  lines  with  unrest. 

It  may  be  objected  that  the  photographer  cannot  alter  the  lines 
of  a  landscape.  Nature  has  formed  them  for  him  to  take  or 
leave.  If  that  is  so,  he  can,  at  any  rate,  exercise  his  power  of 
selection  by  taking  a  picture  only  where  the  lines  are  suitable, 
and  refraining  from  exposing  when  they  are  not.  But  that  is 
hardly  the  case.  Nature  provides  the  lines,  the  photographer 
can  vary  them,  if  not  to  an  unlimited  extent,  at  any  rate  to  such 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTOGRA  P  H  Y 

an  extent  that  out  of  the  same  subject  he  can  often  make  many 
dissimilar  pictures. 

Let  us  take  as  example  the  case  of  a  well-marked  path  leading 
past  a  tree,  with  the  distance  beyond.  The  photographer  erects 
his  camera  in  the  middle  of  the  path  pointing  at  the  tree;  re- 
sult, the  tree  in  the  middle  of  the  picture,  the  path  widening  out 
towards  the  bottom  of  the  picture.  By  turning  the  camera  on 
its  tripod  the  tree  and  lines  are  brought  more  towards  right  or 
left,  but  their  shape  is  unchanged.  Move  the  whole  camera  a 
yard  to  one  side,  however,  and  a  marked  change  occurs.  The 
path  now  starts  from  the  corner,  and  curves  towards  the  middle. 
Move  the  camera  another  yard  in  the  same  direction  and  the 
path  will  now  enter  from  the  side  of  picture,  curving  past  the 

The  horizon  "line  is  a  line  of  great  importance.  Its  position  in 
the  picture  has  a  great  influence  on  composition.  All  level  or 
horizontal  lines  which  recede  from  the  eye  terminate  ultimately 
in  the  horizon,  or  would  do  so,  if  produced  sufficiently  far. 

The  horizon  is  on  the  level  of  the  eye  or,  in  the  case  of  a 
photograph,  of  the  lens.  In  order  to  obtain  a  true  perspective 
of  a  picture  the  eye  must  be  on  a  level  with  its  horizon.  If  the 
picture  be  above  or  below  the  eye,  the  camera  must  be  tilted  for- 
ward or  backward,  in  order  that  the  line  of  sight  from  the  eye 
falls  normally  (i.e.,  at  right  angles)  on  the  horizon  of  the  picture. 

Horizontal  lines  above  the  horizon  line,  therefore,  slope  down 
towards  it,  while  those  below  slope  up.  The  Hne  of  a  wall  of, 
say,  4^  feet  high  may,  therefore,  be  made  to  slope  upwards  or 
downwards  on  the  ground  glass,  according  as  we  place  our  cam- 
era at  a  height  of  5>4  or  3^  feet  respectively. 

With  regard  to  the  position  of  the  horizon  in  the  picture,  the 
division  of  the  picture  into  three  or  five  comes  into  play  here. 
The  horizon  line  seldom  looks  well  in  the  middle  of  the  picture, 
for  it  then  bisects  the  picture,  making  it  too  symmetrical  and 
geometrical  in  arrangement.  A  much  more  usual  position  is  a 
third  or  two-fifths  from  the  bottom.  In  most  old  pictures  and 
in  pictures  in  which  the  sky  forms  a  prominent  feature,  the  hori- 
zon will  be  in  that  neighborhood. 

The  influence  of  Japanese  art,  with  its  strong  decorative  char- 
acter, or  the  desire  for  change  from  an  arrangement  which  had 
become  almos.t  conventional,  has  led  to  the  frequent  use  of  a 







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COMPOSITION      BY      J.      C.      WARBURG 

high  horizon,  about  one-third  or  two-fifths  from  the  top  of  the 
picture.  A  high  horizon  gives  greater  scope  for  decorative  Hnes 
in  the  foreground. 

The  photographer  raises  the  horizon  on  his  film  by  tilting  the 

If  most  of  the  lines  in  a  picture  slope  in  the  same  direction  the 
effect  is  uneasy.  There  is  a  feeling  that  the  whole  picture  is 
sliding  downward.  To  obviate  this  it  is  necessary  that  the  sloping 
lines  be  balanced  by  opposing  lines  sloping  in  the  other  direction, 
or  that  some  strong  object  be  included  to  stop  the  lines  sliding  out 
of  the  picture.  Although  the  lines  are  not  actually  sliding,  the  be- 
holder imagines  they  are.  Just  as  we  stop  an  object  from  sliding 
by  placing  a  heavy  mass  in  front  of  it,  so  we  can  neutralize  the 
the  effect  of  sliding  in  the  picture. 

On  the  slope  of  a  hill  or  watershed  where  most  of  the  lines 
tend  to  slope  in  one  direction,  it  may  not  be  possible  to  find  con- 
trary lines  of  hills,  but  a  foreground  rock  or  clump  of  bushes,  or 
a  house  or  tree  in  the  mid-distance,  may  often  be  secured  in 
the  field  of  view.  Failing  these,  or  in  addition  to  them,  cloud 
forms  may  be  secured,  which  will  give  the  necessary  balance  of 

For  another  reason  unbalanced  sloping  lines  are  undesirable. 
They  lead  the  eye  out  of  the  picture.  When  balancing  lines  are 
introduced,  on  the  other  hand,  the  eye  is  led  toward  the  middle  of 
the  picture  where  the  lines  join  or  cross.  The  tendency  is  for 
the  eye  to  follow  converging  or  disappearing  lines  toward  their 
converging  end,  rather  than  to  follow  their  radiations  toward  the 
edges  of  the  picture. 

Design  is  not  only  a  matter  of  line,  biii;  also  of  mass.  As  we 
may  have  an  unbalanced  effect  if  all  the  lines  slope  the  same  way, 
so  also  we  may  get  an  unbalanced  effect  if  all  the  larger  and  heav- 
ier masses  are  on  one  side  of  the  print.  Here,  again,  the  mental 
effect  is  comparable  to  the  actual  effect  of  mass  or  weight.  A 
"heavy"  shadow  appears  to  drag  down  one  side  of  the  picture, 
just  as  a  heavy  weight  would  drag  down  one  side  of  a  pair  of 
scales.  The  blacker  the  mass,  the  heavier  its  effect — a  property 
of  which  we  may  make  use  in  order  to  balance  a  large  mass  of 
low  tone  on  one  side  of  the  picture  by  a  smaller  mass  of  still 
deeper  shadow  on  the  other. 

Large  masses  not  too  much  chequered  and  contrasted  by  light 



and  shade  give  dignity  and  breadth.  White  and  black  are  uncom- 
mon in  nature,  and  should  be  discreetly  used.  The  highest  light 
in  a  film,  even  if  it  is  not  absolutely  clear  celluloid,  will  tell  better 
if  it  forms  but  the  climax  of  a  modulated  mass  of  light  tone  (espe- 
cially if  contrasted  by  a  strong  dark  in  its  neighborhood)  than  if 
it  is  a  flat  tone  of  unmodulated  white. 

Mass,  and  light  and  shade,  are  almost  synonyms  in  mono- 
chrome. Therefore  the  lighting  of  the  subject,  the  time  of  the 
day,  the  weather,  and  especially  the  presence  or  absence  of  sun- 
light, have  an  overwhelming  effect  on  the  arrangement  of  mass. 

A  hill  against  the  sky  with  the  light  behind  it  forms  a  dark 
mass,  while  the  same  hill  in  a  misty  atmosphere  and  lighted  from 
the  front  may  merge  into  the  general  tone  of  the  sky.  We  lose 
not  only  the  heavy  effect  of  the  mass,  but  also  the  strong  line  of 
its  edge.    The  lighting,  then,  is  worthy  of  intense  consideration. 

The  lights  and  shadows  in  pictures  are  generally  found  more 
or  less  massed  together  than  chequered  over  the  surface — the 
darker  tones,  for  instance,  at  the  bottom  and  one  side,  and  the 
lighter  tones  at  the  other  side  and  top. 

Where  a  strong  dark  juts  out  against  a  high  light,  or  vice  versa, 
we  obtain  a  contrast  which  is  certain  to  attract  the  eye.  Such  a 
point  generally  forms  the  central  point  of  the  comfw:>sition.  It 
must,  therefore,  be  well  placed. 

The  most  stable  and  solid  effect  is  obtained  by  having  large 
masses,  more  especially  dark  ones,  at  the  base  of  the  picture, 
support  smaller  or  lighter  masses  above;  on  the  principle  of  the 

Too  even  a  distribution  of  light  and  shade  is  apt  to  be  monot- 
onous, and  inimical  to  concentration  of  expression.  For  thh 
reason,  a  landscape  lighted  from  the  front  is  generally  less  suit- 
able for  pictorial  representation,  than  if  lighted  from  the  side. 
Similarly,  evening  light,  with  its  long  shadows,  has  a  breadth 
which  we  may  seek  in  vain  at  noontide. 

A  sky  with  brightly  lighted  cumulus  clouds  interspersed  on 
the  dark  blue  ether — such  a  sky  we  get  when  a  storm  passes  off 
— is  likely  to  give  a  much  more  interesting  lighting  to  the  land- 
scape, than  either  a  cloudless  blue  sky,  or  the  dull  grey  of  a 
dreary  day. 

Most  potent  of  all  in  its  effect  on  light  and  shade,  is  the 
presence  of  the  sun. 


COMPOSITION      BY      J.      C      WARBURG 

Do  not  draw  the  inference  that  all  pictures  are  best  taken  by 
evening  sunlight  or  after  a  storm.  The  characteristics  of  such 
lighting  are  merely  given.  These  matters  have  to  be  considered, 
but  they  should  be  subsidiary  to  the  carrying  out  of  one's  artistic 
intentions.  Nature  has  many  moods,  and  they  are  all  worth 
portraying  artistically. 

To  take  an  instance  where  some  breadth  must  be  sacrificed  for 
natural  effect,  the  chequered  sunlight  of  the  leafy  wood  would 
lose  its  gaiety  and  vivacity  if  the  sunlight  appeared  in  large  patch- 
es instead  of  small  ones.  One  should  endeavor  merely  to  choose 
a  view-point,  in  which  these  small,  overlapping  images  of  the  sun 
on  the  ground  are  more  or  less  grouped  into  masses  of  light.  Also, 
one  should  avoid  their  being  scattered  too  evenly  over  the  whole 
picture,  and  try  to  arrange  (by  including  a  bit  of  sunless  fore- 
ground, for  instance)  that  the  sunny  bit  forms  the  center  of  at- 
traction of  the  picture. 

The  proportion  of  light  to  dark  in  a  picture  is  a  matter  of  indiv- 
idual preference  and  of  the  effect  desired.  Rembrandt  in  his 
work  generally  used  much  shadow,  thereby  enhancing  the  bril- 
liancy of  the  lights  by  contrast.  The  French  Impressionists,  on 
the  other  hand,  keep  the  whole  picture  light,  thereby  obtaining  a 
general  luminous  effect.  If  a  picture  contains  light  and  dark  in 
equal  proportions,  the  result  is  likely  to  be  rather  tame,  in  com- 
parison with  one  in  which  either  light  or  dark  tones  preponderate. 

As  in  musical  nomenclature,  these  differences  are  often  spoken 
of  as  differences  of  key.  Likewise,  the  tones  of  a  picture,  rang- 
ing from  black  as  the  deepest  tone  to  white  as  the  highest,  are 
comparable  to  the  tones  in  music.  The  whole  range  of  tones  is 
called  the  scale  of  tones,  or  scale  of  gradation.  If  the  picture 
includes  all  the  tones  from  black  to  white  we  speak  of  a  complete, 
full,  or  extended  scale. 

From  the  photographic  point  of  view,  a  full  scale  of  gradation 
depends  on  an  exposure  sufficient  to  give  the  shadow  detail  (the 
low  tones,  without  over-exposing  the  lights  (the  high  tones), 
coupled  with  a  developement  which  gives  sufficient  contrast  to 
enable  both  black  and  white  to  be  obtained  in  the  particular  print- 
ing process  employed. 

It  may  be  as  well  to  note  at  this  point  that  while  line  is  almost 
entirely  a  question  of  view-point,  having  little  to  do  with  lighting, 
and  being  almost  independent  of  exposure,  mass  is  a  question  not 



only  of  view-point,  but  of  lighting.  Tone,  though  depending  on 
selection  for  its  material,  requires  approximate  exposure  and  de- 
velopment for  its  successful  registration. 

Photographic  composition  is,  therefore,  of  a  threefold  or  four- 
fold nature. 

To  return  to  our  musical  analogies :  A  picture  containing  many- 
deep  tones  is  said  to  be  in  a  low  key,  one  containing  a  majority 
of  light  ones  in  a  high  key. 

Where  there  are  a  few  gradations  (or  modulations,  to  use  the 
musical  analogy)  between  light  and  dark,  the  range  of  gradation 
is  said  to  be  abrupt. 

The  scale  of  gradation  in  nature  between  a  light  in  sun- 
light and  a  dark  object  in  shadow  is  many  times  greater  than  the 
range  obtainable  between  black  and  white  in  a  print.  So  great, 
indeed,  is  the  illuminating  power  of  sunlight,  that  a  piece  of  black 
velvet  in  the  sun  may  reflect  more  light — that  is,  appear  lighter — 
than  a  piece  of  white  paper  or  other  light  object  in  the  shade. 

This  being  the  case,  it  is  obviously  impossible  to  copy  nature's 
scale,  except  where  only  a  very  limited  range  of  light  and  shade  is 
included  in  the  picture.  The  best  we  can  obtain  is  a  compromise, 
which  will  give  us  the  illusion  of  nature  and  nature's  lighting, 
Obviously,  there  are  different  ways  of  approaching  this  problem. 

First,  let  us  consider  the  three  cases  in  which  we  represent  the 
highest  tone  of  our  subject  by  transparent  celluloid  and  the  dark- 
est tone  by  the  blackest  deposit  of  silver  of  which  our  print  is 

The  first  case  is  that  in  which  all  the  tones  of  nature  are  more 
or  less  equally  compressed  in  the  scale  of  the  print.  The  highest 
light  is  white,  the  deepest  shadow  black,  and  the  middle  half- 
tone is  a  medium  grey  in  the  print.  This  is  the  ideal  negative 
of  the  technician.  It  corresponds  to  a  negative  which,  allowing 
considerable  latitude  in  exposure,  has  received  normal  exposure 
and  normal  development.  The  result  evokes  no  blame  and  little 
praise.  It  is  more  or  less  impersonal  and  unexciting,  and  is 
usually  of  more  topographical  than  artistic  interest. 

The  second  case  is  that  in  which  the  shadow  gradation  is  long 
and  extended,  and  the  high  light  gradation  compressed.  This 
form  of  treatment  is  suitable  for  subjects  in  which  the  greater 
part  of  the  picture  is  composed  of  dark  objects.  To  some  extent 
it  sacrifices  the  high  lights  to  the  shadows.  It  corresponds  to  very 


COMPOSITION      BY      J.      C      WARBURG 

full  exposure  and  suitable  development.  The  negatives  are  good 
printers.     It  gives  results  of  solidity  and  richness. 

The  third  case  is  that  in  which  the  scale  of  gradation  is  ex- 
tended in  the  high  lights  and  compressed  in  the  low  tones.  It  is 
suitable  for  subjects  whose  charm  is  in  their  luminosity  and  the 
delicate  modulations  of  their  lighter  tones,  for  effects  of  sunlight 
on  light  surfaces.  It  sacrifices  the  shadows,  and,  if  these  are 
extended,  makes  them  look  empty.  It  corresponds  to  careful  de- 
velopment with  comparatively  short  exposure. 

In  these  three  cases  we  have  postulated  the  existence  of  gra- 
dation sufficiently  contrasted  to  give  both  black  and  white  in  the 
prints.  But  actual  white  is  found,  as  a  rule,  only  in  small  patches 
in  nature — as  the  highest  light  on  a  sunlit  cloud  or  white  object — 
while  absolute  black  is  practically  non-existent. 

Now,  though  the  black  of  a  print  is  not  comparable  with  actual 
blackness,  i,e.,  absence  of  light — ^yet  we  know  that  it  is  the  black- 
est black  we  can  obtain  on  a  print.  If  we  use  such  a  black  to 
represent  something  in  nature  which  is  not  absolutely  black,  the 
print  will  appear  forced  and  exaggerated. 

In  nature  we  feel  that  there  is  always  a  reserve.  Though  the 
dark  shadow  in  nature  may  be  much  darker  than  the  black  on 
our  print,  yet  we  know  that  in  nature  still  deeper  tones  exist, 
while  in  the  print  we  have  touched  bottom.  For  this  reason  it  is 
safer  not  to  use  quite  the  full  gradation  of  a  printing  paper,  or 
if  we  use  it,  be  careful  that  white  and  black  appear  only  in  very 
restricted  areas,  to  form  the  extreme  accents  of  the  high  light 
and  deep  shade. 

From  the  foregoing  it  will  be  seen  that  we  do  not  always 
utilize  the  full  scale  of  gradation,  but  may  vary  the  expression  of 
pictures  by  adopting  a  high  tone  in  which  we  have  full  gradations 
in  the  Hghter  portions  of  the  picture  and  no  darks,  or  a  low  tone 
with  full  gradations  in  the  shadows,  but  no  lights. 

Obviously,  in  neither  of  these  cases  must  development  be 
pushed  so  far  as  to  get  a  very  long  scale  of  gradation.  In  the 
first  case  the  exposure  must  be  comparatively  short,  in  the  second, 
sufficiently  prolonged  to  give  the  shadow  tones. 

Such  a  restricted  scale  is  most  appropriate  when  we  wish  to 
give  an  effect  of  great  luminosity  or  of  gloom.  Although  such 
treatment  is  capable  of  giving  a  very  good  illusion  of  certain 
aspects  of  nature,  the  results  are  more  likely  to  appeal  to  the  few 



than  to  the  "man  in  the  street,"  who  prefers  more  full-blooded 
presentments  of  nature. 

The  general  design  or  composition  of  a  picture,  and  its  masses 
and  light  and  shade,  are  of  paramount  importance.  Detail  is 
good  if  it  helps  to  emphasize  and  increase  the  interest  of  the 
general  idea,  but  bad  if  it  attracts  attention  from,  or  conflicts 
with  that  idea. 

For  instance,  if  in  a  picture,  the  eye,  following  some  attractive 
line  from  the  foreground,  halts  to  consider  the  principal  object 
in  the  middle  distance,  and  finds  pleasing  detail  there,  the  sensa- 
tion is  one  of  added  enjoyment.  First  the  good  design,  then  the 
pleasant  progression,  then  the  interest  of  the  main  object,  and 
then  the  further  interest  of  examining  its  details  and  finding  fresh 
beauties.     This  is  a  right  use  of  detail. 

When,  on  the  other  hand,  detail,  whether  owing  to  too  crude 
lighting  or  to  too  sharp  focusing,  is  sprinkled  all  over  the  picture, 
and  draws  the  eye  now  this  way,  now  that,  then  it  is  detail  in- 
correctly used. 

A  picture  may  be  sharp,  or  nearly  sharp,  all  over,  yet  if  the 
details  are  subsidiary,  and  do  not  flaunt  themselves,  the  effect 
may  be  harmonious — witness  many  of  the  paintings  of  the  pre- 
Raphaelite  school.  On  the  other  hand,  a  picture  may  have  no 
sharp  place  in  it,  as  in  the  paintings  of  the  French  Impressionists, 
and  yet  be  harmonious. 

There  is  no  general  law,  only  the  rule  that  detail  must  be  sub- 
servient to  the  general  idea  of  the  picture.  Detail  may  be  con- 
sidered as  pictorial  embroidery — rightly  used  it  gives  a  rich  effect, 
wrongly  used  a  garish  one.  Yet,  as  we  may  have  a  beautiful 
drapery  either  with  or  without  embroidery,  so  we  may  have  a 
beautiful  picture  with  or  without  detail. 

In  a  photograph  we  are  more  likely  to  have  too  much  than  too 
little  detail.  Often  it  is  a  case  of  not  seeing  the  wood  for  the 
trees.  If  we  focus  sharply  on  our  principal  object,  we  shall  get 
other  objects  in  the  same  plane  sharp  also. 

It  is  one  advantage  of  the  older  forms  of  lens  that  their  curva- 
ture of  field,  or  their  marginal  astigmatism,  partially  eliminates 
the  detail  round  the  edges  of  the  picture,  where  it  is  most  likely 
to  be  superfluous. 

The  larger  the  stop  used,  the  fewer  planes  are  in  focus  at  the 
same  time,  and  for  this  reason  one  should  work  with  the  largest 


COMPOSITION      BY-    J.      C.      WARBURG 

stop  with  which  fair  definition  is  obtainable,  focusing  generally 
on  the  principal  object  or  on  the  foreground,  for  a  blurred  tree 
or  rock  in  front  of  the  picture  is  objectionable,  while  a  diffused 
distance  is  generally  pleasant.  If  we  stop  down  too  much,  we 
lose  all  effect  of  relief  and  distance,  unless,  indeed,  nature  has 
been  so  kind  as  to  intervene  with  an  evening  mist  to  soften  the 
distance  for  us.  We  are  using  too  large  an  aperture,  when  the 
drawing  of  objects  is  lost. 

A  certain  amount  of  detail  is  probably  necessary  to  convey 
texture,  but  in  landscape  this  is  not  always  requisite.  Less  detail 
is  necessary  to  indicate  the  shape  of  objects.  When  form  is  lost 
by  extreme  diffusion,  we  attract  attention  to  parts  of  the  picture 
which  it  was  our  intention  to  keep  subsidiary. 

Depth  of  focus,  or  depth  of  definition,  the  name  given  to  the 
power  of  a  lens  of  defining  equally  sharply,  planes  at  different 
distances,  is  chiefly  a  matter  of  focal  length  and  stop. 

Using  the  same  lens,  the  depth  of  focus  is  increased  by  stopping 

Of  two  lenses  of  different  foci  working  at  the  same  relative 
(not  actual)  aperture,  the  shorter  focus  one  has  the  greater  depth 
of  definition. 

A  great  softener  of  detail  and  harmonizer  of  tones  is  the 
atmosphere,  especially  if  burdened  with  moisture,  not  necessarily 
in  the  very  distinct  form  of  mist  or  fog. 

We  sometimes  notice  how  hard  and  crude  everything  looks 
in  an  east  wind,  how  black  the  shadows  are,  yet  how  devoid  of 
that  mysterious  depth  which  is  so  attractive  to  the  artist.  That 
which  is  lacking  is  '"atmosphere." 

The  effect  of  atmosphere — aerial  perspective — is  to  interpose, 
as  it  were,  a  light  veil  between  object  and  spectator.  Only  near 
objects  are  visible  in  their  real  tones  or  values,  those  further 
away,  are  more  and  more  veiled  as  they  are  at  greater  distances 
from  the  eye.  The  effect  of  this  is  twofold.  On  the  one  hand, 
it  blurs  and  diffuses  objects  progressively,  according  to  their 
distance.  On  the  other,  it  confounds  their  color  or  tone,  by 
shrouding  and  covering  them  with  a  veil  of  mist.  Thus  a  black 
and  white  object  near  at  hand  becomes  but  dark  and  light  grey 
when  we  recede  from  it,  while  from  the  distance  it  appears  a 
uniform  grey  tone. 

It  is  one  unpleasant  effect  of  under-exposure  and  over-develop- 



ment  that  they  tend  to  exaggerate  the  contrasts  of  distant  objects 
and  make  them  come  forward,  "jump,"  as  it  is  called. 

In  order  that  the  different  tones  of  a  picture  should  appear 
to  the  eye  at  their  right  distances,  their  values  must  be  correct, 
that  is  to  say,  they  must  be  to  some  extent  proportionate  to  one 
another.  The  tones  individually  need  not  match  the  tones  they 
represent  in  nature,  but  they  must  bear  a  similar  relationship. 

Thus,  we  may  represent  a  light  tone  in  nature  by  a  light  tone 
on  developing  paper,  or  by  a  medium  tone,  and  both  may  give  a 
true  effect  if  all  the  other  tones  are  shifted  down  in  correct 

It  is  not  known  whether  this  question  of  values  can  be  ac- 
curately proportioned  or  scientifically  measured.  The  problem 
has  been  attempted,  but  not  solved.  At  present  a  trained  eye  is 
the  only  judge. 

It  is  therefore  necessary  to  carefully  educate  one's  taste  by 
observation.  It  is  the  only  safeguard  against  those  crudities  of 
tone  which  are  far  too  frequent,  even  on  exhibition  walls.  Never- 
theless, we  are  progressing  in  that  matter,  faster  perhaps  than  in 
other  directions. 

The  ordinary  photographic  film  is  color  blind,  and  therein  lies 
one  of  the  chief  causes  of  false  values.  A  blue  object  appears 
too  light,  and  a  yellow  object  too  dark  when  the  negative  is  taken 
on  an  ordinary  plate.  The  ordinary  film  is  little  affected  by 
pure  spectrum  yellow  light  in  the  time  required  to  impress  the 
blue  rays;  yet  as  all  objects  in  nature  reflect  mixed  colors,  includ- 
ing a  good  deal  of  diffused  white  light,  and  not  merely  a  single 
spectrum  color,  this  insensitiveness  is  less  formidable  than  it 
would  otherwise  be.  Nevertheless,  it  is  quite  sufficient  in  many 
cases  to  entirely  falsify  results.  I  have,  for  instance,  taken  a 
field  of  blossoming  gorse  on  an  ordinary  film,  and  the  result  has 
shown  no  indication  of  blossom.  All  photographers,  too,  know 
the  difficulty  experienced  in  obtaining  clouds  on  the  same  plate  as 
the  landscape. 

Orthochromatic  or  isochromatic  films  are  prepared  with  a  dye, 
which  enables  the  film  to  absorb,  and  be  affected,  by  rays  of  color 
which  the  ordinary  film  fails  to  hold  fast.  There  are  two  chief 
classes  of  orthochromatic  films — ^the  one  class  sensitive  to  yellow 
and  green,  the  other  sensitive  to  red  as  well. 

The  latter,  or  panchromatic  class,  is  rather  difficult  to  work, 


COMPOSITION      BY      J.      C      WARBURG 

fogging  easily,  and  hardly  permitting  development  to  be  watched, 
and  therefore  most  suitably  developed  by  time.  The  other  class, 
with  ordinary  care  and  by  using  a  good  red  light  and  shielding 
the  tank  during  development,  is  nearly  as  easy  to  work  as  or- 
dinary film.  Yellow  being  to  the  eye  the  brightest  color,  it  is 
yellow  sensitiveness  which  is  important,  and  so  red  sensitiveness 
is  to  some  extent  a  luxury. 

Whichever  class  of  film  is  used,  however,  its  blue  sensitiveness 
is  still  excessive.  In  order  to  make  full  use  of  their  ortho- 
chromatic  properties,  it  is  necessary  to  damp  the  blue  and  violet 
rays  of  the  image  with  a  yellow  or  orange  screen.  These  have 
already  been  discussed. 

By  a  suitable  screen,  in  conjunction  with  an  orthchromatic 
film,  it  is  possible  under  favorable  circumstances  to  obtain  the 
sls^  and  landscape  both  well  rendered  on  the  same  plate.  When 
a  dark  foreground  is  contrasted  against  a  bright  sky,  it  is,  how- 
ever, a  difficult  matter  to  expose  so  that  both  landscape  and  sky 
are  satisfactorily  rendered.  It  is  well  worth  trying,  though  one 
may  have  to  put  up  with  frequent  disappointments. 

After  selection,  which  settles  the  composition  of  the  picture, 
and  focus,  which  decides  its  detail  and  to  some  extent  its  em- 
phasis, we  arrive  at  the  very  important  matter  of  exposure,  which, 
with  suitable  development,  decides  its  tone  and  gradation.  The 
old  idea  was  that  you  could  give  almost  any  exposure,  and  then 
make  up  for  its  incorrectness  by  suitable  development. 

The  modem  trend  of  opinion  is  almost  the  contrar>\  Once 
the  exposure  has  been  made  it  is  only  possible  to  alter  contrasts 
by  giving  a  short  or  a  long  development,  or,  what  is  much  the 
same,  a  weak  or  a  strong  one. 

Modern  authorities  do  not  deny  the  value  of  bromide  in  over- 
exposure if  used  from  the  beginning  of  developmpent ;  but  as 
its  use  in  quantity  appears  to  be  equivalent  to  slowing  the  film, 
it  is  hardly  suitable  for  unknown  exposures  which  may  have 
erred  on  the  short  side. 

W^hether  we  believe  in  the  possibility  of  modifying  results  or 
not  in  development,  however,  we  cannot  help  believing  in  the  im- 
portance of  exposure.  For  this  reason  it  is  necessary  to  have 
some  guide  which  will  enable  us  to  estimate,  or  rather  approxi- 
mate to,  a  correct,  or  preferably  a  normal  exposure. 

Once  we  know  what  the  normal  exposure  is,  it  is  possible  to 



modify  it  in  either  direction  to  obtain  special  effects,  as  sug- 
gested when  discussing  tone  gradation;  but  if  we  only  guess  at 
the  exposure,  we  are  working  in  the  dark  mentally — a  far  more 
difficult  task  than  working  in  actual  darkness. 

Given  a  normal  exposure  on  an  ordinary  subject,  we  shall  get 
good  gradation;  the  length  of  the  scale  and  the  amount  of  con- 
trast depending  on  development. 

With  under-exposure  we  shall  get  either  a  partial  scale  with- 
out contrast,  or  an  abrupt  scale  with  contrast,  according  as  we 
develop  little  or  much. 

Normal  exposure  may  be  defined  as  the  exposure,  which,  with 
normal  development,  gives  detail  in  the  shadows  without  over- 
exposing or  blocking  up  the  lights. 

The  principle  on  which  exposure  is  calculated  is  simple,  though 
the  estimation  itself  is  not  always  easy.  If  we  always  took  similar 
objects  in  the  same  light,  with  a  particular  film  and  stop,  we  could 
always  give  the  same  exposure. 

It  is  the  variation  of  these  four  factors,  stop,  film,  light  and 
object  which  modify  exposure. 

The  basis  of  all  methods  of  calculating  exposure  consists  in 
taking  an  exposure  which  has  been  proved  to  be  correct  as  a 
starting  point,  and  multiplying  or  dividing  it  to  compensate  for 
alteration  of  the  four  factors. 

To  take  the  simplest  factor  first.  The  stop  lets  through  light 
in  quantity  proportionate  to  its  area ;  and  its  area  is  proportion- 
ate to  its  diameter  squared.  Thus  a  two-inch  stop  lets  through 
four  (that  is,  two  square)  times  as  much  light  as  a  one-inch 
stop,  and  therefore  requires  only  one-quarter  the  exposure. 
Similarly  f/12  requires  four  times  the  exposure  of  f/6. 

With  different  lenses,  the  equivalent,  not  the  actual  aperture, 
is  the  measure  of  the  light  passed.  Thus  f/8  must  be  taken  as 
of  equal  rapidity  with  all  lens. 

The  next  factor  is  the  film.  Its  speed  must  be  found  by 
trial,  under  known  conditions,  or  taken  from  one  of  the  published 

The  most  difficult  factor  is  the  light,  and  this  must  either  be 
measured  with  an  actinometer,  or  taken  from  tables  giving  its 
strength  under  different  weather  conditions  in  different  latitudes 
and  at  different  times  of  the  day  and  year.  If  we  use  tables  we 
must  have  another  factor  for  subject,  for  obviously  the  exposure 
for  an  average  landscape  will  be  much  shorter  than  for  the  in- 


COMPOSITION      BY      J.      C      WARBURG 

terior  of  an  avenue.  When  the  Hght  is  directly  tested,  this 
subject  factor  may  be  eliminated  for  ordinary  subjects.  In  the 
shade  of  an  avenue,  for  instance,  the  actinometer  will  darken 
much  more  slowly  than  in  the  open. 

The  tabular  method  is  exemplified  in  the  Hurter  and  Driffield 
meter ;  in  the  Photographic  Era  exposure  table ;  and  is  elaborately 
worked  out  in  the  Burroughs  and  Wellcome  exposure  record. 
The  actinometer  method  has  been  perfected  by  Watkins  and  by 

Theoretically  the  actual  testing  of  the  light  is  most  correct. 
In  practice,  all  methods  give  very  similar  results- 
Most  films  possess  great  latitude  in  exposure.  If  the  normal 
exposure  be  doubled  or  halved  the  difference  would  generally  not 
be  great. 

This  latitude  of  a  film  is  more  severely  taxed  when  the  subject 
includes  great  contrasts  than  when  there  is  a  short  range  of  gra- 
dation. Considerable  latitude  is  necessary  to  correctly  render  a 
bright  cloud  and  a  dark,  detailed  shadow  at  the  same  time.  In 
such  cases,  therefore,  careful  exposure  becomes  a  necessity. 
Careful  development,  too,  is  necessary,  or  the  sky  will  be  so 
dense  that  it  will  not  print  out  till  the  shadow  detail  of  the  land- 
scape is  buried.  On  the  other  hand,  subjects  of  slight  gradation 
may  receive  exposures  in  the  ratio  of  one,  two,  and  four  on 
separate  pieces  of  film,  be  developed  for  the  same  length  of  time 
in  the  same  tank,  and  yet  give  prints  indistinguishable  from  one 
another,  though  the  negatives  will  be  different  in  density. 

It  may  be  well  to  sum  up  shortly  the  different  qualities  on 
which  depend  the  artistic  values  of  a  picture. 

From  the  point  of  view  of  natural  effect,  the  most  important 
are  tone  and  values ;  from  the  decorative  standpoint — good  de- 
sign, including  spacing,  balance,  line  and  mass ;  unity,  the  sub- 
serviency of  all  parts  of  the  picture  to  the  general  effect  and  idea 
of  the  picture ;  and  harmony,  which  pleases  the  eye  by  good  light 
and  shade,  with  absence  of  clashing  lines  or  harsh  contrasts. 

The  artistic  expression  of  the  picture  depends  on  all  these, 
its  moods  depend  on  key,  on  focus,  on  contrast,  and  on  line.  It 
depends  also  on  the  photographer,  on  his  seeing  eye,  on  his 
capacity  for  discovering  and  being  impressed  by  the  beauties  of 
Nature ;  finally,  on  his  ability  to  record  something  of  these  beau- 
ties and  something  of  his  emotion  in  receiving  them,  so  that 
those  who  behold  his  picture  may  see  and  feel  with  him. 


Chapter  XIX 

THE  tremendous  increase  of  interest  in  aeronautics  brought 
about  by  the  war  has  brought  the  importance  of  aerial 
photography  to  a  prominence  which  cannot  be  ignored 
in  a  book  on  motion  photography. 

Already  many  of  the  large  producing  companies  are  maintain- 
ing hangars  and  fleets  of  airplanes  for  taking  motion  pictures 
in  the  air.  Dare-devil  stunts  on  terra  firma  have  been  worked 
with  every  conceivable  variation  and  permutation  until  the  spec- 
tators have  become  blase  and  view  with  ennui,  feats  that  thrilled 
them  to  the  marrow  a  few  short  years  ago.  Consequently,  pro- 
ducers, ever  alert  for  new  sensations,  have  turned  with  alacrity 
to  the  possibilities  of  new  hair-raising  stunts  performed  thou- 
sands of  feet  in  the  air. 

In  most  of  the  stunts  on  the  ground  or  even  on  the  water,  the 
cameraman  often  shares  to  a  large  extent  the  dangers  involved 
in  the  feats  depicted,  but  in  only  a  fraction  of  a  degree  to  what 
he  must  share  in  taking  stunts  in  the  air. 

In  working  on  the  ground  with  speeding  trains,  or  other  racing 
vehicles  he  can  easily  reduce  the  speed  of  the  moving  participants 
and  by  reducing  his  cranking  rate  produce  the  effect  of  break- 
neck speed,  whereas  the  apparently  wildly  careening  machines 
are  in  reality  proceeding  at  a  leisurely  pace. 

In  the  air,  however,  no  such  latitude  is  permitted  him.  His 
racing  airplane  cannot  reduce  its  headlong  flight  without  fall- 
ing to  the  ground  and  his  crank  hand  must  never  falter  or  lose  a 
stroke  even  though  he  hang  head  downward  with  ten  thousand 
feet  of  thin  air  between  him  and  the  good  green  earth.  Not 
only  must  he  keep  cranking  but  he  must  also  panoram  with 
lightning  speed  to  retain  his  subject  in  the  field  of  his  camera. 
The  constant  shifting  of  the  planes  in  the  unstable  air  make  it 
impossible  to  get  the  picture  without  giving  a  contortionist  cards 
and  spades  and  beating  him  out  at  his  own  game. 

The  work  of  a  cameraman  in  a  ship  is  analogous  to  that  of 
a  machine  gunner  in  a  combat  plane.    All  planes  are  **ships"  to 


(Photo  by  U.  S.  Signal  Corps) 




the  aviator  and  the  science  bf  aviation  has  given  us  a  new  ver- 
nacular which  we  may  presently  find  blending  its  picturesqueness 
with  the  idiom  and  patois  of  the  picture  game. 

The  writer,  who  happens  to  be  the  editor  of  this  book  as  well, 
feels,  with  considerable  egotism  perhaps,  that  he  can  write  with 
some  authority  on  the  subject,  as  he  made  for  the  Department 
of  Military  Aeronautics,  while  in  the  Army,  several  thousand 
feet  of  motion  picture  film  while  in  the  air.  In  addition  he  made 
sundry  flights  at  other  times  for  other  purposes  including  as- 
censions in  balloons,  both  free  and  captive;  dirigibles,  observation 
and  kite  balloons,  airplanes  of  many  types  and  flying  boats. 

In  all  of  his  experience  of  more  than  twenty  years  of  photog- 
raphy in  many  lands  and  different  climes,  he  found  nothing — 
not  even  three  months*  exploration  of  coral  reefs  on  a  tropical 
sea  bottom  in  a  glass-sided  diving  bell — which  can  begin  to  com- 
pare with  the  pleasurable  excitement  of  aerial  photography. 

Taking  a  flight  as  a  passenger  securely  strapped  in  the  seat  in 
the  observer's  cockpit  and  protected  from  the  rushing  air  by  the 
sides  of  the  fuselage  is  like  riding  in  a  limousine,  compared  to 
standing  behind  a  camera  with  half  the  body  exposed  to  the 
ripping,  tearing,  raging  hurricane  from  the  propeller,  whipping 
past  in  a  hundred-and-twenty-five  mile  gale  with  the  roar  of 
the  exhaust  battering  the  ears  till  your  loudest  shout  becomes 
but  the  shadow  of  a  whisper  to  your  own  ears. 

If  you  have  no  gosport  or  speaking  tube  to  communicate  with 
your  pilot,  it  is  necessary  to  arrange  a  system  of  signals  before 
ascending  so  that  you  can  direct  him  as  to  what  to  do. 

Much  of  the  success  of  your  pictures  depends  upon  your  pilot's 
having  a  good  camera  sense.  Fortunately  most  good  pilots  have 
an  inherent  sense  of  distance  and  after  being  shown  just  what 
angle  the  camera  covers,  will  be  able  to  keep  the  camera  ship 
in  the  most  advantageous  position  and  at  the  correct  distance. 

In  a  machine  where  the  cameramen  can  be  stationed  in  the 
observer's  cockpit  forward  of  the  propellers,  the  work  is  a  cinch 
compared  to  the  more  common  two-seated  tractor  where  the 
photographer  must  take  the  rear  seat  and  the  full  blast  of  the 
propeller.  In  a  ship  or  a  flying  boat  with  a  forward  cockpit  the 
camera  can  be  trained  easily  in  almost  any  position  and  close-ups 
may  be  taken  of  the  operation  of  the  ship  itself. 

With  the  tractor  type  in  which  the  cameraman  must  work  in 



the  rear  cockpit,  it  is  generally  impracticable  to  shoot  forward 
at  all,  the  range  of  view  being  limited  to  the  sides  and  over  the 
tail.  I  have  worked  in  ships  that  were  in  such  bad  repair  that 
they  threw  a  constant  spray  of  oil  and  water  from  the  engine 
and  radiator  back  onto  me  and  the  camera.  Turning  the  lens 
toward  this  was,  of  course,  out  of  the  question. 

On  the  other  hand,  I  have  been  in  some  ships  which  were  so 
clean  that  the  camera  could  be  turned  directly  toward  the  propel- 
ler and  operated  for  minutes  at  a  time  without  fogging  the  lens. 
The  revolutions  of  the  propeller  are  so  swift  that  it  is  seldom 
that  they  interfere  with  the  picture  unless  the  sun  strikes  the 
blades  at  an  angle  which  throws  reflections  into  the  lens.  So 
do  not  hesitate  to  shoot  through  the  propeller  blades  if  neces- 
sary. Naturally  in  shooting  in  any  direction  except  at  right 
angles  to  the  fuselage  of  the  ship  in  a  rear  seater,  portions  of 
the  plane  will  show  in  whatever  view  is  being  made.  Generally 
this  adds  to  rather  than  detracts  from  the  picture.  However,  as 
dramatic  pictures  come  to  be  taken  more  and  more  from  camera 
ships  such  obtruding  parts  will  become  unwelcome  as  detracting 
from  the  main  action  of  the  picture  and  more  care  must  be 
exercised  to  see  that  these  extraneous  parts  do  not  intrude  in 
the  field  of  view. 

The  pilot  has  almost  as  much  to  do  as  the  cameraman  in  ob- 
taining stunt  pictures,  that  is,  close-up  views  of  other  ships 
flying  near  the  camera  ship.  Besides  keeping  at  a  proper  angle 
and  distance,  there  is  the  problem  of  flying  the  ship  smoothly 
so  that  the  taken  view  will  not  meander  all  over  the  screen. 
Some  pilots  have  such  a  delicate  sense  of  balance  and  orientation 
that  they  can  dip  and  bank  and  put  the  ship  into  almost  any  posi- 
tion without  a  jar  or  quaver,  while  others  make  it  difficult  to 
stay  with  the  camera,  to  say  nothing  of  being  able  to  crank  it. 

An  expert  can  wing  a  ship  over  into  an  almost  vertical  bank 
and  turn  at  just  the  right  curve  so  that  the  gravitational  and 
centrifugal  forces  just  neutralize  each  other,  and  though  the 
cameraman  may  be  standing  with  his  body  almost  horizontal  and 
be  shooting  straight  down  vertically  over  the  side,  yet  in  rela- 
tion to  the  plane,  he  is  standing  straight  up  and  not  touching  the 
side  of  the  cockpit.  Instead  of  fearing  that  you  are  about  to 
drop  out  of  the  plane,  the  sensation  is  not  that  you  have  turned 
half-way  over,  but  that  the  earth  has  suddenly  gone  crazy  and 


A  I  R  P  L  AN  E       PHOTOGRAPHY 

tilted  itself  up  on  edge  and  that  the  only  way  that  you  could  drop 
out  would  be  to  fall  through  the  bottom  of  the  plane  which 
seems  still  to  be  in  the  direction  of  down.  In  a  like  manner  in 
looping  the  loop,  when  it  is  done  at  just  the  right  speed,  the 
earth  tilts  up  at  the  tail  of  the  machine,  rises  up,  sails  over  your 
head,  drops  down  in  front  of  the  propeller  and  then  resumes  its 
customary  place  beneath  you. 

Don't  go  up  if  you  are  not  feeling  well.  Even  a  good  aviator 
will  not  do  that.  I  did  it  once  and  it  made  me  very  sick.  I 
do  not  feel  ashamed  to  tell  it  for  half  the  pilots  on  the  field  would 
not  go  up  that  day.  It  was  at  one  of  the  Texas  flying  fields 
where  the  officers'  mess  was  fortunate  in  having  a  particularly 
good  cook  and  the  evening  before,  fried  liver  and  bacon  had 
been  the  piece  de  resistance  at  the  eating  club  and  although  it 
certainly  tasted  good,  all  who  partook  of  it  had  a  strong  touch 
of  ptomaine  poisoning.  I  was  one  of  those  who  had  eaten 
heartily  of  it  and  had  passed  a  bad  night  in  consequence.  Still, 
a  special  aerial  combat  had  been  arranged  for  me  to  record  and 
I  did  not  feel  that  I  could  refuse  after  elaborate  preparations  had 
been  made  to  engage  the  best  pursuit  pilots  for  a  mock  battle 
in  the  clouds. 

My  own  ship  was  manned  by  a  fine  stunt  pilot  and  his  instruc- 
tions were  to  fly  just  above  the  combat  planes  who  were  to 
play  hide-and-seek  in  the  clouds  below.  Well,  I'll  say  we  did  a 
few  stunts  ourselves  trying  to  keep  those  two  pursuit  artists 
within  camera  range  and  get  their  swoops  and  feints  and  starts 
and  dashes  at  each  other.  They  did  everything  in  the  aviation 
decalogue  and  a  few  more  that  haven't  any  names  with  my  pilot 
trying  to  step  on  their  tail  and  me  humping  to  keep  them  in  the 

Well,  I  got  four  hundred  feet,  all  there  was  in  my  magazine 
and  signaled  the  pilot  to  go  down.  He  turned  around  at  my 
touch  on  his  shoulder  and  he  must  have  seen  my  pea-green  com- 
plexion for  he  didn't  lose  any  time  getting  down  into  the  field 
which  was  fortunate  for  I  had  a  severe  attack  of  sea-sickness. 
The  pilot,  who  had  also  partaken  at  mess  the  evening  before,  was 
very  polite  and  was  similarly  affected.  He  was  in  fact  apologetic 
and  said  something  about  a  weak  stomach  so  that  I  couldn't  help 
rejoining  that  he  had  a  pretty  good  one ;  he  seemed  to  be  shooting 
about  as  far  as  I  was. 



The  main  secret  of  taking  good  pictures  from  an  airplane  is 
in  having  the  camera  securely  fastened  to  the  ship  so  that  the 
vibration  cannot  loosen  it.  When  a  machine-gun  ship  can  be 
used,  the  machine  gun  scarp  makes  an  ideal  mount.  With  the 
machine  gun  removed,  the  average  tripod  head  with  the  legs 
removed  can  be  fastened  to  the  mount  with  a  single  bolt  four 
or  five  inches  long  and  ^  inch  in  diameter  with  a  sixteen  thread. 
A  ^-i6  bolt  fits  the  regulation  tripod  socket.  With  the  scarp 
mount  the  camera  can  be  trained  instantly  in  any  direction  and 
does  not  take  up  much  room  in  the  cockpit  and  the  swivel  seat 
and  gunner's  belt  will  also  prove  useful. 

Where  a  machine-gun  scarp  is  not  to  be  had,  a  mounting  de- 
vice can  be  made  easily  in  almost  any  ordinary  repair  shop.  This 
consists  of  6  in.  or  8  in.  boards  just  long  enough  to  fit  under  and 
over  the  upper  longerons  across  the  cockpit.  Two  holes  are 
bored  near  each  end  of  the  boards  and  one  in  the  centre,  the 
boards  being  placed  in  alignment  and  bored  at  the  same  time. 
Four  bolts  through  the  end  holes  will  clamp  them  firmly  to  the 
longerons  which  are  the  two  upper  main  members  of  the  fuselage 
frame  running  lengthwise  of  it.  If  it  were  not  for  the  rounded 
cowl  on  top  of  the  fuselage,  the  tripod  head  could  now  be  bolted 
directly  tO'  the  clamp  through  the  centre  hole  in  the  boards. 
The  cowl,  however,  interferes  with  the  manipulation  of  the 
camera  and  renders  it  necessary  to  place  enough  blocks  under 
it  to  raise  it  above  the  cowl.  These  blocks  should  be  six  or  eight 
inches  square  with  a  hole  through  the  centre  of  each.  A  king 
bolt  must  now  be  made  of  ,^-inch  rod,  long  enough  to  pass 
through  the  clarrup  boards  and  the  blocks  and  screw  into  the 
tripod  socket.  Large  washers  should  be  placed  on  the  bolt  heads 
and  under  the  nuts  so  that  everything  can  be  tightened  up  firmly 
without  drawing  the  bolt  heads  into  the  wood.  Thread  the  king 
bolt  for  a  good  distance  at  each  end  for  the  block  and  boards 
will  stand  considerable  compression  before  they  are  perfectly 

Now  see  that  everything  about  the  camera  is  in  perfect  shape 
and  securely  fastened.  The  turning  handle  and  the  tripod 
handles  must  be  fastened  on  their  spindles  or  the  vibration  will 
shake  them  off  and  cause  you  to  lose  them. 

A  light  yellow  ray  filter  should  be  used.  This  you  can  well 
afford  to  do  because  in  airplane  photography  you  have  the  ad- 












vantage  of  all  the  light  that  there  is.  Even  with  the  Eastman 
filters  Kj  or  K2  pictures  can  be  taken  at  f  8  and  f  1 1. 

Set  the  lens  at  infinity  unless  you  have  fairly  close  up  pictures 
of  other  planes,  in  which  case,  set  it  at  thirty  feet  which,  at  the 
aperture  you  are  using  will  render  everything  beyond  6  or  8 
feet  perfectly  sharp. 

Us€  the  shutter  wide  open.  It  has  been  advocated  that  a 
narrow  shutter  opening  should  be  used  so  that  the  sharp  defini- 
tion of  a  quick  exposure  would  neutralize  the  effect  of  vibration. 
This  is  a  fallacy.  If  vibration  is  severe  enough  to  spoil  single 
pictures,  it  will  spoil  a  series  also.  Even  though  each  individual 
frame  may  be  sharp  the  succession  of  sharp  pictures  out  of 
register  with  one  another  will  be  blurred  on  the  screen  and  show 
a  greater  effect  of  vibration  than  when  made  with  an  open 
shutter  and  small  stop. 

In  cases  where  it  is  not  possible  to  make  a  special  camera 
mount  for  a  ship,  the  tripod  can  be  lashed  in  the  cockpit  with 
strong  twine  and  straps  but  this  should  be  done  only  when  no 
mount  can  be  obtained.  The  legs  are  bulky  and  take  up  useful 
space  in  the  cockpit  and  it  is  almost  impossible  to  fasten  the 
tripod  so  that  the  panoramic  head  will  be  level  with  the  plane. 

See  that  your  flying  clothes  and  goggles  are  fastened  securely 
but  comfortably.  Losing  your  goggles  will  mean  loss  of  sight 
for  as  long  as  you  are  up  you  will  not  be  able  to  open  your  eyes 
in  the  terrific  blast  from  the  propeller.  Fasten  your  clothes 
tightly  or  the  air  will  balloon  them  and  they  will  interfere  with 
camera  operation. 


Chapter  XX 

Written  by  Lu  Senerens 

Captain  Charles  Williamson,  of  Norfolk  Va.,  perfected  an 
invention  several  years  ago  designed  to  explore  the  bottom 
of  the  sea.  The  apparatus  consists  of  a  barge,  a  flexible 
tube  of  metallic  construction,  and  a  submergible  terminal  operat- 
ing chamber,  containing  a  steel  cone  projecting  outward,  the  end 
of  which  is  made  of  glass.  By  descending  the  tube  into  the 
sphere  and  photographing  through  the  glass,  pictures  of  sub- 
marine life  can  be  secured. 

The  inventor's  sons,  J.  Ernest  Williamson  and  George  M. 
Williamson,  helped  their  father  in  the  development  of  the  appa- 
ratus. They  began  experimenting  with  ordinary  cameras,  and 
secured  some  excellent  snapshots  of  fish  at  the  bottom  of  Hamp- 
ton Roads.  This  experimenting  led  them  to  the  belief  that  Moving 
Pictures  of  submarine  life  could  be  taken,  and  they  formed  a  cor- 
poration of  Norfolk  business  men. 

An  expedition  was  then  planned  to  take  the  apparatus  to  the 
West  Indies.  The  photography  was  in  the  hands  of  Carl  L. 
Gregory.  The  famous  marine  gardens  of  the  Bahama  Islands, 
near  San  Salvadore,  were  selected  as  the  best  location  for  the  first 
under-the-sea  studio.  This  location  was  chosen  because  of  the 
remarkable  clearness  of  the  water  and  the  variety  and  beauty  of 
animal  and  vegetable  life.  A  vessel  suitable  for  operating  the 
apparatus  was  constructed  in  the  shipyard  at  Nassau,  in  the 
Bahama  Islands.  The  marine  gardens  nearby  were  selected  as 
the  place  for  taking  the  first  pictures.  This  location  is  more 
beautiful  than  any  other  in  this  part  of  the  world.  The  sea  bot- 
tom is  strewn  with  wrecks  along  the  treacherous  coral  reefs,  and 
the  denizens  attain  the  most  gorgeous  colors  and  most  fantastic 

Here  Mr.  Gregory  secured  a  panorama  of  the  sea  bottom  by 
the  perfect  illumination  afforded  by  the  sunlight  coming  down 
through  the  water  and  striking  the  white  coral  reefs.  It  required 
ten  days  of  experimenting  and  considerable  waste  of  film  to  ascer- 


(Courtesy   of  the   Submarine  Film   Corporation) 





tain  the  correct  exposure  necessary  for  submarine  photography. 
Some  of  the  pictures  were  made  at  night  with  the  aid  of  sub- 
marine lamps  equipped  with  2,400  candle-power  Cooper-Hewitt 
quartz  burners.  The  exposure  for  day  and  night  pictures  was 
about  the  same,  the  average  being  from  one-thirty-second  to  one- 
seventy-fifth  of  a  second  at  depths  varying  from  15  to  60  feet. 

Scientific  photographers  in  America  had  previously  declared 
that  no  practical  photographs,  much  less  motion  pictures,  could 
be  obtained  under  water,  but  the  result  of  the  expedition  of  sev- 
eral months'  duration  was  about  20,000  feet  of  moving-picture 
film.  These  pictures  were  later  produced  and  copyrighted  by  the 
Submarine  Film  Corporation. 

Mr.  Hadden-Smith,  the  colonial  governor  of  the  island,  was 
much  impressed  by  the  importance  of  the  work.  Both  he  and  his 
wife  descended  into  the  observation  chamber,  and  were  amazed 
by  the  beauty  of  the  spectacle  revealed. 

A  series  of  scenes  native  to  the  Bahamas  were  fixed  upon  and 
photographed.  For  example,  all  tourists  in  tropical  waters  have 
seen  negro  boys  dive  for  coins  thrown  into  the  water.  Perhaps 
one  of  the  most  intensely  interesting  scenes  in  the  film  is  the  one 
showing  these  negroes  beneath  the  surf-ace  fighting  each  other  for 
the  descending  pieces  of  silver.  As  many  as  three  at  a  time  were 
caught  by  the  camera  struggling  to  secure  the  money  at  a  depth 
of  about  25  feet  from  the  surface. 

Not  far  from  Nassau  lies  the  bulk  of  an  old  blockade-runner, 
wrecked  while  seeking  safety  in  that  harbor  lat  the  time  of  the 
Civil  War.  She  sank  to  a  depth  of  50  feet,  and  her  location  was 
well  known.  As  the  expedition  required  a  scene  showing  a  diver 
under  water,  George  Williamson  volunteerd  to  enact  the  role 
and  a  diving  suit  was  boirrowed  from  the  colonial  government. 
Mr.  Williamson  had  never  been  beneath  the  surface  in  such  an 
apparatus  before,  yet  unhesitatingly  donned  the  suit,  made  the 
descent  near  the  wreck  of  the  blockade-runner  and  strolled  about 
picking  up  cannon-balls.  These  were  sent  to  the  surface  In  a  wire 
basket  at  the  end  of  a  rope.  His  movements  were  photographed 
by  Mr.  Gregory  from  inside  the  spherical  chamber. 

Numerous  exposures  were  made  of  the  great  variety  of  fish  fre- 
quenting those  waters.  A  number  were  snapped  swimming  about 
their  natural  haunts  among  the  coral  reefs.    Some  were  drawn 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOT  O  G  R  A  P  H  Y 

near  the  aperture  of  the  photographic  chamber  by  means  of  a 
baited  Hne.  In  roany  cases  color  plates  were  taken  of  the  finny 
beauties  as  a  guide  for  coloring  the  film  by  hand,  so  that  the  public 
might  see  the  creatures  in  their  tints. 

Man-eating  sharks  are  indigenous  to  the  waters  of  the  Bahama 
Islands,  and  a  film  that  has  no  counterpart  in  the  annals  of  pho- 
tography was  made  of  a  battle  royal  between  two  of  these  levia- 
thans. Some  of  the  monsters  are  from  i8  to  20  feet  in  length.  In 
ordeir  to  secure  this  film  the  carcass  of  a  dead  horse  was  towed 
out  to  sea  'and  anchored  in  the  water  near  the  Williamson  appa- 
ratus. It  was  then  cut  with  a  knife  in  order  that  its  blood  might 
attract  sharks  to  the  spot.  Within  an  hour  there  were  fully 
twenty-five  of  the  monsters  nibbling  at  the  bait.  An  effort  wa^: 
made  by  the  crew  of  the  barge  to  catch  some  of  the  sharks  with 
hooks,  to  which  heavy  woven  wire  was  attached,  but  they  snapped 
the  wire  with  their  teeth,  and  it  then  became  necessary  to  use 
chains.  One  of  the  largest  of  the  sharks  was  drawn  close  to  the 
observation  chamber  in  order  to  secure  a  photograph  of  his  strug- 
gles. He  retained  a  large  piece  of  meat  in  his  mouth,  which 
attracted  another  shark,  who  came  up  to  wrest  it  from  his  jaws. 
The  second  shark,  angry  at  its  inability  to  get  more  food,  dashed 
away  into  the  abscurity  like  an  enraged  lion,  but  returned  and 
with  open  jaws  darted  like  a  bull  at  the  one  held  fast  by  the  hook. 
The  photograph  shows  his  snatching  at  his  companion's  huge  fin, 
and  he  is  seen  tearing  it  to  shreds  with  his  serrated  teeth.  The 
captured  shark  in  turn  became  furious,  and  began  swimming 
around  wildly  in  an  effort  to  get  at  the  other. 

Alarmed  for  the  safety  of  the  photographer  should  one  of  these 
raging  monsters  burst  in  the  glass,  the  man  on  deck  slackened  the 
line,  and  the  sharks  began  to  sink  below  the  observation  chamber. 
They  were  plunging  toward  each  other  with  wide-open  mouths, 
tearing  at  each  other's  body  until  they  were  reduced  to  shreds  and 
a  mass  of  streaming  blood.  Despite  the  fact  that  one  of  the  fish 
was  handicapped  by  hook  and  chain,  it  beat  off  the  other  and  won 
the  battle.    It  was  later  drawn  to  the  surface  and  killed. 

The  most  daring  feat  ever  attempted  by  a  moving  picture  actor 
was  one  undertaken  by  Mr.  J.  Ernest  Williamson.  Stripped  to 
the  waist,  a  knife  between  his  teeth,  he  dove  into  the  ocean  where 
a  doz&n  man-eaters  were  making  the  water  fairly  boil  in  their  mad 

V  313 

(Photo    by   J.   F.    H^illiamson) 



rushes  for  another  victim.  Descending  twenty  feet,  Mr.  William- 
son met  an  ocean  monster  and  fought  his  battle  of  life  and  death. 
The  photographer,  watching  the  encounter  with  terror,  kept  turn- 
ing the  crank  and  recorded  every  movement  of  the  desperate 
combat.  Mr.  Williamson  had  taken  his  life  in  his  hands  to  fight 
a  shark  in  order  that  the  scene  might  be  recorded  on  the  moving- 
picture  film.  As  he  went  under  the  water  he  observed  an  enor- 
mous shark  darting  toward  him  and  permitted  his  body  to  sink 
under  if.  The  shark  shot  past  over  his  head  and  turned  just  as 
Mr.  Williamson  ascended.  They  were  now  face  to  face.  Tlie 
strain  of  holding  his  breath  nearly  thirty  seconds  was  becoming 
unendurable.  He  knew  that  he  must  kill  the  shark  or  the  shark 
would  kill  him,  and  it  had  to  be  done  before  his  breath  gave  out. 
With  ta  quick  movement,  he  swung  slightly  to  one  side,  just 
escaping  the  shark's  head,  and  grasped  one  of  its  fins  with  his 
left  hand.  Taking  the  knife  from  between  his  teeth,  he  thrust  it 
into  a  vital  part  of  the  shark's  body  again  and  again.  Had  the 
combat  been  prolonged  five  or  ten  seconds,  as  it  threatened  to  be, 
he  would  never  have  come  to  the  surface  alive.  The  cameraman 
would  have  seen  him  torn  to  pieces  by  the  other  monsters  that 
came  gliding  around  in  a  circle  outside  the  range  of  the  lens, 
watching  the  finish  of  the  fight. 

Perhaps  his  feat  was  foolhardy,  but  hardly  more  so  than  Orville 
Wright's  first  flight  in  his  biplane.  Mr.  Williamson  was  simply 
doing  something  that  no  other  man  had  ever  done.  Once  he 
learned  that  he  could  take  photographs  at  the  bottom  of  the  ocean, 
it  was  up  to  him  to  stage  at  least  one  picture  that  would  be  memo- 
rable in  moving  picture  history. 

Many  other  intensely  interesting  photographs  were  taken, 
showing  the  flora  and  fauna  of  the  ocean  bed,  and  not  the  least 
interesting  of  the  latter  is  a  fish  with  a  tuirtle-like  neck  and  head, 
which  is  a  species  entirely  imknown  to  the  savants  of  piscatorial 

Upon  the  return  of  the  expedition  to  America,  it  was  decided 
that  the  first  exposition  of  the  film  would  be  made  before  an 
audience  of  scientists,  diplomats  and  men  and  women  prominent 
in  Washington  society.  The  films  were  developed  and  found  to 
be  excellent.  They  were  then  exhibited  in  the  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tute.    Dr.  Paul  Bartsch,  of  the  institute,  mounted  the  platform 



after  the  reels  were  shown,  and,  addressing  the  audience,  gave 
the  following  endorsement : 

**I  wish  to  say  that  these  gentlemen  brought  us  only  a  few  of 
the  astonishing  photographs  which  we  have  just  beheld,  and  they 
have  shown  many  times  more  than  we  ever  expected  to  see  in  our 
lifetime.  They  have  shown  us  pictures  that  are  the  most  won- 
derful and  most  marvelous  ever  taken  in  the  world.'* 

The  exhibition  marked  the  climax  of  years  of  effort  and  investi- 
gation on  the  part  of  Captain  Williamson  to  perfect  his  invention 
of  the  submarine  tube, 





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(Courtesy   Stibntarinc  Film    Corporation  —  Photographed   by    Car!  L.    Gregory) 

Diver    at    work    on    the    lemains    of    a    Civil    War    Blockade    Runner. 
Coial    reef   and   fish   in   the   background. 

Chapter  XXI 

^"TT^HERE  is  a  great  deal  too  much  make-up  used  in  motion 

I  picture  studios.  The  primal  idea  of  make-up  should  be 
the  same  as  that  of  the  retouching  done  by  a  good  photog- 
rapher in  making  a  portrait,  i.e.,  the  removal  of  superficial 
blemishes.  Retouching  the  multiplicity  of  small  pictures  in  a 
motion  picture  negative  is  practically  impossible  and  the  actor  is 
supposed  to  arrive  at  the  same  result  by  the  more  direct  method 
of  retouching  his  face.  Since  the  average  actor  is  used  to  mak- 
ing-up  for  the  glare  of  the  footlights  and  to  bear  inspection  only 
at  comparatively  great  distances,  he  is  apt  to  forget  that  in 
motion  pictures  the  major  part  of  his  work  is  done  in  the  much 
stronger  and  differently  colored  light  of  day  or  in  the  glare  of  a 
multitude  of  arcs  and  Cooper-Hewitt's  with  the  relentless  eye 
of  the  camera  only  ten  or  fifteen  feet  away  and  often  much  closer. 

Up-to-date  directors  are  insisting  more  and  more  that  make-up 
shall  be  natural  and  not  artificial.  Some  of  the  studios  even  put 
their  extra  people  on  the  salary  list  the  day  they  leave  off  shaving 
when  they  require  people  for  "rough-neck"  j>arts.  It  requires 
an  artist  skilled  in  making-up  to  put  on  a  crepe-hair  mustache  or 
beard  that  is  not  palpably  false.  The  director  who  uses  an  actor 
with  a  bad  make-up  is  only  deceiving  himself  and  not  the  public. 

Below  I  am  giving  an  abstract  of  a  set  of  general  rules  for 
make-up  which  was  made  for  a  well-known  studio  a  short  time 
ago,  and  a  copy  of  it  should  be  pasted  in  the  top  of  every  motion 
picture  actor's  make-up  box : 

People  doubtful  of  their  make-up  should  submit  the  same  to 
their  photographer  for  inspection  before  appearing  before  the 

As  a  rule  too  much  make-up  is  used  for  natural  effect. 

For  ordinary  make-up  use  Stein's  No.  2  grease  paint  over  cold 
cream  with  enough  flesh  or  brunette  powder  to  avoid  shine  or 
varnished  effect  of  grease  and  cold  cream. 

Unless  of  extraordinary  dark  or  light  complexion  or  in  case 
of  skin  defects  such  as  pimples,  moles,  pits,  freckles,  or  fine 



wrinkles,  grease  paint  should  not  be  used — a  light  application  of 
cold  cream  with  a  slight  application  of  powder  gives  the  best  re- 
sults before  the  camera. 

Application  of  grease  paint:  Remember  that  the  camera  records 
the  back  and  profile  as  well  as  the  full  face  and  extend  the  make- 
up to  the  hair  at  the  top,  to  below  the  clothing  at  the  neck  and 
behind  the  ears  at  the  back. 

Make-up  of  the  eyes :  As  a  rule  it  is  not  necessary  to  bead  the 
eyelashes.  It  should  practically  never  be  done  although  it  is 
sometimes  advisable  for  persons  with  light  lashes  to  darken  them 
with  black  cosmetique.  If  you  possess  heavy  black  lashes  it  is 
not  necessary  to  line  the  eyes.  Others  should  line  the  eyes  with 
a  very  narrow  black  line  placed  as  near  the  lashes  as  possible. 
People  with  prominent  eyes  and  plump  persons  should  shade  the 
orbits  of  the  eyes  very  slightly  with  black  or  brown — generally 
thin  persons  and  those  with  sunken  eyes  do  not  need  to  use 
shading.  Unless  eyebrows  are  very  heavy  and  well  defined  it  is 
generally  advisable  to  touch  them  up  with  the  eyebrow  pencil. 

The  lips:  Be  very  sparing  in  the  use  of  lip  rouge.  Remember 
that  red  photographs  black  and  that  a  heavy  application  of  rouge 
shows  an  unnaturally  black  mouth  on  the  screen.  Except  in  very 
rare  cases  do  not  attempt  to  alter  the  shape  of  the;  lips  by  the 
application  of  lip  rouge.  It  almost  invariably  shows.  Apply 
the  faintest  trace,  if  any,  rouge  to  the  cheeks. 

Lining :  Lining  should  not  be  resorted  to  except  in  cases  where 
the  character  of  the  part  absolutely  requires  it.  Lines  should 
be  made  with  dark  red  or  brown  and  very  carefully  blended. 
Directors  should  take  pains  to  select  their  characters  according  to 
type  whenever  possible  and  not  require  people  to  make-up  out  of 
their  type  unless  in  cases  of  increasing  age,  or  effects  of  disease, 
etc.,  called  for  by  the  scenario. 

Wigs :  Wigs  with  wig  bands  coming  across  the  forehead  should 
never  be  used  if  it  is  possible  to  avoid  it.  When  this  is  necessary 
take  great  pains  to  blend  the  band  to  the  forehead  to  render  the 
junction  of  band  and  flesh  as  nearly  invisible  as  possible. 

Mustaches  and  beards:  The  technique  of  a  good  beard  and 
mustache  would  require  more  space  than  can  be  devoted  to  it 
here.  Do  not  use  curly  crepe-hair  until  you  have  straightened  it 
by  dampening  and  wrapping  around  a  hot  pipe  or  by  some  similar 
method.     Comb  out  the  straightened  hair  and  build  up  the  beard 


















(Courtesy   of   the    Universal   Film    Company) 


MAKING       UP       FOR       MOTION        PICTURES 

or  mustache  on  the  face  a  small  lock  at  a  time  with  the  aid  of 
good  spirit  gum,  then  trim  carefully.  If  you  do  not  know  how 
to  put  a  beard  on  properly  get  assistance  from  some  one  who  does. 
Do  not  fail  to  use  hair  colored  to  harmonize  with  your  own  or  the 
wig  you  are  wearing. 

Colors :  Light  blue  photographs  white  and  should  never  be  used 
in  motion  picture  make-up. 

Yellow,  orange,  red  and  their  combinations  all  photograph  dark. 
Red  and  black  are  exactly  the  same  to  the  camera. 

Yellow  blonde  hair  photographs  dark,  ash  blonde  photographs 
light — the  more  loosely  the  hair  is  arranged  the  lighter  it  photo- 
graphs, and  different  methods  of  studio  lighting  also  affect  the 
photographic  values  of  hair. 

Actors  will  frequently  startle  one  by  coming  onto  the  stage 
to  work  in  a  new  and  wonderful  (  ?)  make-up  that  someone  told 
them  to  try. 

Never  let  actors  or  actresses  change  their  method  of  make-up 
during  a  picture  that  has  been  started.  They  must,  absolutely 
wait  until  the  next  picture  to  make  any  change  in  their  style  of 
making-up.  One  actress  had  a  habit  of  appearing  one  day  with 
her  eyes  encircled  with  a  lovely  emerald  green  shade  and  then 
the  next  day  deciding  to  try  sky-blue  instead.  She  caused  con- 
siderable trouble  before  she  was  convinced  of  her  error. 

Another  myth  that  numerous  actors  entertain  is  the  yellow 
grease-paint  theory.  Nobody  can  explain  why  a  performer 
should  make-up  in  Chinese  yellow.  There  is  absolutely  no  photo- 
graphic theory  to  account  for  it  or  its  use.  Let  the  actor  make-up 
with  grease-paint  if  he  has  a  rough  skin  but  let  it  be  flesh-colored 
paint,  not  yellow.  The  objections  to  yellow  are  that  it  is  non- 
actinic  and  if  the  actor  happens  to  step  out  of  the  rays  of  the 
arcs  for  a  moment  or  if  he  is  shaded  from  the  direct  force  of  the 
light  by  another  actor  his  face  photographs  BLACK  instantly. 

Yellow  may  be  used  under  heavy  or  double  chins  to  cause  them 
to  appear  to  recede  or  be  less  pronounced,  or  red  may  be  used  for 
this  purpose.  Yellow  and  red  are  also  useful  in  causing  eyes  to 
appear  more  deep-set  than  they  really  are.  For  the  actor  who 
has  so  called  "pop"  eyes  a  shading  of  red  around  the  eyes  will 
often  overcome  the  defect,  but  it  must  not  be  used  as  a  regular 
shade  to  cover  the  face. 

On  the  other  hand  do  not  allow  actors  to  come  before  the 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOtO  G  R  A  P  H  Y 

camera  snow-white  or  powdered  with  too  light  a  powder.  Some 
actresses  think  that  the  lighter  they  can  make  themselves  the 
more  youthful  they  appear  whereas  they  only  succeed  in  making 
themselves  look  like  billiard  balls.  A  good  natural  flesh  tint  with 
a  powdering  over  of  flesh  tinted  powder  to  kill  the  gloss  of  grease 
paint  cannot  be  improved  upon.  This  powdering  should  be  re- 
newed at  intervals,  especially  if  the  weather  is  warm  and  perspira- 
tion causes  the  powder  to  disappear. 

Hands  should  be  given  the  same  care  in  make-up  that  is  ac- 
corded the  face.     Too  often  hands  are  neglected. 

Wigs  must  be  carefully  adjusted  and  a  wig  that  would  pass 
on  the  speaking  stage  may  not  be  nearly  perfect  enough  to  de- 
ceive the  camera. 

When  assigned  a  part,  many  actors  allow  their  beards,  mus- 
taches or  hair  to  grow  to  fit  the  part.  This,  of  course,  requires 
notice  some  time  in  advance  but  is  often  done. 

In  designing  sets  or  interiors  for  the  studio,  the  cameraman's 
opinion  is  frequently  asked.  It  is  a  good  rule  to  try  to  keep  the 
background  tones  several  shades  darker  than  the  face  of  the  actor 
for  the  sake  of  contrast.  If  the  walls  were  very  light  the  faces 
would  appear  darker  than  natural  or  sink  into  the  background 
giving  a  flat  lifeless  picture. 

Wall  paper  is  frequently  deceptive.  A  design  with  a  heavy 
lavender  flower  may  look  fairly  dark  but  will  photograph  almost 
pure  white.  This  applies  to  anything  with  much  blue  or  violet 
in  it.  Red  and  yellow  will  photograph  somewhat  darker  than 
they  appear  to  the  eye,  but  are  not  so  deceptive  as  the  blue  tones 
because  of  the  orthochromatic  qualities  of  the  film. 

Sets  should  be  built  two-sided  whenever  possible  to  allow  the 
cameraman  to  set  lamps  along  the  open  sides.  If  the  director 
needs  a  three-sided  set,  places  such  as  archways,  doors,  or  win- 
dows should  be  designed  through  which  light  may  be  thrown. 
Never  let  the  designer  or  stage  manager  tell  you  that  you  can  get 
your  light  from  overhead.  This  will  not  produce  a  good  result 
excepting  possibly  in  the  case  of  prison-cells,  artists'  studio  sets, 
or  caverns,  and  such  effects. 

Woodwork  must  be  dull  finished.  A  high  polish  looks  well 
to  the  eye  but  will  reflect  every  lamp  in  the  place  and  give  a 
thousand  high  lights  to  confuse  the  eye  and  detract  from  the 
acting.     If  the  stage  painter  says  he  cannot  produce  a  dull  luster 


MAKING        UP        FOR        MOTION        PICTURES 

on  wood,  tell  him  to  either  rub  it  down  with  paint-remover,  or 
daub  it  heavily  with  putty.  This  will  kill  most  of  the  gloss.  Ex- 
perienced stage-managers,  however,  will  not  present  this  abomina- 
tion to  the  cameraman.  They  will  finish  all  woodwork  in  flat 
water  color  or  stain  which  photographs  well. 

Floors  are  covered  either  by  rugs  or  compo-board.  If  the  lat- 
ter, the  cameraman  should  watch  closely  that  he  does  not  "shoot" 
past  the  front  edge  as  it  is  usually  left  rough  and  unpainted  at 
the  side  near  the  camera. 


Chapter  XXII 


MANY  times  directors  or  scenario  writers  ask  for  absolutely 
impossible  effects.  The  director  expects  the  cameraman 
to  know  his  business.  He  does  not  wish  to  argue  with 
him  whether  or  not  a  thing  can  be  done.  He  states  what  he 
wants  and  says,  "Can  we  do  it?"  If  the  cameraman  is  not  sure 
let  him  reply.  "Let  rnie  think  it  over  an  hour  and  I  will  tell  you." 
Invariably  this  is  satisfactory  to  a  director  but  at  the  end  of  the 
stated  time,  the  cameraman  must  say  "Yes,"  or  "No."  There 
must  be  no  "Maybe"  or  "Well,  let's  try  it."  The  director  wants 
to  know  whether  it  is  a  sure  thing  and  whether  it  will  justify  his 
spending  perhaps  thousands  of  the  company's  dollars  on  an  effect. 
He  will  not  excuse  any  failure  if  the  cameraman  cays  the  thing 
can  be  done.  On  the  other  hand,  the  cameraman  can,  if  he 
considers  the  effect  impossible,  say  so  and  usually  the  matter  will 
be  dropped  and  another  idea  substituted. 

The  director  should  never  attempt  to  hurry  a  cameraman  in 
focusing  or  getting  his  camera  set  up.  If  he  does,  it  is  the 
cameraman's  dut>^  to  remonstrate  and  the  quicker  a  director  is 
told  and  impressed  with  the  fact  that  the  cameraman  is  not 
going  to  "shoot"  until  he  is  ready,  the  sooner  peace  and  friend- 
ship will  reign. 

On  the  other  hand  the  cameraman  should  not  waste  time  or  be 
outdoors  smoking  a  cigarette  while  the  director  is  rehearsing  a 
scene  and  then,  when  called,  come  in  and  want  to  know  what  it 
is  all  about.  The  cameraman's  place  is  back  of  his  camera  from 
the  time  the  morning's  work  begins  until  lunch  time  and  the 
same  in  the  afternoon.  That  is  why  he  draws  a  good  salary.  If 
he  leaves  the  stage  or  location  for  any  purpose  let  him  first  tell 
the  director  and  state  the  length  of  time  he  will  be  away, 
f  With  the  electrician — Oh — I  beg  you — ^make  friends  with 
the  electrician.  He  is  your  best  friend  or  your  worst  enemy. 
Bring  him  a  cigar  or  a  pack  of  cigarettes  several  times  a  week 



if  this  will  help  your  standing  with  him.  If  he  likes  you  he  will 
push  the  good  lights  into  your  set  and  see  that  your  carbons  are 
nicely  trimmed.  He,  also,  will  get  to  know  your  methods  of 
working  and  can  push  a  heavy  bank  of  lights  just  where  you  want 
it  without  your  even  telling  him. 

If  he  has  it  **in  for  you"  you  can  holler  for  lights  an  hour  and 
he  will  remain  peacefully  out  of  sight  behind  some  barricade  or 
other  and  you  can  rave  all  you  please.  Or  fuses  will  mysteriously 
**blow"  in  the  middle  of  a  scene  or  the  lights  will  all  be  working 
in  somebody  else's  set — "leastwise — all  the  good  ones"  and  you 
will,  generally,  feel  that  the  world  is  a  tough  place  in  which  to 
live.  And  the  happy  part  of  it  all  is  that  these  knights  of  the 
**juice"  are  usually  happy-go-lucky,  easy-to-get-along-with  fellows 
who  are  easy  to  cultivate.  Once  your  friends  they  will  remain 
so  and  do  anything  for  you.  Just  treat  them  like  human  beings 
and  exhibit  some  good  nature.     They  will  appreciate  it. 

The  same  applies  in  a  lesser  degree  to  "props,"  the  man  who 
takes  care  of  the  furniture  and  accessories  used  in  the  sets — but 
his  particular  associate  in  art  is  the  director.  Still,  he  is  very 
useful  to  the  cameraman  when  a  platform  is  needed  or  a  mirror 
is  wanted  to  throw  a  reflection  into  some  dark  corner. 

The  stage-carpenters  are  usually  quiet  men  who  go  about  their 
business  slowly  and  methodically.  They  are  paid  by  the  day. 
The  cameraman  will  have  very  little  to  do  with  them  but  should 
be  gracious  and  polite  in  any  dealings  he  may  have  with  them. 
They  are  under  the  direction  of  the  stage-manager.  If  anything 
does  not  suit  you  in  the  construction  of  the  set,  you  should  talk 
to  the  stage-manager  and  he  will  direct  his  carpenters  accordingly. 

And  now  the  STARS.  Who,  oh  who,  can  tell  anything  about 
stars  ?  Their  temperament,  their  whims,  their  eccentricities ! 
The  best  way  for  the  cameraman  to  conduct  himself  is  to  let 
those  personages  understand,  at  the  very  start,  that  he  is  as  im- 
portant to  the  picture  as  they.  The  opportunity  to  do  this  may 
not  come  at  once  but,  feel  assured,  it  will  arrive.  Anything  said 
must  be  in  a  gentle  voice  without  trace  of  anger  but  just  as  firm 
as  you  can  make  it. 

Stars  frequently  are  "peevish."  They  will  come  in  about  ten 
or  eleven  some  morning  with  a  headache — growl  at  everybody — 
and  want  to  hurry  through  the  day's  work  and  get  away.  The 
more  they  are  humored  the  more  overbearing  they  become.     So 



long  as  no  remarks  are  made  direct  to  the  cameraman  on  such 
a  day  he  had  best  keep  his  peace  as  the  atmosphere  in  the  studio 
is  usually  heavily  charged  on  that  day.  But  any  suggestion  to 
him  that — **He  get  a  move  on,"  or  "Step  on  the  gas,"  must  be 
retorted  to  mildly  by  "Leave  that  part  to  me,"  or  "We  will  do 
the  work  carefully  and  right,  or  not  at  all."  A  few  remarks 
like  this  are  all  that  is  necessary  to  show  the  cameraman  has  a 

If  the  star  comes  along  with  a  nickname  for  the  cameraman 
it  is  very  probably  meant  as  a  sign  of  his  or  her  liking  for  him. 
However,  if  the  nickname  appears  to  be  the  result  of  spite  or  a 
dislike  the  cameraman  should  think  up  a  suitable  nickname  for 
the  star  and  apply  it  vigorously.  A  certain  cameraman  did  not 
agree  with  his  star  on  certain  points  of  make-up  and  the  star 
began  by  calling  him  by  the  name  of  "useless."  It  apparently 
riled  the  cameraman  and  he  always  replied  to  the  hated  epithet 
by  referring  to  the  star  as  "Old  fathead."  A  few  applications 
of  this  resulted  in  neither  of  the  names  ever  being  used  again. 
Its  funny  but  true,  studios  are  peculiar  workshops. 

The  cameraman  will,  if  he  is  cheerful,  usually  get  along  al- 
right with  the  most  temperamental  star.  Let  him  just  laugh  or 
smile  a  little  and  attend  to  his  business  with  a  good  word  for 
everybody  and  never  a  knock  for  anyone.  Let  him  object  strenu- 
ously when  things  don't  suit  him  or  his  camera,  but  do  so  in  a 
quiet  and  gentlemanly  manner  and  he  will  have  no  trouble. 

"Extra"  people  are  actors  and  actresses  who  are  engaged  to 
appear  in  only  a  few  scenes.  They  are  not  on  the  studio  pay- 
roll but  are  engaged  by  the  day  or  half -day  to  appear  in  a  scene 
calling  for  a  crowd.  This  may  be  a  mob  scene,  a  dance,  a 
cabaret,  a  camp  of  soldiers,  etc.  They  are  sometimes  called 
"supers."  It  will  be  well,  when  a  crowd  of  "extras"  is  about 
for  the  cameraman  to  keep  a  close  watch  on  his  equipment.  Film 
boxes  should  always  be  locked  and  the  lenses  kept  under  lock 
and  key  also.  I  have  even  seen  the  lens  on  the  still-camera  stolen 
on  a  day  when  about  five  hundred  "extras"  were  being  used.  On 
the  same  day  they  got  away  with  several  large  silver  platters, 
about  six  dozen  knives  and  forks,  and  a  number  of  costumes. 
Many  professional  pickpockets  and  petty-thieves  mingle  with 
these  "extra"  crowds  just  for  what  they  term  "the  pickings." 
Therefore,  keep  everything  not  absolutely  needed,  in  your  dark 



room  and  keep  it  locked  securely  when  ''extras"  are  about.  Care- 
fully watch  everything  you  must  have  on  the  stage. 

There  will  also  be  found  in  every  crowd  of  "extras"  girls 
and  women  who  will  frequently  try  to  ingratiate  themselves  with 
the  cameraman  or  whoever  will  not  repel  their  advances.  It  is 
best  for  the  cameraman,  as  a  matter  of  ethics,  not  to  mingle  with 
extra-people  any  more  than  is  absolutely  necessary.  Some  there 
are  among  them  who  are  struggling  to  work  their  way  into  the 
studio,  but  the  majority  have  other  objects  or  no  object  at  all, 
except  to  get  a  few  dollars  and  a  square  meal.  (The  studio 
usually  furnishes  them  with  a  free  noon-day  meal.) 

With  the  manager — be  businesslike.  If  he  calls  you  into 
his  office  on  any  matter  of  complaint — state  your  side  of  the 
case  quickly  and  pointedly.  That  is  what  he  expects.  Do  not 
show  any  inferiority  of  manner  or  fear  of  anyone.  The  manager 
is  usually  the  easiest  and  most  considerate  person  about  the 
studio  with  whom  to  get  along.  He  is  also  a  very  busy  man 
and  the  cameraman  does  not,  as  a  rule,  see  much  of  him. 

Your  conduct  to  your  fellow-workers  is  just  as  important  to 
your  advancement  in  your  profession  as  a  thorough  mastery  of 
your  handicraft. 

Do  you  ever  assume  a  detached  attitude  of  mind  and  ask  your- 
self why  you  are  not  earning  as  large  a  salary  as  some  other  man 
whom  you  feel  is  not  nearly  as  well  equipped  in  professional 
knowledge  as  you?  Do  you  feel  that  you  have  some  handicap 
that  you  cannot  define  and  yet  which  you  know  impedes  your 
progress  to  a  better  position  and  a  better  standing  with  your 
fellows  ? 

Have  you  had  the  bitter  sensation  of  having  some  one  whom 
you  felt  below  you  in  the  scale  of  experience,  step  ahead  of  you 
into  a  position  that  you  felt  should  have  been  yours  ? 

Most  of  us  have,  and  most  of  us  have  accused  our  employers 
of  unfairness,  or  our  rivals  with  duplicity  or  made  any  old  ex- 
cuse that  salved  our  conscience  and  permitted  us  to  place  the 
blame  anywhere  but  where  it  belonged,  that  is,  on  our  own 

Let  it  be  granted  that  many  times  there  have  been  unfair  pro- 
motions and  raises  in  salary  for  the  other  man,  but  before  we 
begin  any  bitter  recriminations  and  hasty  bewailings  of  the  bone- 
headedness  and  unfairness  of  employers,  let  us  go  to  open  session 



with  our  own  conduct  and  try  to  ferret  out  the  attitude  and 
frame  of  mind  of  the  employer  and  of  our  rival. 

We  are  all  prone  to  view  the  world  too  much  from  a  selfish 
viewpoint  and  to  accord  too  little  respect  and  consideration  to  the 
viewpoint  of  others.  We  like  to  magnify  our  Httle  troubles  and 
tribulations  and,  no  doubt,  they  are  supremely  important  to  us. 
Does  that  justify  our  thrusting  their  burden  upon  others  and 
not  taking  into  account  the  complications  which  vex  them  per- 
haps more  than  we  are  vexed  ? 

Very,  very  few  employers  want  to  discharge  an  employee  or  to 
reduce  his  salary  if  he  is  giving  satisfactory  return  for  the  sum 
he  receives.  If  you  are  discharged,  demoted  or  lose  your  place 
in  line  for  promotion,  the  chances  are  ten  to  one  that  the  fault 
is  yours  and  not  your  employer's  or  your  rivaFs.  When  the 
reason  is  a  financial  or  business  one,  the  employer  is,  as  a  rule, 
ready  to  explain  the  situation  to  the  employee.  Naturally  in 
such  a  case  no  odium  is  attached  to  a  let-out  for  reasons  over 
which  an  employer  has  no  control. 

On  the  other,  a  discharged  employee  is  often  told  that  he 
is  being  let  out  on  account  of  a  reduction  in  the  working  force, 
because  of  some  deficiency  which  is  inherent  to  the  employee,  and 
yet  which  the  employer  has  not  the  heart  or  courage  to  reveal 
to  him.  One  cannot  imagine  a  more  embarrassing  situation  than 
that  of  telling  an  employee  that  he  is  incompetent,  or  undepend- 
ab^e,  or  dishonest,  or  careless,  or  whatever  the  case  may  be. 

It  is  true  that  there  is  hardly  any  other  profession  in  which 
there  is  more  professional  jealousy  and  distrust  than  in  cinema- 
tography. Many  enforced  hours  of  waiting  occasioned  by  too  few 
studio  managers  and  directors  and  by  the  lack  of  schedule  which 
prevails  in  most  studios,  seem  to  breed  an  incessant  turmoil  of 
gossip  or  recrimination  or  malicious  scandal,  causing  enmities, 
ill-feeling,  partisanships.  Let  us  all  broaden  our  radius  and  put 
a  bridle  on  idle  and  malicious  gossip.  Every  unkind  or  thought- 
less word  we  utter,  wounds  and  rankles  and  breeds  others  which, 
like  boomerangs,  scarify  our  own  reputations.  Our  environment 
is  a  mirror  which  reflects  our  acts  and  thoughts. 

A  man's  earnings  are  limited  only  by  his  own  limitations.  Are 
you  working  to  broaden  your  scope  or  are  you  whining  that 
others  hold  you  back? 

Cinematography  is  a  profession  that  far  out-classes  portrait 



photography  in  the  exacting  knowledge  and  artistic  training  re- 
quired for  its  pursuit.  Yet  where  are  the  Pirie  MacDonalds, 
the  Arnold  Genthes,  Bangs,  Kasebiers,  Johnstones,  Hoyts, 
Saronys,  Du  Fonts,  Marceaus,  Reutlingers,  Curtises,  Bradys, 
Hartmans,  Gillies  and  hundreds  of  other  names  that  grace  the  roll 
of  honor  in  portrait  and  pictorial  photography? 

An  art  is  the  sum  of  individual  exponents.  Are  you  adding  to 
or  detracting  from  the  dignity  of  the  art  of  cinematography? 
Be  even  more  specific  in  your  self-examination.  Aside  from 
your  technical  qualifications,  are  you  a  man  whose  conduct  is 
entitled  to  respect  and  consideration? 

Personality  is  a  factor,  a  vital  part  of  your  profession.  It 
cannot  be  detached  from  it.  Do  you  co-operate  intelligently 
with  your  director?  Do  you  work  for  your  salary  alone?  Do 
you  study  the  scenario  carefully?  Do  you  try  to  comprehend  the 
director's  ideas  and  endeavor  to  assist  him  with  tactful  sug- 
gestions? Or,  do  you  scorn  reading  the  scenario  and  distract 
the  busy  director  by  asking  inane  questions? 

Does  your  conduct  command  respect  or  derision?  Are  your 
opinions  deferred  to  or  are  they  ridiculed?  Are  you  liked  by 
everyone  above  and  below  your  station?  All  of  these  relations 
depend  absolutely  upon  your  conduct.  If  nature  has  not  en- 
dowed you  as  bountifully  with  pleasant  attributes  as  some  of 
your  brothers,  all  the  more  reason  that  you  should  strive  to  com- 
pete with  them. 

Boys,  none  of  us  can  more  than  faintly  realize  the  far-reaching 
effects  of  the  force  which  we  are  wielding.  The  phantom  forms 
that  daily  influence  and  mold  the  thoughts  and  fancies  of  mil- 
lions of  people  are  recorded  by  us.  One  cannot  over-estimate 
the  consequence  of  our  most  thoughtless  act. 

To  you  as  much  as  to  the  director  belongs  the  task  of  inter- 
pretation of  the  author's  idea.  You  can  add  inspiration  and 
strength.  You  can  increase  its  beauty,  subtly  render  in  light  and 
shade  the  nuances  of  expression,  show  contrast  and  antithesis, 
correlate,  delineate. 

When  your  work  reveals  more  than  mere  mechanical  repro- 
duction, when  it  shows  both  thought  and  imagination  you  have 
ceased  to  be  an  artisan.     You  are  an  artist. 

An  artist  is  not  a  man  with  a  flowing  tie  and  baggy  trousers,  nor 
a  long-haired  genius  in  frayed  pants,  although  quite  a  lot  of  us 


MOTION         PICTURE        PHOT  0  G  R  A  P  H  Y 

seem  to  have  that  impression,  if  appearance  is  any  criterion. 

Carelessness  in  dress,  action  or  speech  betray  the  same  charac- 
teristic in  work  and  in  technique.  It  is  a  moth-eaten  idea  that  the 
artist  and  genius  affect  eccentricities  of  dress  and  manner.  It  is 
true  that  many  brilhant  men  are  afflicted  with  human  weakness 
but  it  is  true  also  that  their  brilliancy  might  have  been  greater 
if  their  weakness  were  fewer  and  that  their  greatness  is  not 
because  of,  but  in  spite  of  lapses  of  conduct.  You  cannot  prove 
genius  or  artistic  ability  by  imitating  the  bad  points  of  brilliant 
men.  Mimicry  is  the  artifice  of  the  ape;  originality  and  self- 
respect  the  attributes  of  real  manhood. 

Dressing  neatly,  brushing  your  teeth  and  wearing  decent  foot- 
gear will  not  make  a  sissy  of  you  and  you  are  a  lot  more  pre- 
possessing and  a  great  deal  more  apt  to  command  respect  and  a 
good  salary  than  a  man  with  ability  disguised  in  a  shabby  suit 
and  down-at-the-heel  shoes. 

Your  mental  habits  are  harder  to  overcome  than  your  physical 
ones ;  the  mote  that  is  in  your  eye  is  ever  the  hardest  to  perceive. 
The  braggart,  the  liar,  the  egotist,  the  pessimist,  are  all  loose 
and  fluent  talkers,  and  the  enchantment  of  their  own  chin  music 
drowns  the  groans  of  their  unwilling  and  unconvinced  audiences. 
You  know  them  all,  the  braggart  and  liar  who  says,  "When  I  was 
in  India  taking  the  Durbar  for  Kinemacolor,'^  who  wouldn't  know 
an  East  India  native  from  an  American  Indian,  if  he  saw  them 
side  by  side,  and  who  never  saw  a  motion-picture  camera  before 
he  came  from  Coshocton,  Ohio,  sixteen  months  ago.  The  ego- 
tist, "Why,  Tm  the  guy  that  put  him  in  the  business.  I  taught 
hini  everything  he  knows.  I  made-I-I-I-."  And  the  fellow 
who  blames  everybody  and  everything  but  himself.  He  says, 
*Tf  the  lens  in  my  camera  was  any  good,  and  if  the  camera  didn't 
buckle  and  throw  a  streak  of  static  every  time  I  turn  the  handle, 
and  if  the  developer  hadn't  ruined  my  stuff  in  the  dark  room, 
and  if  they  hadn't  cut  out  all  the  good  stuff  in  the  cutting  room, 
it  would  have  been  a  good  picture." 

The  photographer  himself  is  the  only  reason  for  terms  of 
equality  with  director  and  star.  There  have  been  photographers 
who  have  risen  from  photography  to  directorship,  to  manager- 
ship, even  to  ownership  of  companies. 

"Hitch  your  wagon  to  a  star"  and  plug.  Search  yourself  for 
your  handicaps  and  eliminate  them.     Make  up  your  mind  that 



nothing  but  your  own  actions  and  their  consequences  can  hinder 
you.  No  one  can  advance  you  except  yourself.  Associate  with 
successful  men,  ferret  out  the  reasons  for  their  success.  If  you 
can  honestly  and  honorably  employ  their  methods,  do  so;  if  not, 
reject  them  and  seek  others.  Have  confidence  in  your  ability. 
It  you  have  no  confidence  in  yourself,  can  you  expect  others  to 
have  confidence  in  you?  **Faint  heart"  never  won  anything 
worth  having. 

And  last,  but  not  least,  don't  forget  that  you  can't  preserve 
your  faculties  in  alcohol. 


Chapter  XXIII 

WHEN  applying  for  a  position  the  proper  person  to  see, 
if  you  are  not  previously  acquainted  in  the  studio,  is 
the  Studio  Manager. 

You  should  request  an  interview  and  when  you  see  him,  in- 
troduce yourself  and  state  that  you  wish  a  position  as  camera- 
man in  that  studio,  if  there  is  an  opening. 

The  manager  will  say  if  there  is  an  opening,  but  if  he  says 
there  is  not,  it  is  useless  to  insist  on  an  immediate  trial  of  your 

You  should,  however,  request  him  to  keep  you  in  mind  and 
leave  with  him  your  card  containing  your  address  and  telephone 
number — ^that  number  is  important  as  studio  managers  use  the 
'phone  frequently.  If  you  possess  a  camera,  add  the  name  of 
its  make  to  your  card. 

An  opening  may  present  itself  in  that  studio  in  a  day  or  it  may 
be  a  month  or  more  before  they  will  require  another  cameraman. 
Sooner  or  later  they  will  want  men  and  then,  if  your  card  has^ 
been  filed,  they  will,  very  likely  call  you  on  the  'phone. 

We  will  assume,  however,  that  the  manager  does  require  a 
cameraman  when  you  present  yourself  for  an  interview.  He 
will  ask  you  what  salary  you  expect  and,  if  you  value  your 
chances  of  a  position  in  that  place  do  not  make  too  cheap  a 
figure.  A  manager  will  appraise  your  worth  at  exactly  what 
you  appraise  yourself.  In  large,  well-established  studios  a  salary 
of  $ioo  a  week  will  not  startle  the  manager  out  of  a  single  wink. 
In  fact,  if  you  ask  for  less  he  is  very  likely  to  set  you  down  in 
his  mind  as  a  "crank-turner"  or  an  amateur. 

If  he  states  that  he  wants  you  to  photograph  some  celebrity 
or  well-known  star — do  not  hesitate  to  ask  $150.  You  will  get 
it  if  they  want  you. 

At  these  figures,  of  course,  you  will  be  expected  to  furnish 
your  own  camera  and  complete  equipment  for  taking  the  films 
However,  you  will  not  be  required  to  furnish  rewinders  or  darl< 
room  fixtures,  as  these  are  part   of   the   studio  paraphernalia 


APPLYING        FOR        A        POSITION 

Also,  most  studios  will  keep  your  equipment  in  repair  as  they 
have  well-equipped  machine  shops  and  expert  machinists. 

Of  course,  experience  counts  for  a  lot  in  securing  a  position. 
The  first  job  is  always  the  hardest  to  get.  After  you  have  made 
one  good  picture  the  rest  is  easy.  You  should  not  say  that  you 
have  had  no  experience  whatever  as  that  would  be  fatal.  It  is 
better  to  say  that  you  have  been  making  film  for  yourself  or  free 
lancing  considerably  rather  than  admit  you  have  not  worked  in  a 
studio  before.  Of  course  it  is  advisable  to  state  that  you  are 
a  graduate  of  a  school  of  photography  and  to  show  your  diploma 
if  you  have  it  with  you. 

Unless  you  have  already  practiced  with  your  camera  enough 
to  give  you  confidence  to  handle  any  situation  that  might  arise 
in  studio  work,  it  is  strongly  advised  that  you  first  obtain  a 
position  as  an  assistant  cameraman  so  that  you  can  learn  the 
ropes  and  adjust  yourself  to  the  customs  and  practices  of  studio 
work.  If  you  have  ability  and  perseverance  you  will  soon  get 
a  chance  to  be  promoted  to  cameraman  with  a  substantial  raise 
in  salary.  This  salary  will  possibly  not  be  as  much  as  if  you  had 
attempted  a  cameraman's  job,  but  you  will  be  in  a  much  more 
comfortable  f>osition  of  having  demonstrated  your  ability  as 
you  went  along.  As  soon  as  you  have  made  a  successful  picture 
as  a  full-fledged  cameraman  you  can  again  get  a  raise  in  salary — 
if  not  in  the  same  studio,  in  another.  One  of  the  peculiarities 
of  the  film  business  is  that  it  is  generally  easier  to  get  an  in- 
crease in  salary  by  changing  a  position  than  to  try  to  get  the 
increase  you  are  entitled  to  in  the  place  where  you  are  working. 

You  will,  perhaps,  be  engaged  on  trial — services  to  terminate 
without  notice  if  desired  on  either  side.  It  is  then  up  to  you  to 
show  them  that  you  are  a  man  they  cannot  be  without.  If  the 
foregoing  instructions  are  carefully  followed  you  can  do  this 
and  establish  yourself  as  a  fixture  in  that  studio  as  long  as 
they  make  pictures  and  you  wish  to  stay. 

When  going  to  seek  a  position  it  is  advisable  to  wear  your 
best  clothes.  There  are  a  number  of  itinerant  crank-turners 
running  from  pillar  to  post  and  never  remaining  anywhere  and 
they  usually  exhibit  their  shiftlessness  in  their  appearance.  You 
do  not  want  to  be  considered  one  of  these. 

Lastly,  be  considerate  to  your  other  cameramen.  Do  not  act  as 
if  you  knew  it  all  just  because  you  may  have  had  a  college  educa- 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTOG  R  A  P  H  Y 

tion  in  cinematography,  while  they  have  gone  through  the  long 
school  of  experience.  You  may  have  learned  as  much  in  a  few 
weeks  as  they  have  gained  in  five  years,  but  they  are  entitled  to 
your  consideration  and  help,  if  needed.  A  man  may  not  know 
what  the  focal  length  of  a  lens  is  and  yet  may  get  good  results. 
Some  day  he  may  have  a  puzzling  effect  to  work  out  and  may 
come  to  you  for  the  explanation  because  you  have  had  theoretical 
training  as  well  as  experience  and  practice — an  ideal  combina- 
tion. Only  a  boor  would  then  strut  and  throw  out  his  chest 
and  proclaim  himself  the  great-know-it-all. 

If  you  wish  to  impart  some  of  your  precious  knowledge,  do 
so  with  gentleness  and  modesty.  You  will  make  friends  among 
your  colleagues  and  they  will  respect  and  admire  you. 

Many  operators  have  purchased  their  own  motion  picture 
cameras  and  have  added  materially  to  their  income  by  filming 
local  events  for  exhibition  in  the  theatres  of  their  home  town. 
All  of  the  topical  or  news  weeklies  are  ready  to  purchase  negative 
films  of  subjects  of  national  interest  and,  while  we  do  not  all 
live  in  localities  where  pictures  of  such  events  may  be  obtained, 
except  at  very  long  intervals,  yet  many  ingenious  cameramen 
have  discovered  common  things  in  their  own  territory  which, 
when  carefully  taken  and  titled  proved  of  general  interest  and 
salable  to  some  of  the  big  producing  concerns. 

Beautiful  scenery  and  places  of  historic  interest  are  in  greater 
demand  than  ever  before.  The  European  war  cut  down  the  sup- 
ply of  available  foreign  scenic  stuff  and  awakened  an  interest 
in  the  American  public  to  the  beauties  of  its  own  country.  "See 
America  First"  is  a  slogan  that  should  stir  a  thrill  of  real 
patriotism  in  the  breast  of  every  American  citizen,  and  the  mo- 
tion picture  is  pre-eminently  the  medium  of  showing  to  the 
great  masses  of  our  people,  who,  for  one  reason  or  another, 
are  not  able  to  travel,  the  almost  unknown  grandeur  of  our  own 
United  States.  Even  those  people  who  have  had  the  good  for- 
tune to  see  the  wonders  of  America  enjoy  the  many  memories 
recalled  to  them  by  a  picture  of  their  past  travels. 

Motion  picture  cameras  are  costly  pieces  of  apparatus,  it  is 
true.  The  operator  who  wishes  to  begin  modestly  and  is  will- 
ing to  start  with  a  camera  that,  although  a  long  way  from  a 
professional  studio  camera,  is  still  capable  of  doing  remark- 
ably good  work,  can  purchase  one  of  those  amateur  instruments 
for  less  than  a  hundred  dollars. 


APPLYING       FOR       A       POSITION 

It  is  not  necessary  that  the  owner  of  a  camera  should  develop 
and  print  pictures,  although,  doubtless,  many  of  the  ingeniously 
and  mechanically  inclined  among  you  would  be  highly  interested 
in  doing  your  own  work.  If  you  can  take  and  finish  pictures 
with  an  ordinary  carwera,  you  can  do  the  same  with  a  motion 

There  is  a  large  and  ever  broadening  field  for  local  talent  that 
need  not  in  any  way  conflict  with  that  of  the  strictly  professional 
studio  cameraman. 

The  enormous  development  of  the  motion  picture  industry  has 
aroused  the  interest  of  millions  of  people  and  there  are  thou- 
sands of  subjects  of  purely  local  or  sectional  interest  which,  while 
they  are  entirely  outside  the  range  of  work  of  the  big  studio  or 
factory,  yet  would  be  a  profitable  employment  for  the  man  who 
has  the  preliminary  training  that  the  motion  picture  operator 
must  have  acquired. 

If  your  town  has  an  event  such  as  a  celebration,  a  corner- 
stone laying,  a  football  or  baseball  game,  anything  that  brings 
out  masses  of  people  to  see  and  hear  men  of  great  local  im- 
portance, arrange  to  take  a  picture  and  let  the  local  theatre  use 
it  for  a  stated  sum,  or,  better  yet,  in  certain  instances,  play  it 
for  a  certain  percentage  of  the  box  office  receipts.  Get  as 
many  of  the  local  people  in  the  picture  as  possible ;  most  of  them 
will  come  to  see  how  they  look  on  the  screen. 

Some  camera  owners  have  been  very  successful  in  making  ar- 
rangements with  local  papers  to  conduct  a  popularity  contest, 
after  which  the  winners  were  used  in  staging  a  little  play  in 
local  surroundings.  The  interest  aroused  by  the  advertising 
will  bring  out  a  large  crowd  to  see  the  picture  on  the  screen,  and 
a  local  theatre  can  well  afford  to  charge  a  small  additional  en- 
trance fee  and  give  you  a  good  percentage  of  the  box  office 
receipts  for  the  privilege  of  running  it.  Often  the  local  theatre 
and  local  paper  can  be  induced  to  work  in  conjunction  on  this 
kind  of  contest  stimulating  interest  by  throwing  side  pictures  of 
the  contestants  and  the  progress  of  the  voting  upon  the  screen. 

Another  source  of  revenue  from  a  picture  of  this  kind  is 
that  of  advertising  various  merchants  and  Industries,  by  using 
them  for  backgrounds  In  the  story  and  charging  a  reasonable 
price  for  this  publicity. 

For  work  of  this  kind  It  is,  of  course,  almost  imperative  that 
you  use  a  camera  of  professional  grade. 



There  are  many  manufacturers  who  would  like  to  have  mo- 
tion pictures  made  of  their  factory  processes,  or  of  the  workings 
of  their  products.  The  Ford  and  Studebaker  automobile  fac- 
tories have  had  motion  pictures  made  of  the  manufacture  of  their 
cars  showing  all  the  details  of  manufacture  from  the  raw  ore 
to  the  finished  car.  The  Heinz  Company  has  had  pictures  made 
showing  the  sanitary  methods  of  making  and  packing  preserves 
and  the  final  consumption  of  the  goods  by  the  consumer.  Many 
industrial  processes  of  general  interest  have  been  regularly  re- 
leased by  the  big  manufacturers  of  motion  pictures,  such  as  big 
gun  forging  and  machining  and  testing;  the  manufacture  of 
fountain  pens ;  safety  devices  used  by  large  corporations  for 
protection  of  their  workmen;  the  manufacture  of  salt,  borax, 
soap  and  dozens  of  other  staple  articles;  the  construction  of 
dams,  spillways,  power  plants,  viaducts,  canals,  bridges,  etc. 

There  are  dozens  of  commercial  studios  where  negative  de- 
veloping and  printing  are  done  at  reasonable  rates.  Or  the 
ambitious  amateur  may  construct  much  of  his  own  apparatus. 
He  can  fix  his  camera  so  that  he  can  use  it  as  a  printing  ma- 
chine, or  he  can  make  a  printer  from  an  old  projection  head. 
The  tanks,  racks,  drying  drums  or  frames  can  all  be  made  at 
home  by  anyone  who  is  handy  with  carpenter  tools.  I  know  of 
two  or  three  experienced  operators  who  are  good  mechanics, 
who  even  made  their  own  cameras.  These  men,  of  course,  were 
exceptions.  While  I  would  not  as  a  rule  advise  everyone  to  try 
to  make  his  own  camera,  I  don't  see  why  any  operator  who  is  a 
good  mechanic  and  who  knows  photography  should  not  derive  a 
lot  of  satisfaction  and  fun  from  constructing  his  first  camera. 

An  old  projection  head  is  generally  too  much  worn  and  much 
too  heavy  to  use  for  the  mechanism  of  a  camera.  Beside  the 
weight  and  difficulty  of  making  over  and  changing  the  shutter, 
etc.,  the  Maltese  cross  of  Geneva  movement  is  not  suitable  for  the 
production  of  negatives. 

In  making  industrial  films,  bear  in  mind  that  they  must  be  of 
general  interest  unless  they  are  being  made  to  show  only  to 
parties  interested  in  that  particular  industry.  Show  the  interest- 
ing points,  the  magnitude  of  the  industry,  its  great  stocks  of  raw 
material,  the  various  processes  of  manufacture  and,  most  im- 
portant of  all,  the  proper  use  and  application  of  the  products. 
Get  all  the  action  possible.    Don't  show  one  thing  or  scene  for 


APPLYING        FOR       A        POSITION 

more  than  fifteen  or  twenty  feet — ten  feet  is  sometimes  enough. 
Do  not  show  the  same  process  more  than  once,  unless  from  a 
different  viewpoint  to  explain  it  more  clearly,  and  avoid  monoto- 
nous repetitions.  Don't  let  the  manufacturer  mislead  you  as  to 
what  is  interesting.  His  business  can  never  be  as  interesting  to 
another  as  to  himself. 

I  know  two  young  fellows  who  have  hobbies.  One  is  in- 
terested in  small  animals,  the  other  in  insects — one  lives  in 
California  and  the  other  in  a  small  town  in  New  York  State. 
Each  of  them  has  fitted  a  small  studio  for  himself.  Both  are 
turning  out  negatives  on  the  subjects  embraced  by  their  hobbies 
and  selling  them  to  big  companies  to  be  used  to  fill  out  split 
reels  or  for  educational  subjects. 


Chapter  XXIV 

ONE  of  the  hardest  problems  that  confronts  the  student  of 
cinematography  is  how  to  find  out  the  things  that  he  wants 
to  know.  This  book  was  compiled  to  answer  most  of  the 
questions  that  puzzle  the  beginner  and  more  advanced  workers 
as  well.  Yet  no  one  book  can  hope  to  cover  all  subjects  and  enter 
minutely  into  all  of  the  ramifications  of  all  the  diverse  branches 
of  work  embraced  in  the  art  and  science  of  cinematography.  In 
the  first  place,  as  cinematography  is  based  on  photography  it 
v;ould  be  superfluous  to  try  to  cover  that  subject  before  treating 
the  main  subject. 

On  the  subject  of  still  photography  there  are  already  printed 
and  for  sale  a  multitude  of  books  which  cover  the  subject  more 
adequately  and  thoroughly  than  could  be  attempted  in  a  text 
of  this  kind  and  the  many  still  photographers  who  will  purchase 
this  course  would  not  wish  to  pay  for  the  additional  matter  with 
which  they  are  already  familiar.  Those  who  have  not  already 
acquired  a  foundation  training  in  still  photography  are  advised 
to  secure  text  books  on  the  subject  and  study  them  before  at- 
tempting to  go  deeply  in  the  art  of  motion  picture  making. 

For  those  who  wish  to  consult  literature  on  photographic  and 
motion  picture  topics  the  following  list  of  books  has  been 
prepared.  There  are  many,  many  books  on  photography  which 
are  very  good  but  which  are  not  included  in  this  Hst.  This  list 
has  been  compiled  to  help  the  earnest  student  of  cinematography 
and  each  book  listed  is  valuable  in  something  which  has  a  bearing 
on  motion  picture  photography,  although  only  those  books  listed 
under  cinematography  are  devoted  exclusively  to  that  subject. 

On  account  of  the  interference  of  the  war  with  book  publish- 
ing many  of  the  books  listed  are  now  out  of  print  and,  too,  in 
some  cases,  the  price  has  been  advanced.  Copies  of  out  of  print 
books  may,  however,  be  consulted  at  libraries  and  stray  copies 
of  others  may  be  picked  up  from^  photographic  supply  houses 
that  were  well  stocked  before  the  war. 




Books  under  this  heading  give  the  primary  lessons  m  still 
photography.  No  one  should  attempt  motion  picture  photog- 
raphy without  having  first  mastered  the  principles  of  still  camera 
work,  both  practically  and  theoretically.  It  is  not  intended  that 
the  student  should  buy  every  book  in  the  list.  One  or  two 
titles  that  appeal  to  him  most  will  be  sufficient. 

Experimental  Photography  by  Clement  J.  Leaper.  A  be- 
ginner's experimental  course  in  photography,  giving  simple  ex- 
planations of  why  and  how.  1898.  (English)  99  pp.  Cloth, 
50  cents.     Andrew  J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

Early  Work  in  Photography  by  W.  Ethelbert  Henry  (Eng- 
lish). A  useful  handbook,  illustrated,  with  a  chapter  on  lenses 
by  H.  Snowden  Ward.  3d  edition,  1901.  Cloth,  50  cents. 
Andrew  J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

How  TO  Make  Good  Pictures.  The  Eastman  manual  for 
beginners,  with  chapters  on  special  subjects  by  noted  workers, 
illustrated.  Paper,  25  cents,  Cloth,  $1.00.  Eastman  Kodak  Co., 
Rochester,  N.  Y. 

Elementary  Photography  by  John  A.  Hodges  (English). 
About  100  pp.  1898.  Cloth,  50  cents.  Andrew  J.  Lloyd  Co., 
Boston,  Mass. 

The  Right  Road  into  Photography  by  Dr.  J.  Nicol.  189J8. 
A  simple  guide  for  the  novice,  plainly  written,  with  instructions 
and  formulae.  Paper,  83  cents.  Andrew  J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston, 

Principles  of  Simple  Photography  by  F.  W.  Sparrow.  1902. 
(English)  130  pp.     Illustrated.     Qoth,  50  cents. 

Photography  for  Novices  by  Percy  Lund.     200  pp.,  50  cents. 

Beginners'  Troubles  (Photo-Miniature,  No.  114).  Paper, 
25  cents.     Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York  City. 

Library  of  Amateur  Photography,  4  vols.  Comprehensive. 
1,620  pp.  The  most  complete  work  of  its  kind  and  a  valuable 
reference  library.  This  work  is  out  of  print  but  may  be  found  in 
libraries  and  second-hand  book  stores. 

Instruction  in  Photography  by  Sir  De  W.  Abney.  Eleventh 
Edition,  illustrated.  Large  i2mo.  Cloth,  $2.50.  J.  B.  Lippin- 
cott,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

The  Romance  of  Modern  Photography  by  Charles  R.  Gib- 



son.  63  illustrations.  345  pp.  8vo.  Cloth,  $1.50.  J.  B.  Lip- 
pincott,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Saturday  With  My  Camera  by  Stanley  C.  Johnson.  With 
over  100  diagrams  and  plates,  8vo.  Cloth,  $1.50.  J.  B.  Lip- 
pincott,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Photography  of  Today  by  H.  Chapman  Jones,  54  illustrations 
and  diagrams.  342  pp.  Crown  8vo.  Qoth,  $1.50.  J.  B.  Lippincott, 
Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Photo-Miniature  Series,  Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York  City, 
35  cents  each. 

The  Pocket  Classics  of  Photography.  Each  book  covers  a 
different  subject  and  covers  it  well.  Written  in  a  manner 
which  every  one  can  understand  from  a  practical  standpoint.  As 
there  are  nearly  two  hundred  subjects  in  this  series  on  photog- 
raphy and  a  new  subject  appears  each  month  the  list  is  too  long 
to  print  here.  They  are  carried  by  all  photo  supply  houses  or 
a  complete  list  may  be  obtained  from  the  publishers. 


Books  for  more  advanced  workers  in  still  photography. 

Practical  Pocket  Book  of  Photography  by  E.  Vogel,  (Eng- 
lish) 1896.  Comprehensive,  brief.  Cloth,  $1.25.  Andrew  J. 
Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

Photographic  Instruction  Text  by  George  H.  Paltridge. 
1900.  A  practical  book.  The  outgrowth  of  a  class  in  photog- 
raphy at  the  Lewis  Institute,  Chicago.  230  pp.  Qoth,  $1.00. 
Andrew  J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass 

Professional  Photography  by  C.  H.  Hewitt.  In  two 
volumes  (English)  1904.  Illustrated.  Cloth,  50  cents  per  vol. 
Andrew  J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

Concise  Photography  by  E.  O.  Hoppe,  F.  R.  P.  S.,  19 12. 
$4.00.  The  mathematical  principles  of  photography  and  how  to 
apply  them.  An  accurate  system  for  the  careful  and  exhaustive 
student.     Photo-Era,  Boston,  Mass. 

Photography  for  Students  of  Physics  and  Chemistry  by 
Louis  Derr,  A.M.,  S.B.  247  pp.  $2.00  1916.  MacMillan  Com- 
pany, New  York.  Not  so  complicated  as  the  title  sounds  and  an 
excellent  book  for  those  who  really  want  to  know  the  scientific 
principles  of  photography. 

Barnet  Book  of  Photography  containing  a  complete  photo- 


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graphic  education.  Every  branch  of  photography  is  gone  over  in 
a  way  easily  understood.  Many  formulae  for  various  processes. 
68  cents.     Bass  Camera  Co.,  Chicago,  111. 

Watkins'  Manual  by  Alfred  Watkins,  140  pp.  50  cents. 
Burke  &  James,  Chicago.,  111.  This  book  gives  many  useful 
tables,  formulae,  illustrations  of  negatives  and  prints,  which  show 
comparative  results  of  correct  and  incorrect  exposure  and  de- 
velopment. It  deals  with  all  branches  of  photography,  such  as 
interior  work,  copying,  enlarging,  reducing,  "pinhole"  photog- 
raphy, snapshots,  speed  standards,  lantern  slides,  printing  in- 

British  Journal  Almanac.  Year  book  of  Photography. 
Paper,  75  cents,  Cloth,  $1.25.  Contains  many  valuable  formulae 
and  tables  and  a  resume  of  the  photographic  improvements  and 
progress  of  the  year.     Carried  by  all  good  photo  supply  houses. 


No  earnest  worker  can  be  without  some  reliable  works  of 
reference  in  his  profession.  The  best  reference  book  that  one 
can  obtain  is  a  large  loose  leaf  note  book  in  which  are  filed  the 
formulae  and  notes  of  the  worker's  personal  experience  and  the 
pertinent  articles  that  can  be  gradually  accumulated  from  all 
sources,  co-workers,  trade  journals,  direction  slips  from  pack- 
ages of  films,  plates,  papers,  catalogs.  After  that  come  the 
standard  reference  works. 

The  Photographer's  Note  Book  by  F.  C.  Lambert.  1897. 
(English).  250  practical  hints,  formulae,  etc.,  clipped  from  all 
sources  as  worth  saving.  80  pp.  Cloth,  50  cents.  Andrew  J. 
Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

Processes  of  Pure  Photography  by  W.  K.  Burton  and 
Andrew  Pringle.  A  standard  compilation  of  the  principal  nega- 
tive and  positive  processes.  1889.  200  pp.  Paper,  $2.00. 
Andrew  J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  !Mass. 

The  Photographic  Reference  Book  by  G.  H.  Mcintosh 
(English).  Tells  "how  to  do"  things  rather  than  describe 
methods.  Brief  and  to  the  point.  835  references.  336  pp. 
Paper,  75  cents.     Andrew  J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

Cassell's  Cyclopedia  of  Photography,  1912.  572  pp.  The 
most  complete,  up-to-date,  reliable  and  easy  reference  photo- 
graphic book  of  recent  years.  Cloth,  $3.75.  Photo  Era,  Boston, 



The  Dictionary  of  Photography  by  E.  J.  Wall,  F.R.P.S., 
600  pp.  $2.50.  Photo  Era,  Boston,  Mass.  Readily  accessible 
information  compiled  like  an  encyclopedia  or  dictionary. 

A  Reference  Book  of  Practical  Photography  by  F.  Dundas 
Todd.  A  collection  of  valuable  paragraphs  on  chemical  proc- 
esses, apparatus,  etc.  Paper,  25  cents.  Tennant  &  Ward, 
New  York  City. 

P'igures,  Facts  and  Formulae  of  Photography  (Photo- 
Miniature  134).  A  new  selection,  comprising  a  treasury  of  in- 
formation for  amateurs,  gathered  from  practical  experience. 
35  cents.     Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York  City. 

Photographer^s  Note  Book  and  Constant  Companion  by 
Rev.  F.  C.  Lambert.  Contains  250  practical  hints,  formulae,  ex- 
pedients, etc.  88  pp.,  60  cents."  Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York 

A  Photographic  Reference  Book  by  J.  Mcintosh.  One  of 
the  most  complete  and  valuable  collections  of  photographic  for- 
mulae in  existence.  Paper,  75  cents.  Tennant  &  Ward,  New 
York  City. 

Cyclopaedic  Photography  by  E.  L.  Wilson.  Though  pub- 
lished many  years  ago,  this  American  cyclopaedia  is  extremely 
complete  on  all  standard  processes  of  photography.  $2.50, 
Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York  City. 

Photography  of  Today  by  H.  C.  Jones.  A  simply  told  ac- 
count of  the  origin,  progress,  and  latest  achievements  in  photog- 
raphy. Illustrated.  242  pp.  $1.85.  Tennant  &  Ward,  New 
York  City. 

The  Advance  of  Photography,  Its  History  and  Modern 
Application  by  A.  E.  Garrett.  A  descriptive  handbook  of 
photographpy,  paying  special  attention  to  its  scientific  applica- 
tions.   $4.25.     Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York  City. 


The  old-time  projection  machine  or  "magic  lantern'*  is  still  in 
the  ring,  although  the  motion  picture  projector  has  handed  it  a 
mighty  wallop  in  the  jaw.  Many  thousands  of  slides  are  still 
being  made,  and  many  a  projection  machine  operator  might  im- 
prove both  his  time  and  his  finances  by  learning  how  they  are 


The  motion  picture  projector  is  also  an  optical  lantern  and  a 



number  of  books  listed  under  cinematography  treat  also  of  the 
use  of  the  projection  machine. 

jMotion  Picture  Handbook  for  Managers  and  Operators  by 
F.  H.  Richardson.  $440.  432  pp.  Moving  Picture  World, 
516  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York  City.  The  recognized  standard 
book  on  the  work  of  projection.  Complete  descriptions  and  in- 
structions on  all  leading  machines  and  projection  equipment.  In 
any  projection  room  this  carefully  compiled  book  will  save  its 
purchase  price  each  month.  Illustrated  with  numerous  cuts  and 

The  IModern  Bioscope  Operator.  Cloth,  200  pp.,  4  shillings. 
Ganes,  Ltd.,  31  Litchfield  Street,  London,  W.  C.  An  English 
book  on  projection  machine  operation. 

Lantern  Slides  (The  Photo-]\Iiniature  Series  No.  9).  35 
cents.     Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York  City. 

Lantern  Slide  Manual  by  John  A.  Hodges,  (English), 
140  pp.  Diagrams.  Cloth,  $1.00  Andrew  J.  Lloyd  Co., 
Boston,  Mass. 

Coloring  Lantern  Slides  (Photo-Miniature  Series,  No.  83). 
Paper,  35  cents.     Tennant  &  W^ard,  New  York  City. 

Lantern  Slide  Making  by  F.  C.  Lambert,  a  very  satisfactory 
manual,  illustrated  (English),  144  pp.  Cloth,  50  cents.  Andrew 
J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  IMass. 

The  Optical  Lantern  (Photo-Miniature,  No.  119).  Paper, 
35  cents.     Tennant  &  W^ard,  New  York  City. 

The  Lantern  and  How  to  Use  It  by  C.  Goodwin  Norton  and 
Judson  Bonner.  Full  details  of  all  varieties  of  projection,  in- 
cluding the  motion  picture,  with  all  kinds  of  illuminants  and 
lanterns.  A  complete  treatise  on  how  to  run  a  lantern  exhibition. 
143  pp.     60  cents.     Tennant  &  W^ard,  New  York  City. 

Practical  Slide  Making  by  G.  T.  Harris.  Simple  working 
instructions  for  every  process  in  the  making  of  slides.  60  cents. 
Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York  City. 

Optic  Projection  by  Henry  Philips  Gage.  $3.00.  1914. 
Comstock  Publishing  Co.,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 


It  IS  astonishing  how  ignorant  most  photographic  workers  are 
of  even  the  simpler  principles  of  optics.  What  would  you  think 
of  a  mechanic  who  did  not  know  what  his  tools  were  for  or  what 



they  could  do  ?  The  photographer's  lens  is  his  principal  tool  and 
yet  how  little  the  most  of  them  know  about  the  lenses  they  use. 
Diaphragm  openings  seem  the  greatest  of  mysteries  to  many. 

Photographic  Lenses  by  C.  Beck  and  H.  Andrews.  Pub- 
lished by  a  firm  of  manufacturing  opticians  as  an  advertisement 
of  their  specialties,  but  containing  more  practical  information  on 
the  choice  and  use  of  lenses  than  any  other  work  at  the  price. 
288  pp.  Illustrated  (English)  1902.  Cloth,  75  cents.  Andrew 
J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

Photographic  Lensl3.  How  to  choose  and  how  to  use.  By 
John  A.  Hodges.  1898  (English).  A  good  elementary  hand- 
book.    Cloth,  $1.00.     Andrew  J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

The  Lens.  A  practical  guide  to  the  choice,  use  and  testing 
of  photographic  lenses.  The  latest  and  most  satisfactory  hand- 
book on  the  every  day  use  of  lenses.  By  Thomas  Bolas  and 
George  E.  Brown  (English),  164  pp.  Cloth,  $1.25.  Andrew 
J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

First  Book  of  the  Lens,  a  treatise  on  the  action  and  use 
of  the  photographic  lens.  Not  elementary,  despite  its  title,  but 
valuable  to  those  familiar  with  mathematics.  By  C.  W.  Piper. 
170  pp.  (English),  $1.25.     Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York  City. 

Photographic  Optics  by  R.  S.  Coles,  M.A.  i8g8.  An  advanced 
manual  for  modern  workers.  Cloth,  $2.50.  Andrew  J.  Lloyd 
Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

Choice  and  Use  of  Lenses  (Photo-Miniature  Series,  No. 
79).     Paper,  35  cents.     Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York  City. 

Practical  Notes  on  Telephotography.  A  pocket  book  full 
of  reliable  information  on  its  subject.  (English)  1901.  25  cents. 
Andrew  J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

Telephoto  Work  by  G.  H.  Deller.  63  pp.  50  cents.  Andrew 
J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

Practical  Telephotography  (Photo-Miniature  Series,  No. 
90).     Paper,  35  cents.     Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York  City. 


The  action  played  by  the  chemicals  used  in  photographic  solu- 
tions is  an  interesting  one,  and  one  does  not  need  to  be  a  chemist 
to  get  a  very  good  idea  of  why  each  particular  chemical  is  used 
in  a  bath,  and  what  effect  it  has  on  the  photographic  image. 

Chemistry  for   Photographers  by   C.   F.   Townsend.    An 



excellent  first  handbook,  not  exhaustive,  but  simple  and  prac- 
tical (English).  3d  edition.  1902.  Cloth,  50  cents.  Andrew 
J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

The  Elementary  Chemistry  of  Photographic  Chemicals 
by  C.  S.  Ellis  (English).  19 13.  113  pp.  Qoth,  50  cents, 
Andrew  J.  Lloyd  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

Photographic  Chemicals  (Photo-Miniature  Series,  No.  loi). 
Paper,  35  cents.     Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York  City. 

Chemistry  for  Photographers  by  Wm.  R.  Flint.  No  knowl- 
edge of  photography  is  complete  without  an  understanding  of  the 
chemistry-  underlying  its  processes.  The  author  has  written  a 
book  for  the  photographer  who  knows  no  chemistry,  and  has 
described  every  type  of  reaction  underlying  the  photographic 
processes  in  language  so  simple  that  no  knowledge  of  chemical 
ftmdamentals  beyond  what  is  given  in  the  book  is  required.  The 
reader  who  masters  this  book  will  know  exactly  how  to  proceed 
in  every  photc^^raphic  process  to  insure  success.  $2xxy,  Tennant 
&  Ward,  New  York  City. 

Photographic  Chemistry^  (Photo-Miniature  Series  No.  149). 
Practical  information  about  the  chemistry  of  ever>^day  photo- 
graphic processes ;  the  making  of  emulsions  for  plates  and  papers ; 
developers  and  de\'^elopment ;  intensification  and  reduction;  the 
making  of  prints ;  fixing ;  mixing  chemical  solutions,  etc  35  cents. 
Temmnt  &  Ward,  New  York  City. 

The  Chemistry  of  Photography  by  R-  Medola.  A  textbook 
embodying  a  series  of  lectures  on  the  theory  of  the  chemistry  of 
photography  delivered  in  Dublin,  and  chiefly  valuable  to  students. 
$2.20.    Teimant  &  Ward,  New  York  City. 


The  books  under  this  heading  comprise  nearly  all  of  the  works 
published  that  are  now  in  print  which  deal  directly  with  cine- 

Practical  Cinematography  and  its  Application  by  Fred- 
erick A.  Talbot,  262  pp.  i2mo.  $1.10.  J.  B.  Lippincott, 
Phila.,  Pa.  This  is  a  popular  work  by  an  English  writer  and 
while  it  is  published  for  the  general  reader,  and  the  moving  pic- 
ture fan,  it  holds  much  of  interest  for  the  cinematographer.  It 
gives  tbe  fundamentals  of  motion  |Mcturc  production,  describes 
the  diflPerent  sorts  of  cameras  and  projection  apparatus  used, 



and  gives  working  methods  of  developing  of  film,  printing  the 
negative,  and  the  operation  of  projection.  Very  complete  in  its 
information  and  abundantly  illustrated. 

Moving  Pictures:  How  They  Are  Made  and  Worked  by 
Frederick  A.  Talbot.  270  pp.  $1.50.  J.  B.  Lippincott,  Phila., 
Pa.  On  the  same  style  as  the  above  but  containing  different 
material  about  the  same  subjects.  Not  a  textbook,  but  an  in- 
teresting account  of  the  many  uses  of  motion  pictures,  and  well 
worth  reading  and  adding  to  your  library. 

Cyclopaedia  of  Motion  Picture  Work  by  David  S.  Hulfish, 
2  vols.  $4.00.  American  School  of  Correspondence,  Chicago, 
111.  About  one-quarter  devoted  to  motion  picture  photography 
and  the  remainder  to  projection.  Also  treats  of  picture  pro- 
duction from  the  producer's  and  scenario  writer's  standpoint. 

The  a.  B.  C.  of  the  Cinematograph  by  Cecil  N.  Hepworth. 
128  pp.  50  cents.  Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York  City.  Not  an 
up-to-date  book,  but  valuable  as  the  best  authority  on  camera 
movements,  and  interesting  from  an  historical  standpoint. 

Living  Pictures:  Their  History,  Reproduction  and  Prac- 
tical Working  by  Henry  V.  Hop  wood.  1899.  265  pp.  and 
index.  One  of  the  first  books  published  about  moving  pictures. 
In  spite  of  its  age,  it  contains  a  good  deal  of  valuable  informa- 
tion and  is  a  standard  work. 

The  Handbook  of  Cinematography,  200  pp.  6  shillings  and 
6  pence,  or  $1.60.  Kinematograph  Weekly,  Tottenham  St., 
London,  W.,  England.  Comes  the  nearest  to  being  what  might 
be  called  a  textbook  on  motion  picture  photography  in  this  list. 

How  to  Make  and  Operate  Moving  Pictures  by  Bernard  E. 
Jones.  168  pp.  $1.00.  Funk  &  Wagnalls,  New  York  City.  A 
very  good  book  for  the  amateur  cinematographer.  To  the  be- 
ginner who  wishes  to  learn  the  first  steps  this  book  is  very  good, 
but  for  the  professional  and  the  man  already  in  the  game,  it 
contains  little  of  value. 

The  Art  of  the  Moving  Picture  by  Vachel  Lindsey.  128  pp. 
$1.25.  MacMillan,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Not  properly  a  book  on 
motion  picture  photography  at  all  but  has  many  interesting  ideas 
for  the  cinematographer  and  the  producer  to  think  about. 

Making  the  Movies  by  Earnest  A.  Dench,  1916.  $1.25. 
MacMillan,  New  York,  N.  Y.  A  "popular"  science  type  of  book 
for  the  man  in  the  street.  Interesting  and  inst'.iictive  but  not 
professing  to  teach  anyone  to  become  a  cameramafmi. 



How  Motion  Pictures  Are  Made  by  Homer  Croy,  191 8. 
Harper  &  Bros.,  New  York  City.  366  pp.  An  account  of  the 
development  of  the  motion  picture  industry  in  America  written 
in  an  entertaining  fashion. 

Motion  Picture  Operation,  Stage  Electrics  and  Illusions 
by  H.  C.  Hortsmann  and  V.  H.  Tousley.  A  practical  handbook 
and  guide  for  theatre  electricians,  motion  picture  operators,  and 
managers  of  theaters  and  productions.  Clear,  comprehensive, 
and  accurate.     $2.00.     Tennant  &  Ward,  New  Y^ork  City. 

A  B  C  OF  Motion  Pictures  by  R.  E.  Welsh.  A  practical  first 
book  on  this  subject.  55  cents.  Tennant  &  Ward,  New  York 

The  Theatre  of  Science  by  Robert  Grau.  $5.00  Broadway 
Publishing  Co.,  New  York  City. 

The  Photoplay:  A  Psychological  Study  by  Hugo  von 
Munsterberg,  $1.50,  D.  Appleton  &  Co.,  New  York  City. 

A  Camera  Actress  in  Togoland  by  Miss  M.  Gehrts,  J.  B. 
Lippincott,  Phila.,  Pa. 

The  Guide  to  Kinematograpiiy  by  Colin  N.  Bennett.  $1.50. 
E.  T.  Heron  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  Tottenham  Street,  London,  W.  This 
handy  treatise  is  a  successor  to  Bennet's  well-known  Handbook 
of  Kinematography  and  is  a  rather  more  concise  volume  than  its 
predecessor.  A  variety  of  subjects  is  considered ;  camera 
work,  laboratory  work  and  projection;  each  of  these  subjects 
being  treated  in  a  concise  manner  designed  to  be  well  understood 
by  the  novice  or  student. 

Tinting  and  Toning  Motion  Picture  Film  by  Dr.  Kenneth 
Mees,  $2.50.  Eastman  Kodak  Co.,  Rochester,  N.  Y.  (Out  of 

Living  Pictures  by  R.  B.  Foster,  191 5.  Hatton  Press,  Ltd., 
London,  England. 

Motion  Picture  Education  by  Ernest  E.  Dench.  $2.50. 
MacMillan,  New  York  City.  A  treatise  on  methods  of  using  the 
motion  picture  for  institution  and  commercial  use. 

Advertising  by  Motion  Pictures  by  Ernest  Dench.  $1.60. 
MacMillan,  New  Y^ork  City.  Covering  the  commercial  end  of  the 
motion  picture  industry.  Of  interest  to  any  camera  user,  with 
the  increased  popularity  of  the  motion  picture  camera,  this  book 
is  valuable  to  any  one  contemplating  the  purchase  of  a  motion 
picture  camera.  Has  many  money-making  devices  which  are 
open  to  everyone  owning  a  cine  camera.     255  pp.     Illustrated. 



La  Chronophotographie  by  Louis  Gastine.  1899.  $1.00. 
Gauthier  Villars  et  Fils,  55  Quai  des  Grands-Augustins,  Paris. 
A  book  of  early  cinematographic  history,  containing  interesting 
illustrations  of  the  early  apparatus  and  results  of  Marey  and 
others.     Printed  in  French. 

La  Photographie  Animee  by  Eugene  Trutat.  $1.50.  Pub- 
lisher Gauthier  Villars,  Paris,  1899.  ^  splendid  edition  with 
fine  illustrations  showing  the  early  cameras  and  projectors  used 
by  the  various  well-known  foreign  firms.  The  subject  of  persis- 
tence of  vision  is  explained  in  the  thorough  French  style.  Some 
present  day  inventors  would  open  their  eyes  after  reading  this 
book,  which  shows  that  many  "new  and  novel"  mechanisms  orig- 
inated long  ago.     Printed  in  French. 

Le  Cinematographe  :  Scientifique  et  Industriel  by  Jaques 
Ducom.  $2.00.  Publishers,  Cinema  Revue,  118  Rue  d'Assas, 
Paris,  191 1.  A  pretentious  volume,  written  in  scholarly  style 
and  illustrating  all  the  well-known  foreign  cine  cameras  and 
laboratory  devices.  A  feature  is  the  inclusion  of  the  complete 
text  of  Demeney's  "Les  Origines  du  Cinematographe"  (an  im- 
portant chronology  of  early  patents).  In  addition  to  the  fine 
illustrations  Ducom's  work  contains  practical  instructions  and 
working  formulae,  which  combined  with  the  historical  chapters 
make  it  a  most  desirable  reference  work.     Printed  in  French. 

Conferences  Sur  La  Cinematographe  by  E.  Kress.  $1.00. 
Publishers,  Cinema  Revue,  Paris,  1912.  Seven  pamphlets.  In 
this  set  of  seven  booklets  the  technique  of  motion  picture  produc- 
tion is  studied  from  all  angles.  There  is  one  booklet  on  raw 
film  stock,  and  one  on  the  early  history  of  the  art,  while  another 
treats  of  studio  construction,  lighting  and  proper  costuming. 
Three  numbers  are  devoted  to  a  very  good  description  of  present 
day  French  cinematograph  cameras,  while  the  remaining  booklet 
explains  how  all  of  the  wonderful  dissolves,  visions,  and  tricks  of 
the  French  film  makers  are  accomplished.     Printed  in  French. 

La  Technique  Cinematographique  by  Leopold  Lobel.  $2.50. 
Publishers,  H.  Dunod  and  E.  Pinat,  47  Quai  des  Grands- 
Augustins,  Paris,  1912.     Printed  in  French. 

Motion  Picture  Making  and  Exhibiting  by  John  B.  Rath- 
bun,  $1.00.  Publishers,  C.  C.  Thompson  Co.,  Chicago,  1914. 
This  is  not  a  book  of  working  instructions  and  formulae  but 
rather  a  description  of  the  various  processes  involved   in  the 



taking,  making  and  exhibiting  of  motion  pictures.  As  such  the 
ground  is  fairly  well  covered  by  the  author  who,  it  appears,  is 
not  a  practical  film  maker.  Good  illustrations  contribute  largely 
to  the  interest  of  this  little  volume. 

Picture  Play  Photography  by  H.  M.  Lomas,  F.R.P.S.,  $1.50. 
Publisher,  Gaines,  Ltd.  (The  Bioscope)  London,  1914.  Lomas 
while  quite  skilled  in  the  science  and  practise  of  ordinary  photog- 
raphy does  not  provide  as  valuable  a  treatise  as  might  be  expected. 
The  studio  arrangements  and  lighting  described  are  distinctly 
English,  while  in  these,  as  is  well  known,  we  lead  our  otherwise 
superior  (photographically)  British  cousins  in  the  art  of  cine- 
matography. There  are  some  good  points  brought  out  by  Lomas, 
however,  and  while  not  very  comprehensive  the  work  will  doubt- 
less prove  interesting  to  the  amateur  worker. 

Die  Kinematographie  by  K.  W.  Wolf-Czapek,  published  by 
Union  Deutsche  Velagsgesellschaft,  Dresden,  1908,  price  about 
50  cents.  In  this  booklet  the  late  Herr  Wolf-Czapek,  always  a 
keen  student  of  the  cinematographic  art,  explains  the  phenomena 
of  persistence  of  vision  and  lays  down  the  rudiments  of  cine- 
matographic practice  for  the  benefit  of  amateurs.  Printed  in 

Magio  Stage  Illusions  and  Scientific  Diversions,  by  Albert 
A.  Hopkins.  $2.50  Munn  &  Co.,  Inc.,  New  York  City.  This 
book  is  not  a  cinematographic  work  at  all,  but,  nevertheless,  it 
forms  an  important  and  indispensable  addition  to  the  literature 
of  motion  photography.  While  the  bulk  of  this  work  is  devoted 
to  elucidating  the  mysteries  of  stage-craft  and  the  illusions  of 
the  showman,  there  are  a  number  of  chapters  at  the  close  of  the 
book  which  deal  with  the  making  and  exhibiting  of  motion  pic- 
tures as  practised  in  the  early  days  of  the  art.  A  chapter  on 
Qironophotography  details  and  illustrates  the  experiments  of 
the  French  pioneer,  IMarey,  while  the  following  chapter  illustrates 
such  historically  interesting  devices  as  Demeney's  "Chrono- 
photographe  (The  first  Gaumont  apparatus),  Jenkin's  "Phanto- 
scope,"  Edison's  *'Vitascope,"  Lumiere's  "Cinematographe"  and 
Casler's  "Mutoscope"  and  "Biograph."  All  of  the  early  devices 
are  illustrated  from  woodcuts  which  appeared  in  the  Scientific 
Ainerican  years  back,  and  this  is  the  only  work  at  present  obtain- 
able in  which  these  old  time  cameras  and  projectors  are  figured. 
As  a  matter  of  fact  we  know  of  no  other  picture  of  the  Edison 
"Vitascope"  than  the  reproduction  shown  in  this  work. 



Der  Kinematograph  by  Dr.  Carl  Forch.  $i.oo.  Publisher, 
A.  Hartleben,  Leipzig,  1913.  A  variety  of  cameras  and  projec- 
tion devices  are  illustrated,  ranging  from  the  days  of  the  Lumaere 
*'Cinematographe"  to  the  latest  in  ''natural  color'*  systems.  In- 
termittents  of  many  types  are  discussed  and  the  geometry  of 
Geneva  movements  is  gone  into.     Printed  in  German. 

Animated  Pictures  by  C.  Francis  Jenkins,  published  by  the 
author,  1898,  Washington,  D.  C.  (out  of  print).  This  volume, 
by  one  of  the  earliest  makers  of  motion  pictures  on  flexible  cel- 
luloid strips,  is  perhaps  the  earliest  extended  treatise  on  cine- 
matography. Camera  work,  perforating,  printing  and  develop- 
ing are  dealt  with,  and  illustrations  of  all  the  author's  early  de- 
vices and  mechanisms  are  presented.  Particular  mention  must 
be  given  the  bibliography  of  articles  and  the  list  of  patents  on 
animated  photography  prior  to  the  year  1896  which  are  given 
in  this  book. 


Chapter  XXV 


THE  problem  of  making  positives  direct  in  the  camera  with- 
out the  expense  of  making  the  extra  negative  film  where 
only  one  copy  is  desired  has  occupied  the  attention  of  many 

The  following  method  will  enable  anyone  familiar  with  the 
ordinary  film  manipulations  to  make  good  projectable  positives 
direct  in  the  camera. 

To  the  camera  owner  who  takes  pictures  for  his  own  amuse- 
ment, or  the  man  who  makes  a  single  picture  for  his  local  theatre, 
this  method  will  prove  a  great  saver  in  cost  of  materials. 

It  is  really  a  means  of  making  a  negative  on  a  strip  of  film  and 
then  printing  that  negative  on  the  same  strip  and  destroying  the 
original  negative  by  a  chemical  process  leaving  the  positive  print. 

It  requires  a  particular  style  of  developing  apparatus,  that  is 
a  drum  of  metal  or  wood  painted  with  black  Probus  paint  or 
other  similar  black  photographic  enamel  which  is  resistant  to  the 
action  of  photographic  chemicals.  This  developing  drum  must 
be  smooth  and  tight,  the  skeleton  type  with  ribs  will  not  do,  as 
we  shall  see  presently. 

Negative  film  may  be  used  but  positive  film  is  much  preferable 
where  the  strength  of  the  light  permits.  Positive  film  gives  much 
clearer,  brighter,  snappier  results,  i.e.,  negative  film  having  a 
tendency  to  flatness  and  graying  the  high  lights.  As  positive 
stock  is  very  much  slower  than  negative  stock  a  much  larger 
diaphragm  opening  must  be  used  and  if  interiors  or  badly  lighted 
exteriors  are  to  be  taken  negative  stock  must  be  used.  In  either 
case  the  exposure  must  be  rather  full  so  that  the  image  may 
penetrate  well  into  the  bromide  of  the  silver  film. 

A  very  contrasty  hydroquinone  developer  is  the  best  to  use 
although  the  usual  formula  for  positive  titles  works  very  well. 
The  following  is  a  good  formula : 



Hydroquinone    i  oz. 

Sulphite  of  soda  (Dry) 1 1  oz. 

Carbonate  of  soda  (Dry) 7  oz 

Potassium  Bromide i  oz. 

Water i  gallon 

Alcohol I  pint 

The  alcohol  may  be  omitted  but  enables  the  developer  to  be 
used  at  a  higher  temperature  thereby  giving  greater  contrast. 

Development  should  be  slow  with  dim,  red  light  so  as  to  give 
a  brilliant  snappy  negative  with  pure  whites  and  deep  blacks. 
Development  must  be  continued  until  the  high  lights  have  fully 
penetrated  to  the  other  side  of  the  film  and  the  picture  is  plainly 
visible  from  the  back.  This  kind  of  development  is  the  chief 
condition  of  success.  After  development,  wash  for  five  minutes 
or  more  to  thoroughly  remove  all  traces  of  developer. 

The  development  has  probably  caused  the  film  to  swell  and 
lengthen  and  it  is  necessary  to  cinch  it  up  close  to  the  drum  for 
the  next  operation  which  is  that  of  printing  the  positive  picture. 
The  drum  is  carried  to  a  window  which  admits  diffused  light  and 
turned  for  ten  to  twenty  seconds  before  the  light.  The  white 
portions  of  the  film,  usually  of  creamy  white  or  greenish  shade, 
soon  become  grayish.  This  indicates  sufficient  exposure  and  the 
drum  is  carried  back  to  the  dark  room  and  rinsed. 

In  this  process  the  negative  on  the  film  is  printed  on  the  re- 
maining silver  bromide  in  the  emulsion  which  has  not  previously 
been  acted  upon  by  the  developer.  We  now  see  that  only  a  tight 
drum  can  be  used  on  which  the  film  is  tightly  wound  or  the  re- 
sulting positive  would  be  light  struck  by  light  penetrating  from 
the  back  of  the  film. 

The  tight  drum  has  the  advantage  of  being  very  economical 
of  developer  as  a  shallow  semi-circular  trough  in  which  the  drum 
if  revolved  will  develop  a  two-hundred  foot  drum  of  film  with 
only  a  gallon  or  two  of  developer. 

The  negative  image  is  now  destroyed  or  dissolved  away  in 
the  following  solution : 

Water i       gallon 

Bichromate  of  potash i  >^  oz. 

Nitric  Acid 3      oz. 

This  bath,  compared  with  other  formulae  for  the  same  pur- 



pose,  is  very  weak  but  as  a  matter  of  fact  a  very  small  quantity 
of  bichromate  is  necessary  to  oxidize  the  silver  of  which  the 
image  consists.  This  bath  is  allowed  to  work  until  the  negative 
image  has  been  entirely  dissolved  away  and  only  the  ^creamy 
white  of  the  remaining  silver  bromide  is  visible.  This  remaining 
silver  bromide  carries  the  yet  undeveloped  positive  image  from 
which  the  bichromate  solution  must  be  thoroughly  washed  before 
immersing  it  again  in  the  developer  to  materialize  the  positive. 

The  same  developer  may  be  used  in  which  the  negative  was 
originally  developed  although  softer  results  may  be  obtained 
by  using  the  regular  metol-hydro  or  some  other  softer  working 
developer  for  the  second  development. 

After  the  second  development  the  positive  should  be  fixed  for 
five  minutes  in  a  fixing  bath  containing  acid  hardener  or,  if  fixed 
in  a  plain  bath,  hardened  afterwards  with  formalin  solution  or 
a  5%  solution  of  chrome  alum. 

The  two  developing  solutions  and  the  reversing  solutions  all 
have  a  softening  effect  on  the  film  and  care  must  be  taken  that 
the  temperature  does  not  rise  sufficiently  to  cause  the  film  to 

If  trouble  is  experienced  with  softening  of  the  film  the  fol- 
lowing developer  may  be  substituted  for  the  one  given : 

Hydroquinone 2       oz. 

Sodium    sulphite    (Dry) 23^  lbs. 

Formaldehyde 2       oz. 

Water i       gallon 

This  developer  works  very  contrasty  indeed  and  has  the  smart- 
ing, disagreeable  odor  of  formaldehyde;  but  will  absolutely  pre- 
vent frilling.  This  is  distinctly  a  hot  weather  developer  and 
must  not  be  used  under  70°  Fahrenheit. 

Do  not  forget  that  a  thorough  development  of  the  negative  is 
essential  to  the  success  of  this  process.  If  this  is  not  thoroughly 
done,  then  the  lower  strata  of  the  emulsion  will  still  contain  un- 
developed bromide  of  silver  which  has  not  been  reduced  to  a 
silver  negative  image  by  the  negative  development  and  which 
in  the  following  second  development  will  be  reduced  in  the  high 
lights  of  the  positive  clogging  them  with  a  veil  of  negative  which 
has  not  yet  been  destroyed  because  it  must  be  developed  before 
the  bichromate  solution  can  dissolve  it  away. 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTt)'GR  A  P  H  Y 

Do  not  attempt  this  process  on  a  valuable  exposure  until  you 
have  made  a  number  of  test  pieces  successfully  and  are  fully 
convinced  that  you  can  trust  yourself  to  conduct  the  entire  proc- 
ess with  the  same  success  that  you  would  the  ordinary  developer 
and  printing  processes. 

There  are  several  other  methods  for  making  direct  positives : 

Partial  reversals  of  negatives  have  been  obtained  by  the  addi- 
tion of  thiocarbamide  and  similar  reagents  to  the  developer  but 
completely  successful  results  are  seldom,  if  ever,  obtained.  The 
writer  has  tried  a  reversal  process  similar  to  that  used  in  the 
development  of  the  Lumiere  Autochrome  plates,  but  has  never 
succeeded  in  getting  good  clear  high  lights. 

For  the  benefit  of  those  who  care  to  experiment  with  this  in- 
teresting subject,  the  following  details  are  given: 

Give  about  twice  the  normal  exposure  required  for  a  full 
timed  negative  and  develop  in  the  developer  ordinarily  used, 
until  the  high  lights  show  through  plainly  on  the  back;  after 
washing  well  for  one  minute  the  film  may  be  brought  out  into 
the  ordinary  light  of  the  room  and  the  remaining  operations 
carried  on  in  this  light.  Immerse  in  either  of  the  following 
solutions  until  the  black  negative  image  has  completely  dis- 
appeared : 

Potassium  permanganate,  io%  solution...   i  dram 
Sulphuric  acid,  io%  solution  by  volume  of 

1.9S  acid   5  drams 

Water 5  oz- 

or  use  this  solution : 

Potassium  bichromate   100  grains 

Sulphuric  acid 7  A^^i^  drams 

Water  10  oz. 

The  latter  solution  is  probably  preferable  as  It  works  faster 
and  is  not  so  liable  to  stain  as  the  permanganate.  Immerse  again 
in  the  developer  when  the  positive  image  will  develop  up.  Wash 
and  dry.  It  is  not  necessary  to  fix  in  hypo  as  the  silver  which  is 
ordinarily  dissolved  out  by  the  hypo  is  what  forms  the  positive 


Instead  of  the  second  development  in  developer,  a  sepia 
brown  positive  may  be  obtained  by  using : 



Sodium  sulphide,  20%  solution 3  oz. 

Water    20  oz. 

Formulae  are  given  for  small  quantities  as  experiments  are 
mostly  conducted  with  short  lengths  of  film  of  from  one  to 
four  feet. 

Recovery  of  Silver  From  Spent  Hypo  Solutions 

For  the  precipitation  of  the  silver  from  the  hypo,  two  capacious 
tanks  of  concrete  should  be  constructed  a  good  distance  away 
from  the  building;  for  the  chemical  used  as  a  precipitant,  when 
acted  upon  by  an  acid,  produces  a  gas,  the  smallest  quantity  of 
which  being  present  in  the  atmosphere  of  the  dark  room,  fogs 
sensitive  emulsion  just  as  surely  as  sunlight  would. 

The  two  tanks  should  each  be  of  sufficient  capacity  to  hold  at 
least  a  week's  run  of  spent  hypo ;  the  top  level  of  the  lower  one 
being  below  the  bottom  of  the  upper  one.  Each  tank  should 
be  provided  with  a  series  of  cocks  or  outlets  or  an  adjustable 
syphon,  thereby  the  liquid  can  be  drawn  off  at  any  desired  level 
and  a  weatherproof,  but  easily  removable  cover,  and,  if  the  size 
of  the  tanks  warrants,  a  small  flight  of  steps  for  the  laborer 
who  shovels  the  silver  sludge  into  barrels. 

On  account  of  the  disintegrating  action  of  the  hypo  solution 
the  concrete  should  be  protected  by  a  heavy  coat  of  asphalt.  The 
upper  tank  has  an  inlet  pipe  from  the  dark  room  through  which 
it  receives  its  charge  of  solution  and  all  its  outlets  drain  into  the 
lower  tank.     The  lower  tank  in  turn  drains  into  the  sewer. 

The  precipitating  solution  is  liver  of  sulphur  of  the  cheapest 
commercial  grade.  It  comes  in  large  chunks  of  the  fused  chemi- 
cal, varying  in  color  from  light  brown  to  dark  brown,  accord- 
ing to  the  purity.  Chemically  it  is  a  mixture  of  indefinite  poly- 
sulphidec  of  sodium  and  potassium,  and  the  precipitate  which 
it  forms  with  the  silver  is  silver  sulphide,  a  dirty,  brownish  black 
appearing  substance.  Liver  of  sulphur  is  very  soluble  in  water 
but,  on  account  of  the  large  impervious  pieces  in  which  it  comes, 
it  takes  a  long  time  to  dissolve  unless  broken  up,  and  breaking 
it  up  is  no  pleasant  job,  as  it  has  the  quintuple  fragrance  of 
ancient  eggs.  It  is  a  good  plan,  therefore,  to  have  a  stout  barrel 
or  hogshead  of  snug-fitting  cover,  in  which  are  placed  water  and 
chemical  enough  to  have  a  saturated  solution  constantly  on  hand. 


MOTION         PICTURE         PHOTOG  R  A  P  II  Y 

Where  it  is  not  possible  to  have  tanks  on  different  levels,  a 
small  bronze  centrifugal  or  rotary  pump  and  electric  motor  will 
take  care  of  the  solution  nicely.  When  the  upper  tank  is  two- 
thirds  full  of  hypo  solution  and  sulphuret  solution,  stir  with  a 
wooden  paddle  and  pause  once  in  a  while  to  let  the  precipitate 
settle  a  little,  and  take  a  glass  full  of  the  supernatant  liquid  and 
add  a  little  of  the  sulphuret  solution  to  see  if  there  is  any  further 
precipitation.  If  it  produces  a  dark  brown  cloudy  precipitate 
it  is  necessary  to  add  more  precipitant,  but  if  the  precipitate  is 
only  slightly  cloudy  or  absent,  the  precipitation  is  complete  and 
the  tank  should  be  allowed  to  settle  until  the  next  day,  when 
the  clear  supernatant  liquid  may  be  carefully  decanted  into  the 
lower  tank.  However  careful  you  may  be,  you  will  find  that 
it  is  impossible  to  remove  all  of  the  supernatant  liquid  without 
a  portion  of  the  precipitate  escaping  into  the  next  tank.  It  is 
to  receive  and  save  this  escaping  precipitate  that  the  lower  tank 
was  constructed.  The  lower  tank  is  now  allowed  to  settle  and 
the  clear  liquid  allowed  to  run  into  the  sewer.  This  precipita- 
tion may  be  repeated  until  the  accumulation  of  sludge  in  the 
bottom  of  the  tank  is  sufficient  to  warrant  putting  it  into  tight 
barrels  for  shipment  to  the  refiner. 

If  any  acid  is  used  in  the  hypo  do  not  fail  to  run  enough  spent 
developer  solution  into  the  tank  to  make  sure  that  all  the  acid 
is  neutralized  and  that  the  solution  is  decidedly  alkaline.  If  this 
is  not  done  the  acid  will  react  on  the  liver  of  sulphur  and  foul 
the  whole  neighborhood  with  the  abominable  odor  of  sulphuretted 
hydrogen  or  hydrogen  disulphide,  which  has  rotten  eggs  backed 
off  the  boards  for  fragrance. 

Reducing  solutions  and  silver  intensifying  baths  may  also  be 
run  into  these  tanks  for  recovery  of  their  silver  content. 

Film  Development  in  Hot  Climates 

Film  may  be  successfully  developed  under  tropical  conditions 
(up  to  95°  F.)  by  means  of  most  developers,  with  the  addition 
of  10%  sodium  sulfate  and  some  potassium  bromide  in  order  to 
prevent  fog,  but  much  better  with  a  special  developer  compounded 
with  paraminophenal  hydrochloride.  Although  it  has  been  rec- 
ommended to  develop  film  in  the  tropics  by  hardening  the  same 
either  before  or  after  development  by  the  addition  of  a  hardener 
such  as  formalin,  it  is  only  possible  to  secure  the  best  results  by 



using   a   developer    free    from   such    additional   agents.        The 
formula  for  the  developer  is  as  follows: 


Paramidophenol  hydrochloride   360  grs. 

Sodium  sulfite  (Des.) 6  oz. 

Sodium  carbonate  (E.  K.  Co.) 6  oz. 

Water  to   i  gallon 

Rinse  for  only  one  or  two  seconds  before  placing  in  the  fixing 
bath,  otherwise  the  film  is  apt  to  soften  in  the  rinse  water. 

The  time  of  development  with  Eastman  film  at  95°  F.  for 
normal  contrast  is  one  and  a  half  minutes  though  the  time  of  de- 
velopment may  be  doubled  by  the  addition  of  100  grams  of 
sodium  sulfate  (crystal)  per  liter  of  developer. 

At  temperatures  up  to  75°  F,  the  regular  acid  fixing  bath 
should  be  used,  but  at  temperatures  up  to  85°  F.  the  following 
chrome  alum  bath  is  necessary: 


Hypo   I  lb.  12      oz. 

Sodium  sulfite  (Des.) 5>4  oz. 

Potassium  chrome  alum 11       oz. 

Acetic  acid   (glacial) 160  minims 

Water  to i  gallon 

Dissolve  the  sulfite  and  chrome  alum  together  and  add  to  the 
hypo  solution  finally  adding  acetic  acid. 

At  temperatures  up  to  95°  F.  the  foillowing  formalin  bath 
should  be  employed : 


Hypo    2  lbs.     2  oz. 

Sodium  sulfite  (Des.) 7  oz. 

Formalin  (formaldehyde  40%) '  17  oz. 

Water  to i  gallon 

First  dissolve  the  hypo,  then  the  sulfite,  and  finally  add  the 

In  order  to  eliminate  the  odor  of  the  formalin,  the  bath  should 
be  enclosed  in  a  covered  tank  if  possible.  The  above  baths 
keep  well  at  the  temperatures  stated,  so  that  the  special  chrome 
alum  bath  is  very  suitable,  while  in  special  cases  such  as  expedi- 
tionary work,  when  very  high  temperatures  may  prevail,  the 
formalin  bath  will  give  perfect  results. 



Still  picture  negatives  may  be  successfully  treated  in  a  tray  in 
the  same  way  as  film  though  so  far  it  has  not  been  possible  to 
devise  a  method  of  using  the  Kodak  film  or  film  pack  tanks  at 
the  temperatures  named. 

Although  no  difficulty  is  to  be  expected  when  developing  gas 
light  and  bromide  papers  at  high  temperatures,  the  use  of  a  stop 
bath  of  3%  acetic  acid,  and  twice  the  usual  amount  of  liquid 
hardener  in  the  fixing  bath  is  recommended. 

United  States  Weights  and  Measures 
abbreviations  used  below 

Ounce,    oz.;    pint,    pt. ;    quart,    qt. ;    pound,    lb.;    gallon,    gal.;    grain,    gr. ;    gram,    gm.; 
pennyweight,   pwt. ;    scruple,   scr.;    dram,    dr. 

i6  OZ I  pt. 

2  pts I  qt. 

4  qts 1  gal. 

1 6  oz.  or  a  pint  is  sometimes  called  a  fluid  pound. 

Troy  Weight 

24  grs I  pwt. 

20  pwts I  oz. 

12  oz I  lb. 

'Apothecaries'  Weight 

20  grs I  scr. 

3  scr I  dr. 

8  dr I  oz. 

12  oz I  lb. 

The  pound,  ounce  and  grain  are  the  same  in  both 
Apothecaries'  and  Troy  weights. 

Avoirdupois  Weight 

1.77  gms I  dr. 

27.34  grs.  (Troy) o . . .  I  dr. 

16        dr I  oz. 

16        oz lib. 

Engish  Weights  and  Measures 

Apothecaries  Weight 
20  grs I  scr 20  grs. 

3  scr I  dr 60  grs. 

8  dr I  oz 480  grs. 

12  oz I  lb 5760  grs. 



Fluid  Measures 

60  minims    i  fluid    dr. 

8  dr I  fluid  oz. 

20  oz I  pt. 

8  pts I  gal. 

The  above  weights  are  usually  adopted  in  com- 
pounding photographic  formulae. 

Avoirdupois  Weight 

27  11/32  gr I  dr. 

16  dr I  oz. 

16  oz I  lb. 

Photographic  chemicals  are  as  a  rule  sold  by- 
avoirdupois  weight. 

Handy  Emergency  Weights 
In   an   emergency,   coins   may   be   used   as   weights,   and   the 
weights  given  in  the  following  table  are  accurate  enough  for  all 
ordinary  purposes. 

Dime 40  grs. 

Cent 50  grs. 

Nickle    80  grs. 

^-Dollar   100  grs. 

-Dollar   200  grs. 

Dollar 400  grs. 

By  simple  addition  and  subtraction  many  different  w^eights  can 
be  made  with  these  coins;  for  instance  to  obtain  a  weight  of  10 
grains,  place  a  cent  on  one  side  of  the  scale  and  a  dime  on  the 
other  and  th^n  add  enough  of  the  chemical  to  balance  the  scale. 

Electrolytic  Recovery  of  Silver  From  Waste  Solutions 

The  main  source  of  silver  lies  in  the  exhausted  negative  fixing 
solutions  and  in  the  hypo  baths  in  which  positive  film  has  been 
fixed.  These  solutions  are  certainly  worth  saving,  amounting 
to  $100  or  more,  per  month  in  even  a  small-sized  film  laboratory. 
By  a  novel  method  of  precipitating  the  silver,  a  plan  has  been 
formed  that  entirely  supercedes  the  use  of  that  very  offensive 
chemical,  sulphide  of  potassium  (liver  of  sulphur).  The  pre- 
cipitated silver  is  brought  about  by  electro-chemical  action,  every 
grain  contained  in  the  waste  hypo  fixing  solutions  being  pre- 
cipitated, without  either  loss  or  offensive  smell,  or  there  are  no 



volumes  of  liberated  sulphuretted  hydrogen  emitted  as  is  the 
case  always  when  the  potassium  sulphide  is  used,  which  is  not 
only  offensive,  but  is  also  injurious  to  the  health  of  those  who 
have  to  work  within  its  sphere  of  action,  and  causes  injury  to 
every  kind  of  sensitive  material  that  may  be  in  near  proximity  to 
vessels  that  contain  the  waste  solutions.  Where  there  are  large 
quantities  of  waste  hypo  solution  use  two  asphalt-lined  concrete 
or  brick  tanks,  fitted  with  stop  cocks  at  intervals  from  the  bot- 
tom, to  run  off  the  exhausted  solution  after  precipitation,  in 
the  same  way  as  used  for  sulphide  plan.  If  smaller  quan- 
tities are  used,  large  barrels  will  be  just  the  thing.  Now  for 
the  process.  Obtain  half  a  dozen  sheets  of  zinc,  any  thickness 
will  do;  suspend  them  from  the  top  of  the  tank  or  barrel  by 
means  of  two  very  stout,  long  copper  wire  hooks,  these  hooks 
being  held  in  position  by  as  many  wooden  strips  across  the  top 
of  the  tank.  The  bottom  ends  of  the  hooks  and  the  sheets  of 
zinc  must  be  completely  submerged  in  the  old  fixing  solution. 

If  the  bath  is  alkaline,  sulphuric  or  acetic  acid  should  be  added 
until  it  is  distinctly  acid  to  litmus  paper.  The  acid  condition  of 
this  mixture  will  set  up  an  electric  current,  with  the  result  that 
the  zinc  becomes  consumed,  and  the  metallic  silver  is  thrown 
down  as  a  dark  gray  powder,  so  much  so  that  if  the  liquid  is 
left  undisturbed  for  a  week  the  whole  of  the  silver  will  be 
throw!n  down  and  the  liquid  above  will  be  clear.  The  electric 
action  is  due  to  the  copper  wires  and  the  zinc  plates  in  contact 
with  the  acid  hypo  solution. 

As  soon  as  this  occurs,  this  exhausted  liquid  may  be  drawn 
off  and  thrown  away.  A  good  plan  to  adopt  is  to  fill  one  tank 
first,  then  arrange  this  for  precipitation  while  the  second  tank 
is  being  filled.  Of  course  this  will  take  some  time.  This  will 
allow  complete  precipitation  in  one  tank. 

This  process  must  be  continued  until  there  is  a  considerable 
deposit  formed  at  the  bottom  before  removal  in  the  same  way 
as  employed  when  using  sulphide.  The  difference  between  the 
two  methods  is  that  in  one  the  precipitate  is  sulphide  of  silver, 
wrhile  in  the  other  the  precipitate  is  mainly  metallic  silver  thrown 
down  without  waste. 

The  cost  of  scrap  zinc  is  about  five  or  six  cents  per  pound,  so 
that  the  cost  eventually  of  precipitating  one  pound  of  silver  will 
not  be  so  much  as  would  be  the  case  with  potassium  sulphide, 
the  cost  of  which  is  about  15  cents  per  pound. 



Sixty-live  and  a  half  ounces  of  zinc  is  capable  of  precipitating 
io8  ounces  of  silver  under  exact  chemical  conditions,  allowing 
for  small  losses  during  this  method  of  electrolytic  precipitating. 
It  can  be  safely  stated  that  a  pound  of  zinc  will  throw  down  a 
pound  of  silver. 

The  following  result  has  been  obtained  by  the  method  de- 
scribed. About  103^  gallons  of  spent  hypo  was  used.  The 
dried  silver  precipitate  amounted  to  fifteen  ounces  which  sold 
at  fifty  cents  an  ounce.  Where  it  is  considered  that  this  quantity 
has  been  obtained  with  but  little  labor,  small  cost  and  no  offensive 
smell,  the  method  should  bid  fair  to  supplant  the  potassium  sul- 
phide plan  in  every  photographic  establishment.  No  special 
skill  is  necessary;  any  person  who  possesses  a  small  amount  of 
common  sense  can  attend  to  it,  insuring  as  it  does,  the  depositing 
of  every  grain  of  silver  contained  in  the  old  fixing  bath,  thus 
giving  a  profitable  return  in  cash  that  will  aid  considerably  in 
reducing  the  cost  of  production. 

Dead  or  Flat  Black  Varnish  for  Blacking  Inside  of 

Cameras,  Tubes,  Etc. 

Alcohol    8  oz. 

Lamp  black 2  oz. 

Shellac i  oz. 

Dissolve  the  shellac  in  alcohol  by  agitation,  then  add  the  lamp 
black  and  mix  thoroughly. 

Black  for  Diaphragms,  Shutters  and  Other  Metallic  Parts 

Nitric  acid 4      oz. 

Copper  wire  /4  oz. 

Dissolve  the  copper  wire  in  the  nitric  acid  and  then  add  slowly 
ij4  oz.  of  water.  The  parts  to  be  blackened  must  be  thoroughly 
cleaned,  then  heated  and  immersed  in  the  acid  bath  after  which 
they  are  taken  out  and  brushed  off  or  until  the  article  shows  a 
rich  blue  black. 

Ink  for  Writing  on  Gij^.ss 

White  Ink — Mix  i  part  Chinese  white  (water-color  pigment) 
or  barium  sulphate  with  3  or  4  parts  of  sodium  silicate  solution 
(water  glass).  The  sodium  silicate  solution  should  have  the 
consistency  of  glycerin. 

Black  Ink — Mix  I  part  liquid  Chinese  ink  (or  Higgin's  Eternal 



Ink,  or  some  similar  carbon  ink)   with  2  parts  sodium  silicate 

Apply  with  an  ordinary  steel  pen.  The  ink  will  dry  in  fifteen 
minutes  and  will  withstand  water.  It  may  be  readily  removed 
by  scraping  with  a  knife. 

Dead  Black  for  Wood 

Borax  30  grs 8  gms 

Glycerine 30  minims 8  c.c.s. 

Shellac   60  grs 16  gms. 

Water 8  oz. looo  c.cs. 

Boil  till  dissolved  and  add 

Nigrosine,  W.S 60  grs 16  gms. 

Or  paint  the  wood  first  with 

Cupric   chloride 75       grs 75  gms. 

Potassium  bichromate.  75       grs... 75  gms. 

Water .  2^  ozs.. . . . . . .  .1000  c.c.s. 

and  as  soon  as  the  surface  dries  apply 

Aniline  hydrochlorate.150      grs 150  gms. 

Water    2j4  oizs 1000  c.c.s. 

and  wipe  off  any  yellow  powder  that  forms.     Repeat  the  process 
till  black  enough,  and  then  rub  over  with  boiled  linseed  oil. 

Waterproofing  Solution  for  Wood 

Asphalt    4  ozs 400  gms. 

Pure  rubber   30  grs 6  gms. 

Mineral  naphtha 10  ozs 1000  c.cs. 

Apply  with  stiff  brush  and  give  three  successive  coats,  allowing 
to  dry  between  each.  The  vapor  from  this  solution  is  very 

Polish  for  Cameras^  Woodwork,  Etc* 

Linseed  oil   20      ozs 400  c.c.s. 

Spirits  of  camphor. .  2      ozs 40  c.c.s. 

Vinegar   4      ozs..., 80  c.c.s. 

Butter  of  antimony,   i       oz 20  gms. 

Liquid  ammonia  ...     /4  oz 5  c.c.s. 

Water    }4  oz 5  c-C-s. 

This  mixtirre  is  applied  very  sparingly  with  a  bit  of  old  flannel, 
and  thoroughly  rubbed  off  with  soft  rags. 



Blackening  Brass  Work 

A.  Copper   nitrate 200  grs 450  gms. 

Water    i  oz 1000  c.c.s. 

B.  Silver  nitrate    200  grs 450  gms. 

Water    i  oz looo  c.c.s. 

Mix  A  and  B,  and  place  the  brass  work  (perfectly  cleaned)  in 
the  solution  for  a  few  moments,  heating  it  on  removal. 

Varnish  for  Brass  Work 

Celluloid    10      grs 4  gms. 

Amyl  alcohol ^  oz 100  c.c.s. 

Acetone 3^  oz 100  c.c.s. 

Instead  of  this  cold  celluloid  varnish,  commercial  "cold  lacquer" 
can  be  used. 

To  Blacken  Aluminum 

Clean  the  metal  thoroughly  with  fine  emery  powder,  wash  well 
and  immerse  in 

Ferrous  sulphate i  oz 80  gms. 

White  arsenic i  oz 80  gms. 

Hydrochloric  acid  ...  12  ozs lOOO  c.c.s. 

Dissolve  and  add 

Water 12  ozs 1000  cc.s. 

When  the  color  is  deep  enough  dry  off  with  fine  sawdust,  and 

Silvering  Mirrors  (Martin's  Method) 

In  employing  the  following  formulae,  it  should  be  well  under- 
stood that  the  glass  plate  to  be  silvered  must  be  scrupulously 

A.  Nitrate  of  silver 175      grs 40  gms. 

Distilled  water 10      ozs 1000  c.c.s. 

B.  Nitrate  of  ammonium .  2(^2      grs 60  gms. 

Distilled  water 10      ozs 1000  cc.s. 

C.  Pure  caustic  potash. . .     i       oz 100  gms. 

Distilled  water 10      ozs 1000  c.c.s. 

D.  Pure  sugar  candy....       ^  oz.( Avoir.)   100  gms. 
Distilled  water 5      ozs 1000  c.c.s. 



Dissolve  and  add 

Tartaric  acid 50      grs 23  gms. 

Boil  in  flask  for  ten  minutes,  and  when  cool  add 

Alcohol    I       oz 200  CCS. 

Distilled  water,  quantity  sufficient  of  make  up  to  10  ozs.  or 

2000  CCS. 

For  use,  take  equal  parts  of  A  and  B.  Mix  together  also  equal 
parts  of  C  and  D  and  mix  in  another  measure.  Then  mix  both 
these  mixtures  together  in  the  silvering  vessel,  and  suspend  the 
mirror  face  downward  in  the  solution. 

Thermometric  Rules 

The  following  rules  for  the  rapid  conversion  of  degrees  in 
one  system  into  another  will  be  found  useful : 

To  convert  Centigrade  into  Fahrenheit : 

Degrees  centigrade  times  9  divided  by  5  plus  32. 

Ex. — 80°  C.  times  9  divided  by  5  equals  144  plus  32  equals 
176°  F, 

To  convert  Centigrade  into  Reaumur: 

Degrees  Centigrade  times  4  divided  by  5. 

Ex. — 60°  C.  times  4  divided  by  5  equals  48°  R. 

To  convert  Fahrenheit  into  Centigrade: 

(Degrees  Fahrenheit  minus  32)  times  5  divided  by  9. 

Ex. — 100°  F.  minus  32  equals  68  times  5  divided  by  9  equals 

37.8°  c. 

To  convert  Fahrenheit  into  Reaumur : 
(Degrees  Fahrenheit  minus  32)  divided  by  9  times  4. 
Ex. — 95°  F.  minus  32  equals  63  divided  by  9  times  4  equals 
28°  R. 

To  convert  Reaumur  into  Centigrade. 

Degrees  Reaumur  times  5  divided  by  4. 

Ex. — 80°  R.  times  5  divided  by  4  equals  100°  C. 

To  convert  Reaumur  into  Fahrenheit. 

Degrees  Reaumur  times  9  divided  by  4  plus  32. 

Ex.— -16°  R.  times  9  divided  by  4  equals  36  plus  32  equals 

68°  F. 

Depth  of  Field 

Depth  of  field  is  governed  by  angular  aperture,  which  is  a 
measure  of  the  angle  at  the  apex  of  the  cone  of  light  reaching 



the  plate  when  focusing  on  an  infinitely  distant  point  of  light. 
The  diameter  of  the  angular  aperture  is  the  diameter  of  the 
base  of  the  cone  when  its  height  is  made  equal  to  the  focal 
length.  Depth  is  often  calculated  on  effective  aperture;  this 
introduces  small  errors  that  are  very  generally  ignored. 

Let  a  equal  focal  length  divided  by  diameter  of  angular  aper- 
ture, c  equal  diameter  of  circle  of  confusion.  Usually  taken  at 
o.oi  inch  but  for  critical  definition  0.005  ^s  necessary. 

H  equals  hyperfocal  distance.     See  definition  below, 

f^  100  f» 

Then  H  equals  equals  when  c  equals  o.oi  inch 

ac  a 

measuring  all  distances  from  node  of  admission. 

If  we  focus  on  infinity,  the  nearest  object  in  focus  is  at  a 
equal  to  H. 

If  we  focus  on  a  distance  equal  to  H  -\-  f,  all  objects  are  in 
H  +  f 

focus  from up  to  infinity.  This  is  the  maximum  amount 

of  depth  possible. 

If  we  focus  on  a  point  at  a  distance  n  the  distance  of  nearest 

Hu  Hu 

object  in  focus  equals equals and  the  distance 

H  +  u  —  f  H  +  d 

Hu  Hu 

of   farthest  object  in   focus  equals  equals  . 

H— u+f  H— d 

When  /  is  small  compared  with  w  it  can  be  disregarded,  and  u 
and  d  can  be  considered  equal,  while  distances  can  be  measured 
either  from  the  node  or  the  principal  focus. 

Very  approximately,  when  we  focus  on  a  distance  equal  to  — 

H                H 
depth  extends  from to 

n+  I  n —  T 

If  an  image  produced  with  a  lens  of  focal  length  /  and  with 
aperture  of  /  number  a  is  enlarged  n  times  the  result  is  equiva- 
lent, both  as  regards  size  and  depth,  to  one  produced  directly 



with  a  lens  of  focal  length  nf  and  aperture  /  number  na,  that  is, 
an  aperture  of  the  same  diameter. 

To  produce  the  same  depth  with  two  different  lenses  the 
aperture  /  numbers  must  vary  in  proportion  with  the  squares 
of  the  focal  lengths. 

Eastman  Negative  and  Positive  Film  Developer  for 

Motion  Pictures 

Developer  No.  i6  is  a  formula  worked  out  by  the  Research 
Laboratories  of  the  Eastman  Kodak  Company  and  recommended 
by  them  as  being  most  suitable  for  the  film  stock  which  they 
supply.  The  writer  recommends  that  wherever  the  conditions 
will  permit  that  separate  tanks  of  developer  be  kept  for  positive 
and  negative  stock  even  though  the  same  formula  be  used  in 
each  tank.  A  bath  which  has  been  used  for  positives  will  not 
produce  as  good  results  on  negative  stock  as  one  which  is  re- 
served exclusively  for  that  purpose. 

Developer  No.  i6 
Dissolve  the  following  chemicals  in  order  named : 

Avoirdupois        Metric 

Water  (8>4  Imperial  gals.)  . .  lo  U.  S.  gals. .  40  1. 

Elon  (metol)    180  grs 12  grm. 

Sodium  sulphite  (des.) 3  lbs.  5  ozs. .  .1590  grm. 

Hydroquinone 8  ozs 240  grm. 

Sodium  carbonate  (des.) i  lb.  9  ozs 750  grm. 

Potassium  bromide i  oz.  63  grs. . .  36  grm. 

Citric  acid 400  grs 28  grm. 

Potassium  metabi sulphite  ...     2  ozs 60  grm. 

When  in  use,  temperature  of  developer  should  be  maintained 
at  65°  F.  When  development  is  complete,  rinse  film  in  two 
changes  of  water  and  fix  in  an  acid  fixing  bath. 

Although  there  are  reasons  against  the  use  of  the  same  de- 
veloper for  negatives  and  positives,  the  following  is  capable  of 
yielding  most  satisfactory  results  for  both,  and  is  recommended 
for  use  where  the  number  of  developing  tanks  is  limited. 



Metol-Hydroquinone  Developer 

Water   i8o  gals. 

Hydroquinone   8  lbs. 

Sodium  sulphite  (anhydrous) 40  lbs. 

Sodium  carbonate 22  lbs. 

Potassium  bromide i^  lbs. 

Potassium  metabisulphite 2  lbs. 

Metol    8  ozs. 

Citric  acid 10  ozs. 

The  following  is  slower  in  action : 

Water  160  gals. 

Hydroquinone    8  lbs. 

Sodium  sulphite  (anhydrous) 25  lbs. 

Sodium  carbonate    25  lbs. 

Potassium  bromide    i  lb. 

Care  must  be  taken  to  have  temperature  65°  to  70°  F.  as  hydro- 
quinone does  not  work  well  below  65°  and  is  too  contrasty  above 


Edinol — Hydro  Developer  for  negatives  only 

Water  160      gals. 

Acetone  sulphite 6       lbs. 

Sodium  sulphite  (anhydrous) 24       lbs. 

Edinol 2y2  lbs. 

Hydroquinone   i  ^  lbs. 

Potassium  bromide i       lb. 

Potassium  carbonate 40      lbs. 

Note — This  is  an  excellent  developer  for  Negatives,  Films  or 
Plates,  buit  not  suitable  for  Positives. 

A  Glycin  Developer 

Glycin  is  slow  acting  developer  which  keeps  for  a  long  time 
and  yields  negatives  perfectly  free  from  stain.  It  also  makes  an 
excellent  positive  developer  giving  a  rich  blue  black  print  and 
when  re-developed  gives  very  pleasing  sepia  tones.  Its  keeping 
qualities  and  close  grained  deposit  recommend  it  especially  for 
those  whose  work  is  on  small  quantities  and  infrequent.  When 
exhausted  it  becomes  strongly  fluorescent  showing  a  bluish  cast 
like  kerosene  and  should  then  be  thrown  away. 



Try  the  following  formula  and  if  you  find  it  satisfactory  you 
can  easily  calculate  for  larger  quantities : 

Glycin 2  ozs. 

Sodium  sulphite  5  ozs. 

Potassium  carbonate 10  ozs. 

Water i  eal. 


Metol  Substitutes 

Metol  is  the  trade  name  of  a  German-made  developing  agent 
which  was  in  extensive  use  in  this  country  before  the  War. 
Genuine  Metol  has  been  practically  unobtainable  since  the  first 
year  of  the  war  and  yet  the  name  had  become  so  firmly  rooted 
that  it  is  still  used  as  a  designation  for  any  one  of  a  number 
of  developing  agents  of  similar  properties  which  may  be  sub- 
stituted for  it  in  the  preparation  of  developing  solutions. 

The  names  of  some  of  them  are  as  follows :  Monomet,  Elon, 
Kodalon,  Phenomet,  Paramidophenol,  Ardel,  Wallace's  "Metol/* 
Cooptol,  Rhodol,  etc.,  any  of  which  may  be  substituted  for  metol 
in  any  developer  formula.  Most  of  them  may  be  substituted  in 
equal  quantities,  those  which  require  more  or  less  so  state  on 
the  sheet  of  directions  accompanying  them. 

Motion  Picture  Negative  Developer 

Water — 160  gal i  gal. 

Metol 12  oz 1%  dr. 

Hydroquinone   3  lbs 4J4  dr. 

Sodium  sulphite  (anhydrous)  .  .  30  lbs 3  oz. 

Sodium  carbonate  (anhydrous)  .  10  lbs i  oz. 

Potassium  bromide 8  oz. 5^  dr. 

Citric  acid  i  lb i>^  dr. 

Positive  Developer 

Water 200  gal I      gal. 

Paramidophenol  sulphate 12  oz i       dr. 

Hydroquinone   2y  oz 2^  dr. 

Sodium  sulphite  (anhydrous)  . .  28  lbs 2^  oz. 

Sodium  carbonate  (anhydrous)  .   24  lbs i}i  oz. 

Potassium  bromide 10  oz.  ..... .22      gr. 

Sodium  hydroxide  4  lbs 5J^  dr. 



Fixing  Bath 

While  the  ordinary  plain  "Hypo"  of  two  pounds  of  hypo 
per  gallon  of  water  seems  all  that  may  be  desired,  yet  there  are 
times  and  conditions  where  it  fails,  particularly  in  hot  weather. 
The  following  mixture  (for  all  times)  on  account  of  its  un- 
failing certainty  even  under  the  most  trying  conditions  is 

Acid  Hypo  Fixing  Bath 

Avoir.  Metric 

Water   lo  gals 40  1. 

Hyposulphite  of  soda.  .21  lbs 10  kg. 

When  thoroughly  dissolved,  add  the  following  hardener: 

Water 40  oz 1200  c.c. 

Sodium  sulphite  (des) .  4  oz 120  gms. 

Alum 8  oz 240  gms. 

Acetic  acid  28% 24  oz 720  c.c. 

When  fixing  is  complete,  wash  thoroughly  and  immerse  for 
two  minutes  in  the  following: 

Glycerine  Bath 

Avoir.  Metric 

Water    10  gals 40  1. 

Glycerine    32  liq.  oz i  1. 

The  object  of  the  glycerine  bath  is  to  maintain  flexibility  in 
the  film. 

Another  Acid  Fixing  Bath 

Mix  in  the  order  given. 

Water   250      gals. 

Hyposulphite  of  soda  (crystals) 400      lbs. 

Sodium  sulphite  (anhydrous) 25       lbs. 

Acetic  acid  No.  8  (>4  carboyer) 50      lbs. 

Powdered  alum i^  lbs. 

Note — Remove  "scum"  before  using.  Where  mixing  facilities 
permit,  it  is  better  to  mix  the  last  three  ingredients  separately 
in  10  gallons  of  the  water  and  decant  or  filter  into  the  hypo  after 



Silver  Cyanide  Intensifier 

In  cartoon  and  title  work  where  intense  contrast  is  wanted 
between  black  and  white,  an  intensifier  is  often  wanted  that  will 
give  an  unusual  degree  of  intensification.  Such  an  intensifier  may 
be  made  as  follows : 

Sol.  A, 

Bromide  of  Potassium i  lb. 

Bichloride  of  mercury i  lb. 

Water lo  gals. 

Sol  B. 

Pure  cyanide  of  potassium i  lb. 

Nitrate  of  silver i  lb. 

Water   lo  gals. 

Place  the  film  to  be  intensified  in  Sol.  A  until  the  image  has 
bleached  clear  through  to  the  back  of  the  film,  then  rinse  well 
and  transfer  to  Sol.  B. 

Note — These  solutions  are  highly  poisonous. 

One  immersion  gives  a  heavy  degree  of  intensification  but  if  a 
greater  degree  is  required  the  operation  may  be  repeated. 

Intensification  by  Toning 

A  very  considerable  degree  of  intensification  may  be  given  a 
negative  by  toning  it  sepia  in  the  same  bath  that  is  used  for 
toning  sepia  positives.  Full  directions  are  given  in  the  chapter 
on  Tinting  and  Toning. 

Iodide  of  Mercury  Intensifying  Formula 

Note — This  solution  is  poisonous  and  should  be  labeled 

This  method  is  more  regular  than  bichloride  of  mercury  and 
has  the  faculty  of  reducing  contrasts  in  addition  to  intensifying 
the  general  image. 

Water  ^ loo      gals. 

Sulphite  of  soda  (anhyd. )..*...... ..     83      lbs. 

Iodide  of  mercury 8^4  lbs. 

Submerge  the  frame  of  film  in  this  solution  and  allow  to  re- 
main therein  until  the  desired  strength  has  been  obtained,  then 



wash  in  running  water  for  at  least  15  minutes  and  place  in  the 
regular  developer  for  from  3  to  5  minutes,  after  which  it  should 
be  washed  again  for  30  minutes. 


Persulphate  Reducer 

This  formula  is  advised,  where  the  film  is  very  contrasty  for 
it  has  the  faculty  of  reducing  the  dense  portions  of  the  negatives 
without  any  material  change  in  the  high  lights  or  thinner  por- 
tions.    Place  the  wet  film  in  solution  No.  i  which  is  made  up  of : 

Water   100      gals. 

Persulphate  of  ammonium 33M  ^^s. 

As  soon  as  the  right  density  has  been  obtained  place  the  film 
in  solution  No.  2  which  consists  of : 

Sulphite  soda 10  lbs. 

Water   100  gals. 

This  will  stop  the  reduction  immediately  after  which  film 
should  be  washed  for  from  15  to  20  minutes  in  running  water 
and  then  dried  as  usual. 

Ferrichloride  Reducer 

This  is  an  efficient  method  of  reduction.  It  has  been  found  of 
particular  value  in  reducing  high  lights  at  a  greater  speed  than 
shadows  thereby  overcoming  extreme  contrast. 

Ferrichloride   i      dr. 

Hydrochloric  acid 2  dr. 

Water   10      oz. 

The  negative  to  be  reduced  is  first  thoroughly  washed  until  the 
last  traces  of  hypo  are  eliminated.  It  is  then  immersed  in  the 
reducer  for  a  minute  or  so.  On  taking  the  negative  out  from  this 
solution,  no  action  will  be  apparent,  but  on  transferring  it  to  a 
freshly  mixed  hypo  bath,  reduction  will  take  place  very  quickly. 
The  operation  should  be  carefully  watched,  being  stopped  a  little 
short  of  completion. 

Ferricyanide  or  Farmer's  Reducer 

This  reducer  acts  differently  than  those  given  above  as  it  in- 
creases contrast  by  attacking  the  shadows  more  than  the  high 



lights.     It  must  be  freshly  prepared  as  it  deteriorates  rapidly. 

To  prepare  it,  take  as  much  fresh  hypo  solution  as  is  required 
to  cover  the  film  and  add  to  it  enough  of  a  saturated  solution  of 
potassium  ferricyanide  to  make  it  lemon  colored.  If  the  color 
is  too  deep,  verging  on  the  orange,  the  reduction  may  proceed 
too  rapidly  to  be  controlled.  When  reduction  has  proceeded  far 
enough,  wash  quickly  to  prevent  further  action. 

Dye-Toning  Positives 

Dye-toning  is  different  from  either  toning  or  tinting  in  that  a 
dye  image  is  substituted  for  the  silver  one. 

The  dyes  used  for  tinting  film  are  not  suitable  for  this  process 
as  only  certain  basic  dyes  may  be  used.  The  process  is  based 
on  the  discovery  that  silver  iodide  acts  as  a  mordant  for  certain 

To  convert  the  silver  image  to  silver  iodide  it  is  first  immersed 
in  the  following  solution : 

Sol.  A. — In  four  quarts  of  water  dissolve  7  pounds  of  potas- 
sium iodide.  In  this  iodide  solution  dissolve  3  pounds  of  iodine 
scales  and  then  add  to  it  32  gallons  of  water  for  one  rack  tank. 

In  this  bath  the  film  must  remain  until  the  image  has  bleached 
to  a  pale  straw  color,  when  it  is  removed  and  washed,  then 
placed  in  one  of  the  following  solutions : 







r  Malachite  Green i  lb.     2  oz. 

[Water    32  gals. 

/victoria  Blue  3  oz. 

[Water    32  gals. 

Auramine    2  lbs. 

Saffranine 7  dr. 

Water    32  gals. 

r Ponceau  Red 2  lbs. 

[Water    32  gals. 

jAcridine  Orange i  lb.  12  oz. 

[Water    32  gals. 

fViolet  de  Paris 4>^  oz. 

[Water    32  gals. 



The  iodized  film  is  allowed  to  remain  in  the  dye  bath  until  the 
image  is  saturated  with  color  to  the  back  of  the  film.  It  is  then 
removed  and  the  high  lights  cleared  by  immersion  in : 

Bath  B 

Glacial  acetic  acid i  lb.  6  oz. 

Denatured  alcohol 5  lb. 

Water    32  gal. 

The  next  step  is  the  removal  of  the  iodized  silver  which  may 
be  done  in  the  following  bath : 

Bath  C 

Hypo    15  lbs. 

Sodium  acetate 10  lbs. 

Tannin    10  lbs. 

Water    32  gals. 

After  clearing,  the  film  is  washed  and  dried. 

Bath  C  is  not  absolutely  necessary  if  the  film  is  simply  dye- 
toned  to  obtain  a  pleasing  color  but  for  color  photography  where 
a  transparent  image  is  required  Bath  C  must  be  used. 

Concentrated  Developer  for  Gaslight  Papers 

Metol    Yi.  oz. 

Sodium  sulphite  (Anhyd.) i       lb. 

Sodium  carbonate  (Anhyd.) .  12       oz. 

Hydroquinone 2       oz. 

Potassium  bromide    54  oz. 

Water  i       gal. 

For  use,  dilute  with  four  parts  of  water. 



Aabameter,  Steadman's,  214 

Aberration,  chromatic,  72-73 

Aberration,  spherical,  70 

Absorption  of  light  34 

Accelerator  115 

Accommodation,  how  to  make  fo- 
cusing screen  to  avoid  trouble 
of,  90-91 

Accommodation  of  the  eye  85 

Accommodation  or  focal  adjust- 
ment of  the  eye  83 

Acetic  acid  120 

Achromatic  loups  for  focusing  87 

Acids  120 

Acid  dyes  181 

Acid  Hardener  119,  365 

Acid  Hypo  Fixing  Bath  365 

Actinic  focus  45 

Actinic  light  30 

Actinic  or  chemical  rays  73 

Actinic  rays  80,  81 

Actino-Photometer  215 

Advertising  films  20 

Advertising  with  movies  331 

Aerial  image  83,  84 

Agfa  dyes  194 

Air  compressor  176 

Air  filter  176 

Airplane  camera  mount  308 

Airplane  Photography  304 

Air  pressure  175 

Albertype  42 

Alkali  114 

Allison  &  Hadaway  lamp  232 

Amateur  cameramen  22 

Amateur  cinematographers  251 

Amateur  model  camera,  Pathe 
Freres,  58 

Amateur  photography  335 

American     Photography    Exposure 
Tables  212 

Analysis  of  Developers  129 
Analysis  of  motion  8 
Ancients  7 

Angle  of  camera  225 
Angle  of  reflection  35 

Angle  of  view  65 
Angle,  wide  angle  lenses,  65 
Anhydrous  salts  110 
Animated  cartoons  12,  257 
Anschuetz  14 
Anterior  conjugate  50 
Aperture,  effective,  66 
Aperture,  relative,  66 
Apochomatic  80 
Apothecaries'  weight  354 
Apparatus,  cameraman's,  92 
Apparatus  to  mix  solutions  108 
Appendix  347 

Applying  for  a  position  328 
Arc  carbons  231 
Ardel  developer  364 
Aristo  lamps  232 
Arithmetic,  photographic,  107 
Armat,  Thos.,  16 
Army  films  19 
Artificial  lighting  220 
Artistic  balance  293 
Artistic  motive  289 
Art  titles  199 
Assembling  204 
Assistant  cameramen  95 
Astigmatism  71 
Astronomical  photography  46 
Athletic  pictures  252 
Automatic  dissolve  60 
Automatic  light  change  172 
Automatic  light  shift  170 
Automatic  shutter  267 
Aviation  pictures  304 
Avoirdupois  System  102 
Avoirdupois  Weight  354 
Axis  of  a  lens  39 
Axis,  optical,  64 
Axis,  principal,  48 
Axial  rays  47 


Back  focus  64 

Backlash  of  focusing  mount  78 
Back  lighting  exposure  217 
Bacteria  on  film  163 
Badische  dyes  194 


Bahama  Islands  310 

Balloon  photography  305 

Bangs,  Frank,  325 

Barrel  Distortion  of  lens  72 

Bartsch,  Dr.  Paul,  313 

Basic  dyes  191 

Bath,  Toning,  178 

Bausch  &  Lomb  79,  268 

Baynes,  G.  McL.,  224 

Beards,  false,  316 

Bell  &  Howell  movement  60 

Bell    &    Howell    Printer,  operation 

of  173 
Bibliography  334 
Biggs,  Alfred,  5 
Binocular  mask  270 
Biograph  Studio  221 
Black  Maria  228 
Black  matte  varnish  357 
Black  smoke  278 
Bleeding  192 
Blue  tone  187 
Box  sets  318 
Brass,  to  blacken,  359 
Breaker-box  172 

British  Journal  of  Photography  88 
Brittleness  191 
Bromides  116 
Bromine  vapor  81 
Brown  red  tone  181 
Buckling  94 
Bunsen  burner  28 
Burrough  &  Wellcome  Meter  213 

Calibrated  lens  mount  76 

Calibrating  lens  mount  77 

Calibration  of  mixing  vessels  108 

Cam,  Harmonic  cam  movement,  di- 
agram of  Universal,  54 

Camera  angle  225 

Camera,  cartoon,  264 

Camera,  choice  of,  60 

Camera,  focusing  of,  76 

Cameras,  magazines  side  by  side,  62 

Camera  mount,  airplane,  308 

Camera,  oil  for,  94 

Camera,  Pathe  Freres  amateur 
model,  58 

Camera  repair  92 

Camera,  still,  96 

Camera,  threading  of,  62 

Camera,  toy  motion  picture,  60 

Cameraman's  assistant  95 

Cameraman's  relationship  to  other 
workers  320 

Camp-fire  effects  at  night  286 
Captions  201 
Carbons,  arc,  231 
Carborundum  powder  90 
Carboy,  glass,  139 
Carelessness  326 
Carew,  Edwin,  204 
Carnegie,  Douglas,  90 
Carpenters,  stage,  321 
Cartoons,  Animated,  12 
Cartoons,  animated,  257 
Cartoon  board  260 
Cartoon  Camera  264 
Carus,  Titus  Lucretius,  7 
Cavern  effect  270 
Celluloid  12 

Celluloid  for  cartoons  261 
Centigrade  thermometer  114,  360 
Changing  bag  94 
Changing  focus  77 
Characteristic  curve  149,  150 
Chart,  focusing,  208 
Chart,  Lens  testing,  79 
Chemical  definitions  100 
Chemicals,  dessicated,  116 
Chemical  fog  114,  118 
Chemical  impurities  129,  130 
Chemical  rays  46,  73 
Chemical  reactions  100 
Chemical  solutions  100 
Chemicals,  storage  of,  130 
Chemicals,  substitution  of,  122 
Chemistr>%  Photographic,  340 
Chevreul's  black  35 
Chiaro  oscuro  299 
Chicago  Stage  Lamp  232 
Chromatic  aberration  72,  73 
Chromium  focusing  screen  89 
Chronomatograph  9 
Chronophotographoscope  9 
Choice  of  camera  60 
Cigarette  smoking  320 
Cinching  up  163 
Cinematographer's  duties  92 
Cinematographic  Literature  334 
Cinematography,  Books  on,  341 
Cinematography,  Fascination  of,  19 
Cinematography,  History  of,  7 
Cinematograph  lenses  64 
Circle-in  268 

Circle  of  confusion  40,  68 
Circle-out,  Length  of,  269 
Circle-out  268 
Citric  Acid  120 
Clarke,  H.  T.,  129 
Claw,  slip  claw  movement,  58 
Close-up,  dissolve  into  a,  277 


Cloud  photography  294 

Climbing  side  of  building,  man,  278 

Cockpit,  airplane,  305 

Coins  as  weights  355 

Colby,  Vincent,  260 

Colloidal  salts  178 

Color  screens  301 

Color  tinting  177 

Color  toning  177 

Coma  of  lens  70 

Commercial  Studios  332 

Committee  on  Public  Information  19 

Compass  248 

Composition  288 

Concave  lens  48 

Concavo-convex  lens  48 

Concentrated  developers  117 

Concentrated  paper  developer  369 

Conduct,  cameraman's,  325 

Confidence  327 

Confusion,  circle  of,  40,  68 

Conjugate  foci  48 

Conjugate  foci,  determination  of ,  51 

Contact  printing  167 

Continuous  printer  166,  171 

Contrast  developer  348 

Contrast  in  art  290 

Contrast  factor  157 

Control  card  170 

Conversion  of  Formulae  102 

Cooper-Hewitt  Lamp  28,  221 

Cooper-Hewitt  quartz  lights  311 

Cooptol  developer  364 

Copper  ferrocyanide  177 

Corrected  lens  47 

Correct  exposure  140,  153 

Correct  development  141 

Counting  for  Double  Exposures  271 

Covering  Power  of  Lens  74 

Crabtree,  J.  I.,  5,  100 

Crank  turners  98 

Crepe  hair  315 

Crookes  tubes  81 

Cross  lines  85 

Croy,  Homer,  5 

Curtis,  Edward  S.,  325 

Cut-ins  204 

Cut-outs,  Cartoon,  263 

Cutting  and  editing  199 

Curvature  of  field  of  lens  71 


Dark  room  96 

Dark  room  lights  33 

Dark  tent  255 

Day's  work,  Preparation  for,  92 

de  Abney,  Sir  W.  W.,  81 

De  Brie  camera  Double  loop  62 

De  Brie  camera,  focusing  device  of, 

De  Brie  movement  69 

De  Brie  type  of  focusing  glass  87 

Decalso  129 

Decanting  110 

Decorative  design  288 

Decorative  titles  199 

Decoudin's  Exposure  Meter  214 

Definitions,  chemical,  100 

Definition  of  lens  73 

Deliquescence  131 

DeMille,  Cecil  B.,  243 

Density  145 

Density  ratios  150 

Depth  of  field  360 

Depth  of  focus  67,  08,  69,  83 

Dessicated  chemicals  116 

Develope,  How  to,  157 

Developer,  combined,  362 

Developer,  concentrated,  117 

Developer,  Edinol,  363 

Developer  for  paper  369 

Developer  for  contrast  348 

Developer  for  M.  P.  negatives  117 

Developer  formula  116 

Developer,  Glycin,  363 

Developer,  M-Q,  363 

Developer,  negative,  364 

Developer,  positive,  364 

Developing  racks  158 

Developer,  Tropical,  353 

Developer,  two-solution,  118 

Developing  agents  114 

Developing,  instructions  for  Spiral 
Reel,  140 

Developing  outfit,  portable,  255 

Developing  outfits,  Spiral  Reel,  140 

Developing  rack.  How  to  Make,  136 

Developing  solutions,  to  mix,  114 

Developing  test  in  double  exposure 
work  274 

Developing  tray,  How  to  Make,  137 

Developing  troubles  118 

Development,  correct,  141 

Development,  Drum  system  of,  133 

Development,  Gaumont  Co.  Ma- 
chine, 134 

Development,  Machine,  134 

Development,  Machine  by  Pathe 
Co.,  134 

Development  of  the  negative  133 

Development,  Spiral  Reel  for,  139 

Diagrams,  Animated,  257 

Diaphragm  40,  268,  269 


Diaphragm,  Effect  of,  41 

Diaphragm  numbers  216 

Dichroic  fog  184 

Diffused  light  36,  37 

Diffusers  37 

Dilution  of  liquids  107 

Director  320 

Director,  Conferring  with,  92 

Director,  Relations  to,  97 

Direct  positives  347 

Dirty  film  163 

Discoloration  of  film  162 

Dispersion  34 

Dispersion,  Correction  of,  45 

Dispersion  of  light  44 

Dissolve  276 

Dissolve,  Automatic,  60 

Dissolve,  Hand,  60 

into  a  close-up,  277 
shutter,  60 
Dissolving  chemicals  109 
Distortion,  Barrel,  72 
of  lens,  72 
Pillow,  72 
Diverging  lenses  48 
Diving  chamber.  Photographic,  310 

deep  sea,  311 
Donisthorpe,  Wordsworth,  12 
Double  concave  lens  48 
convex  lens  48 
Exposure,  Counting  ior,  271 
Exposure  on  dual  roles  279 
Exposure  work.  Developing 

test  in,  274 
Exposure,  jMarking  film 

for,  271 
Exposure,  Trick-Work 

and,  276 
Exposure     work,     markinj 

groundglass  in,  272 
Exposure  work.  Record  on 
film,  275 
Double  loop,  i)e  Brie  camera,  62 
Newman  &  Sinclair 

Camera,  62 
Pathe  Portable,  62 
Double  Printing  282 
Dramatic  pictures  19 
Drawings    for   Animated    Cartoons 

Driffield,  V.  C,  210 
Drops  105 
Drum  system  134 
Drum  system  190 
Drums,  drying,  139 
Drunken  screw  59 
Drying  drums  139 

Drying  film  139 
Dual  roles,  photographing,  379 
Duplex  Arc  Lamps  235 
Duplex    Printer,    Operation  of  the, 
Threading,  171 
Dyes,  Manufacturers  of,  194 
Dye-Toning  368 

Earthenware  for  solutions  108 

Eastman,  Geo.,  12 

Eastman  negative  stock  135 

Eder's  Handbook  223 

Edison,  Thos.  A.,  11 

Edinol  developer  363 

Editing  film  199 

Educational  films  20 

Educational  Pictures  247 

Effective  aperture  66 

Efilorescence  131 

Electrician  320 

Elementary  photography  335 

Elon  100,  114 

Elon  developer  364 

Employees  324 

Employer  324 

Emulsion  156 

English  Arc  Lamps  235 

English  Weights  and  Measures  354 

Equivalent  focal  length  64 

focus  68 
Ernemann  movement  59 
Errors,  Zonal,  70 
Ether  25 
Evans,  M.,  13 
Experience  329 
Exposure  140-,  159,  208 
Exposure  chart  216 
Extension  ring  79 
Exterior  lighting  206 
Extras  322 
Eye  piece  44 

Facination  of  Cinematography  19 

Factors,  exposure,  211,  302 

Fade  268 

Fade-in  60,  267 

Fade-out  60,  267 

Fades,  length  of,  268 

Fahrenheit  thermometer  114,  360 

Fake  267 

Fancy  masks  270 

Farmer's  Reducer  267 


Faucets  178 

Ferrichloride  Reducer  367 
Ferrocyanide  Copper  180 
Iron  183 
Silver  178 
Uranium  181 
Vanadium  184 
Ferrlcyanide  Reducer  367 
Field,  Curvature  of,  71 
Film,  Drying,  139 
Film  for  focusing,  To  make,  88 

ground  84 
Film-notching  device  173 
Film,  Slitting,  15 

Film  stock,  Eastman  negative,  135 
unperf  orated,  15 
X-back,  93 
Filter  bags  111 
Filtering  solutions  110 
Filters  110 

Light,  301 
Fine  focusing  screens  90 
Finger  marks  163 
Finish,  Black  Matte,  357 
Fish,  Deep  sea,  313 
Fixing  bath  365 

solution  119 
Flame  arcs  233 
Flare  spots  74,  75 
Flexible  support  13 
Floor  covering  319 
Fluid  measure  354 
Flying  outfit  309 
Focal  length.  Equivalent,  64 
of  lens  64 
plane  40,  64 
point  40,  64 
Focus,  Back,  64 

Changing  of,  77 
Depth  of,  67,  68,  69,  83 
Equivalent,  68 
Ocular,  84 
Focusing  207 

Achromatic  loups  for,  87 

cloth  95 

device  86 

device  of  De  Brie  camera 

dodge  for  86 
glass,  De  Brie  type  of,  87 
loup  83 
magnifier  207 
method  of,  90 
mount,  Backlash  of,  78 
scale  for,  76 
screen,  Chromium,  89 
screen,  How  to  make 
novel,  90 

screens,  fine,  90 

How  to  make 
iodide  89 
screen,  How  to  make,  to 
avoid  trouble  of  accom- 
modation, 90,  91 
Tape  line  measurement 

for,  76 
the  Camera  76 
To  make  film  for,  88 
tube.  Microscopic,  84 
Fog  70,  160 

Chemical,  114,  118 
Fogging  179 
Formaldehyde  353 
Foreground  290 
Formulae,  How  to  use,  100 
Formulas,  See  Appendix 
Formalin  197 
F  System  67 
Frame  line  170 
Free  lance  cameramen  23 
Frilling  161 

Fringe,  Prismatic,  45,  46 
Fuselage  30 

Galbraith,  Frank,  23 

Gaumont     Company     machine     de- 
velopment 134 

Geissler  tube  14 

Geneva  movement  57 

Genthe,  Arnold,  325 

Getthemoneygraph  9 

Ghost  or  spirit  figures  281 

Gillies,  John,  325 

Gillon  camera.  Threading,  62 

Gillon  movement  57,  59 

Gimbal  panorama  77 

Glacial  acetic  acid  121 

Glass  carboy  139 

Glass  disk  9 

Glass  graduates  109 

Glass,  Ground,  84 

Glass  ink  357 

plates  9,  13 
studios  221 

Gloss,  To  kill,  319 

Glycerine  bath  133,  180,  197,  365 

Glycin  Developer  363 

Goerz,  C.  P.,  American  Optical  Co., 

Goggles  309 

Goodwin,  Rev.  Hannibal,  12 

Gosport  305 

Government  films  20 


Gradation  154,  295 
Graduates,  Glass,  109 
Granularity  161 
Grease  paint  315 
Greene,  W.  Friese,  13 
Green  blue  tone  186 
Green  tone  184 
Griffith,  D.  W.,  204 
Grinding  the  backs  of  lantern 

slides  88 
Ground  glass  or  film  84 
Gun,  Photographic,  11 


Hadden-Smith,  Gov..  311 

Halation  160,  230 

Halftone  dots  42 

Halo  70 

Handbooks  339 

Hand  dissolve  60 

Hardener,  Acid,  119 

Hardening  Bath  365 

Hard  lights  223 

rubber  racks  179 

Harmonic  cam  movement  56,  27 

diagram  of 

Haughton,  Percy,  23 

Harvey  Meter  212 

Heat,  radiant,  81 

Hepworth  Film  Co.  224 

Herschel,  Sir  John,  9 

Hertzian  waves  26 

Heyde's  Exposure  Meter  215 

High  lights  294 

Hinton,  A.  Horsley,  209 

Historical  Pictures  247 

History  of  Cinematography  7 

Hoechst  dyes  194 

Hoffman,  Chas.  W.,  5 

Hood,  lens,  269 

Hopwood,  Heii^y  V.,  5 

Horizon  line  293 

Horner,  W.  G.,  7 

How  Submarine  Movies  are  made 

How  to  make  developing  rack  136 

tray  137 
focusing  screen  to 
avoid  trouble  of  ac- 
commodation 90-91 
novel  focusing  screen 

Hoyt,  Dudley,  325 

Hvmtington,  R.  J.,  5 

Hurter  and  Driffield  141,  144,  150 
Hurter,  F.,  210 
Hydrochloric  acid  120 
Hydrolysis  192 
Hydrometer  tests  105 
Hydroquinone  114 

developer  363 
Hypo,  Acid,  119 

Bath  365 

How  made,  119 

Milky,  120 

Solution  101,  119 

Tropical,  353 

Illumination  32 

of  lens  74 
Illustration    or   picture   brought    to 

life  282 
Image,  Aerial,  83,  84 

Circle  65 

Color,  177 

Intensity,  178 

Production  of,  43 

Real,  43 

Virtual,  93 
Impressionism  295 
Impurities  in  chemicals  129 
In  and  out  movement  58,  59 
Incandescent  lamps  28 
Ince,  Thomas,  204 
Index  of  refraction  38 
Industrial  films  20 

pictures  247,  332 
Infallible  Exposure  Meter  213 
Infra-red  rays  30,  81 
Ink  for  glass  357 
Instructional  films  20 
Intensification  by  toning  178 
Intensifiers  366 
Intensity  of  light  31 
Interior  lighting  220 
Interpretation  of  ideas  325 
Introduction  5 
Inversion  of  image  43 
Invisible  light  30 
Invisible  rays  81 
Iodide  in  developer  116 
Iodide    focusing    screens,    How    to 

make,  89 
Iron  ferrocyanide  177 

Japanese  art  292 
Jenkins,  C.  Francis,  5,  9 


Johns  Hopkins  University  81 
Johnstone,  Francis  B.,  325 
Joyce  flame  arc  232 
Judgment,  Cinematographer's,  92 


Kalle  dyes  194 
Kasebier,  Gertrude,  325 
Keyholes  269 

Kinematograph  Meter  213 
Kinetoscope  17 
Klieglight  233 
Klieglight  Portable  234 
Kodak  portrait  lens  79 
Kodalon  developer  364 


Lacquer  for  metal  359 
Landscape  photography  288 
Lantern  Slides  339 
Lantern   slides.  Grinding  the  backs 

of  88 
Latent  image  150 

Lateral  shrinkage,  Taking  care  of 
Latitude  of  emulsions  210 
of  exposure  153 
of  film  303 
Law  of  inverse  squares  31 
Learning  photography  96 
Length,  Equivalent  focal,  64 
Lens,  Axis  of,  39 
Lens,  Coma  of,  70 

Corrected,  47 

Covering  Power  of,  74 

Curvature  of  field  of,  71 

Definition  of,  73 

Focal  length  of,  64 

Focal  point  of,  64 

Forms  48 

Hood  269 

Illumination  of,  74 

Kodak  Portrait,  79 

Magnifying,  46 

Mount,  Calibrated,  76 

Mount,  Calibrating,  77 

Photographic,  46 

Supplementary,  79 

Tessar,  69,  70 

testing  chart  79 

unsymmetrical      combination, 
Lenses  38 

Books  on  340 
Cinematograph,  64 
Negative,  48 

Positive,  48 
Rectilinear,  73 
Speed  of,  66 
Wide  angle,  65 
Leventhal,  J.  F.,  262 
Lewis,  Edgar,  204 
Light,  Actinic  value  of,  33 

Books  on,  339 

card  170 

change  175 

automatic,  172 
Light-changing  mechanism  171 
movement  172 
Light  dispersion  44 

Intensity  of,  31 
Light  intensity  143 
Light  path  27 

ray  26 

shift  168 

the  nature  of,  25 

variation  table  211,  227 

Velocity  of,  30 

waves  26 

waves,  length  of,  30 

Wave  length  of  80 
Lighting,  Artificial,  220 

diagram  239,  243,  244,  245 
Interior,  220 
Lightning  striking  285 
Life  of  Toning  bath  180 
Line  composition  291 
Lip  rouge  316 
Liquids,  Dilution  of,  107 
Liquid  measure  354 
Lithographic  process  43 
Liver  of  sulphur  351 
Loading  retorts  94 
Local  color  247 
Locations  95 
Loop,  true  or  return,  63 
Lumiere-Carpentier  Movement  56 
Lumiere  movement  56 
Luminosity,  visual,  143 
Luminous  point  29 


Macbeth  Lamps  233 

Machine  development  134 

Machine  development,  Pathe  Com- 
pany, 134 

Machine  development,  Gaumont 
Company,  134 

Magazines  side  by  side  62 

Magnesium  torches  286 

Magnifying  Lens  46 

Majestic  lamps  233 


Major  conjugate  50 
Make-up  230 
Make-up  for  movies  315 
Making  motion  picture  positives  165 
Making  Submarine  Movies  310 
Maltese  Cross  movement  57 
Manager,  Studio,  323 
Marey,  E.  J.,  11 

Marking  film  for  double  exposure 

groundglass  in  double  ex- 
posure work  272 
Markings  on  film  163 
Martin,  Julius,  151 
Masks  269 

fancy,  270 
Matt  celluloid  20 
Mayers,  Max,  226 
McDonald,  Pirie,  325 
McKay,  Winsor,  257 
Measuring  chemicals  109 
Meniscus  lens  49 
Merck  chemicals  185 
Mercury  Intensifier  366 
Metal-coated  carbons  238 
Metal  Lacquer  359 
Metal  trays  139 
Meter,  Harvey,  212 
Method  of  focusing  90 
Metol  substitutes  364 
Metric  system  101 
Meyerowitz,  E.  B.,  268 
Microscope  eye-piece  86 
Microscopic  focusing  tube  84 

pictures  250 
Milky  hypo  120 
Miniatures  278 
Minor  conjugate  50 
Mirrors,  silvering,  359 
Mirror,  vision  in  a,  281 
Miscellaneous  solutions  123 
Mixing  acid  hardener  120 
Mixing  developer  114 

tanks  110 

vessels  108 
Money  with  your  camera  331 
Monomet  developer  364 
Mosstype  42 
Motion  analysis  8,  23 
Motion  Picture  Camera,  The,  53 

Engineers,    Society 
of,  223 
Motion  Study  252 

Synthesis  of,  8 
Mott,  Wm.  Roy,  223 
Mottled  film  161 
Mount,  Blacklash  of  focusing,  78 

Calibrated  lens,  76 
Calibrating  a  lens,  77 
Movement,  Bell  &  Howell,  60 

De  Brie,  59 

Ernemann,  59 

Geneva,  57 

Harmonic  cam,  56,  57 

In  and  out,  58,  59 

Lumiere,  56 

Lumiere-Carpentier,  56 

Maltese  Cross,  57 

Pathe,  57 

Pathe  Freres,  58 

Pittman,  58 

Prevost,  57,  59 

Rod  and  crank,  57, 58, 59 

Slip  claw,  58 

Universal,  57 

Williamson,  58 
M.  Q.  Developer  363 
Munsterberg,  Hugo,  224 
Muybridge,  Ed.,  8 
Mustaches,  false,  316 


Navy  Films  19 

Negative,  Development  of  the.  133 
lenses  4S 

Overexposed,  141 
Perfect,  144 
Underexposed,  141 
thin,  160 
weak,  160 

Newman  286 

Newman  &  Sinclair  camera  double 
loop  62 

News  films  21 

Newspaper  photographers  96 

Newscameramen  96 

Nitrosodimethyl  aniline  82 

Nodal  points  48 

Notch,  light  change,  175 

Novel  focusing  screen,  how  to 
make,  90 

N.  Y.  Institute  of  Photography  5 


Objective  44 
Oblique  rays  47 
Ocular  focus  84 
Oil  for  cameras  94 
Olive  green  tone  187 
One-solution  tone  177 
Opacities,  Range  of,  149 
Opacity  145,  150 


Operating  motion-picture    machines 

Operation   of    the    Bell    &    Howell 

Printer  173 
Operation  of  the  Duplex  Printer  171 
Optical  Axis  64 
Optical  center  48 
flat  83 

Lanterns  338 
Optics,  Books  on,  339 

Photographic,  46 
Orthochromatism  300 
Orthochromatic  film  230 
Outfit,  camera,  206 
Overexposed  Negative  141 
Overhead  lights  222 
Oxidation  of  solutions  111 

Painted  scenery  240 

Paint,  Probus,  137 

Panchromatic  film  130,  300 

Panorama,  gimbal,  77 

Paper  developer  369 

Paramidophenol  114 

Paramidophenol  developer  364 

Parts,  solutions  by,  105 

Pathe    Company   machine    develop- 
ment 134 

Pathe  Freres  amateur  model  camera 
58  ^ 

Pathe  movement  57,  59 

Pathe  Portable  camera  Double 
Loop  62 

Pathe,  retorts  94 

Pedagogical  pictures  247 

Peep  show  17 

Percentage  solutions  103 

Perfect  negative  144 

Persistance  of  vision  7 

Personality  325 

Perspective  292 

Perspective,  Exaggerated,  65 

Persulphate  reducer  367 

Phantasmagoria  9 

Phantoscope  16 

Phenomet  developer  364 

Phonograph  11 

Phosphorescence  28 

Photogelatine  process  42 

Photographic  arithmetic  107 
books  96 
gun  11 
objective  47 
optics  46 

solutions,  How  to 
prepare,  100 

Photographing  dual  roles  279 
Photography,  Astronomical,  46 

Books  on,  335 
Photokinematoscope  9 
Photomechanical  reproduction  42 
Photometer  146,  209 
Photo-micrographic  motion  pictures 

Physics  25 
Pictorial  unity  290 
Picture  brought  to  life  282 
Pillow  Distortion  72 
Pilot,  Airplane,  306 
Pinch  cock  112 
Pinhole  40 
Pitted  emulsion  163 
Pittman  movement  58 
Plano-concave  lens  48 
Plano-convex  lens  48 
Point  of  focus  39 
Polish  for  cameras  358 
Pop-eyes  317 

Portable  developing  outfit  255 
Portrait  lens,  Kodak,  79 
Position,  Applying  for,  328 
Positive  developer  362 

lenses  48 

printing  165 

stock  166 
Positives  direct  347 
Posterior  conjugate  50 
Potassium  salts  122 
Power  of  lens,  Cover,  74 
Precipitating  tanks  351 
Preparation  for  work  92 
Prevost  camera  62 
Prevost  camera.  Threading  of,  62 
Prevost  movement  57,  59 
Preservative  114 
Primary  colors  34 
Principal  axis  48 
Principal  focus  48 
Prism  34,  38^ 
Prismatic  fringe  45 
Prism  Glass  228 
Printer,  Continuous,  171 

Operation  of  Bell  & 
Plowell,  173 

Operation    of   the    Duplex 

Step,  171 

Threading  Duplex.  171 
Printing  contact  167 
Double,  282 
leader  170 
light  166 
machine  165 


Positives  165 

Rolls  170 
Probus  paint  137 

Profession  of  Cinematography  324 
Projection,  Books  on,  339 
Projector,  Toy,  60 
Promotion  96 
Propaganda  films  19 
Propagation  of  light  28 
Props  321 
Ptolemy  7 

Purification  of  water  128 
Pyro  114 

Quartz  81 



Race  track  8 

Rack,  How  to  make  developing  136 

Developing,  158 
Radiant  heat  81 
Radiographer  81 
Raff  &  Gammon  16 
Range  of  exposure  153 
Opacities  149 
Rays,  Actinic,  80,  81 

Axial,  47 

Chemical  or  Actinic,  73 

Infra-red,  81 

Invisible,  81 

Oblique,  47 

Ultra  violet,  81 

Visual,  72,  80,  81 

X-rays,  81 
Reactions,  Chemical,  100 
Real  image  43 
Reaumur  thermometer  360 
Record  on  film  for  double  exposure 

work  275 
Recovery  of  waste  solutions  351,  355 
Rectilinear  lenses  72 
Red  tone.    Copper,  180 

Uranium,  181 
Reducers  367 
Reduction  by  toning  178 
Reference  books  337 
Reflection,  Angle  of,  35 
Reflection  of  light  33 
R^eflectors  95 
Refraction  32 
Refraction,  Index  of,  38 
Reichert,  Dr.  Ed.,  11 
Relationship  of  caremaman  to  other 
workers  320 

Relations  to  director  97 

Relative  aperture  66 

Rembrandt  295 

Rembrandt  lighting  226 

Research    Laboratory    of    Eastman 

Kodak  Company  100 
Restrainer  114 
Retorts,  Loading,  94 
Return  or  true  loop  62 
Reversal  147 
Reverse  take-up  271 
Reversing  solution  348,  350 
Rheostat,  Light  change  175 
Rhodol  developer  364 
Ring,  Extension,  79 
Rock  Crystal  81 

Rod  and  crank  movement  57,  58.  59 
Roskam,  Ed.  J.,  5 
Rouge  in  make-up  230 
Royal  Photographic  Society  67 

Salary  328 

Salts,  Anhydrous,  110 
Saturation  101 
San  Salvador  310 
Sarony,  Napoleon,  325 
Scale  for  focusing  76 
Scale  of  gradation  296 
Scales,  Weighing,  108 
Scenic  films  20 

pictures  250 
Scenery  240 
Scott  Lamps  233 
Screen  Magazine  21 
Screw,  Drunken,  59 
Scum,  To  remove,  113 
Sea  gardens  310 
Sealing  film  tins  255 
Sepia  red  tone  183 
Sepia  tone  184 
Shadows  294 
Sharks  312 
Shift,  Light,  175 
Ship,  Rocking,  286 
Shrunken  film  168 
Shutter  59,  60 

.  Automatic,  267 
dissolve  60 
Side  by  side  magazine  camera  62 
Side  lighting  239 
Silk  air  filter  176 
Silver  Cyanide  Intensifier  366 
Silver  ferrocyanide  177 
Silver  foil  82 
Silvering  mirrors  359 


Silverplated  racks  179 
Silver  recovery  351,  355 
Silver  sludge  351 
Silver  Sulphide  177 
Simons,  Ed.  L.,  230 
Simplex  twin  arcs  233 
Skylights  222 
Slime  127 

Slip  claw  movement  58 
.Slot  machine  16 
Sludge  110,  185 
Smithsonian  Institute  313 
Smoke,  Black,  278 
Smoke-pots  286 

Society    of    Motion    Picture    Engi- 
neers 18 
Softening  of  emulsion  161 
Soft  focus  299 
Solar  focus  50 
Solubility  101,  108 
Solute  100 
Solutions  100 
Solutions,  How  to  prepare,  100 

Miscellaneous,  122 

Percentage,  103 

Stock,  107 

Volumetric,  101 
Solvent  100 
Spear,  A.  D.,  232 
Spectroscope  33 
Spectrum  30,  33,  80 
Speed  69 

Speed  determination  151 
Speed  of  lenses  66 
Speed  testing  209  ^ 
Spherical  Aberration  70 
Spiral  Reel,  Developing  instructions 

for,  140 
Spiral.  Reel  developing  outfits  140 
Spiral  Reel  for  development  139 
Spirit  figures,  Ghost  or,  281 
Split  stage  279 
Spoken  titles  201 
Spot  lights  235 
Spots,  Flare,  74,  75 
Spotted  film  162 
Stage  carpenters  321 
Stage  hands  320 
Stain  115 

Stain,  Black  for  wood,  358 
Stanford,  Leland,  8 
Stars,  Motion  picture,  321 
Static  93 

Steadman  Aabameter  214 
Step  printer  166,  171 
Stereoscopic  pictures  10 
Still  camera  96 

Stirring  rods  108 
Stock  bottles  113 

Positive,  166- 

solutions  107 
Stops,  Lens  216 
Stop  motion  13 
Stop  motion  crank  278 
Stop  motion  pictures  24 
Stop  motion  work  278 
Storage  of  chemicals  130 
Storing  solutions  131 
Streaked  film  163 
Studio  lighting  222 
Studio  manager  323,  328 
Submarine  boat  cartoon  262 
Submarine  Pictures  310 
Substitution  of  Chemicals  122 
Sub-titles  201 
Sulphuric  acid  120 
Sunshade  269 
Superimpose  283 
Supers  322 
Super  saturation  101 
Supplementary  lens  79 
Swimming  under  water  279 
Switch  back  205 
Symmetrical  pictures  292 
Symographoscope  9 
Synthesis  of  motion  8 
Syrup  of  Vanadium  185 
System,  F,  67 
System,  Uniform,  67 
System,  U,  S.,  67 

Table  of  chemical  impurities  130 
Table     of     Density,     Opacity     and 

Transparency  151 
Tables,  Avoirdupois,  102 

Metric,  101 

Weights  and  Measures,  354 
Tabloid  Photo  chemicals  256 
Tanks,  Concrete,  351 

Fixing,  119 

for  mixing,  110 
Tape  line  measurement  for  focus- 
ing 76 
Tartaric  Acid  120 
Telephotography  340 
Telephoto  lens  49 
Telescope  44 
Telescope  effect  270 
Tempermental  stars  322 
Temperature  of  solutions  114 
Tent,  dark  room  255 
Tessar  lens  69,  70 


Test  for  vision  274  ' 

Test  strips  170 

Testing  by  hydrometer  105 

Testing  chart,  Lens,  79 

Text  books  25,  336 

Threading  camera  62 

Duplex  printer  171 
Ease  of,  60 
Gillon  camera  62 
Prevost  camera  62 

Theatre  stage  226 

Thermometric  rules  360 

Thin  negatives  160 

Timing  negatives  169 

Tint  and  tone  combinations  189 

Tinting  and  Toning  177     . 

Tinting  formulae  195 

Title  decorations  199 

Title  writing  201 

Titling  film  199 

Todd,  F.  Dundas,  155 

Toning  and  tinting  177 

Toning  for  Intensification  366 

Toning  time  182 

Toning  with  dyes  368 

Topical  cameramen  96 

Torches,  iMagnesium,  286 

Toy  motion  picture  camera  60 

Toy  projector  60 

Tracing  cartoons  263 

Tractor  plane  305 

Transparency  145,  151 

Transparent  spots  162 

Travel  pictures  19,  249 

Trav,  How  to  make  developing,  137 

Trays,  Metal,  139 

Trick-Work  and  Double  Exposure 

Triple  exposures  280 

Tripod  socket  308 

Tropical  development  353 
photography  255 

Troubles  in  developing  118 

Troy  weight  354 

True  or  return  loop  62 

Tucker,  Geo.  Loane,  204 

Two-solution  developers  118 

Twa-solution  tone  177 


Ultra  speed  pictures  23 
Ultra  Violet  light  30 
Ultra  Violet  rays  81 
Underexposed  negative  141 
Under  water,  Swimming,  279 
Uniform  System  67 

Universal  Camera,  Diagram    of 
Mechanism,  54 

Universal  Arcs  233 

Universal  movement  57 

Unsymmetrical  combination  lens  70 

Uranium  ferrocyanide  177 

Use  of  per  cent  solutions  106 

U.  S.  System  67 


Vanadium  ferrocyanide  177 

Varnish,  Matte  Black,  357 

Waterproof,  190,  358 

Vessels  for  mixing  108 

View,  Angle  of,  65 

Vignette  269 

Violet  tone  189 

Vioiet  rays.  Ultra,  81 

Virtual  image  43 

Vision  273 

Visionary  figures  283 

Vision  in  a  mirror  281 

Vision  in  center  of  white  space  275 

Vision  on  white  or  light-colored  ob- 
ject 273 

Visions  on  Dark  Walls  270 

Vision,  Persistance  of,  7 

Vision,  Test  for,  274 

Visual  luminosity  142 

Visual  focus  45 

rays  46,  72,  80,  81 

Vitagraph  Studio  243 

Vitascope  17 

Volumetric  Solutions  101 


Wallace,  Prof.  W.  H.  155 
Wall  paper  318 
Warburg,  J.  C,  5 
War  films  19 

Waste,  Recovery  from,  351 
Water  filter  129 
Waterproof  varnish  190,  358 
Water  supply  127 
Water  to  101 
Watkins,  Alfred,  155 
Watkin's  Exposure  Meter  213 
Wave  length  of  light  80 
Waves,  Light,  26 
Weak  negatives  160 
Weighing  chemicals  109 
Weights  and  Measures  354 
Welfare  films  20 
Wheel  of  Life  7 
White  Flame  Arcs  224 
Wide  Angle  Lenses  65 


Wigs  316 

Williamson,  J.  E.  &  Geo.  M.,  310 
Williamson  movement  58 
Wohl  Duplex  lamps  235 
Wollensack  Optical  Company  79 
Wooden  trays,  How  to  make,  137 
Wood,  Professor  R.  W.,  81 
Woodwork  318 
Wright,  Orville,  313 
Wrinkled  film  161 
Writing  on  Glass  357 
Writing  titles  SOI 


X-Back  Film  93 
X-Rays  81 

Zambex  Exposure  Meter  213 
Zeolite  129 
Zero  Parallax  91 
Zoetrope  7 
Zonal  Errors  70 
Zoopraxoscope  9,  13 


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